(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "80 Microcomputing Magazine April 1981"

April 1961 
US J2,50/0M 9 




microcomputing 

the magazine for TRS-80 users ' 



Beyond 
80 Graphics 






>!^^?^- 



D1 =SQR((X-2*0K2*(Y-80J(2)-W1 + N2 ■ 
D2 = S0B((Y 240H2*(X -80^21' NT +N2' ' 
M-X-»iaO-SIN(D1VD1*320 -SIN(D2VD3 ?220.' 






^'V ■■ ■■...-,-. 

.^y.v:--:::.:. :■-.:■ 



7447Q"65947' 



yK^ 



ri^in^ly simple! 



I LlEJ slllla^ 



even yipiu can do. 

' ■ \ 

■^WUs: A high resolution solution 

A two-part project 
you can build and install. 



'trademarK of Tandy Corp. 



TRS-80* Model I Computer Owners . . . 

Store Up to 350 Kbytes on a 5 ' Disk 




FORMAHED DISK STORAGE CAPACITY 
KBYTES 






180 lao 






.^ 






^ 



The DOUBLER^" It packs almost twice the data on a disk track as your single-density 
system. Depending on the type of drive, you can store up to four times more data on one 
side of a minidiskette than you can store using a standard Model I mini-disk drive. 



• The DOUBLER'^' reads, writes 
and formats cither single- or dou- 
ble-density minidiskettes. 

• Proprietary design allows you to 
continue to run TRSDOS* NEW- 
DOS:!:. Percom OS-80'^' or other 
single-density software without 
making any changes to software 
or hardware. Switch to double- 
density operation at any conve- 
nient time. 

• Includes DBLDOST^ a 
TRSDOS* compatible double- 
density disk operating system. 



Mini-Disk Systems 



!-: 



More storage capacity, 
higher reliability — from 
Percom. the industry 
leader. One-, two- and 
Ihree-drive configura- 
tions in either 40- or 77- 

track formal Fully burned-in. From only 

$399. 




• CONVERT utility, on 
DBLDOS"' minidiskette, converts 
files and programs from single- to 
double-density or double- to sin- 
gle-density. 

• The DOUBLER'^' circuit card 
includes high performance 
data separator, write precom- 
pensation circuits for reliable 
disk read operations — even with 
80-track drives. 

• Plug-in Installation — The 
DOUBLER simply plugs into the 
disk controller socket of your Ex- 
Double-Density Software 

(On diskette — with Instruction manual,) 

OS-SOD'" Double-Density Disk Operating Sys- 
tem — This double-density upgrade version of 
Percom's acclaimed OS-SO'" resides entirely in 
RAM — requiring only 7.5-Kbytes! A BASIC 
programmer's '■dreamoperating system," even 
utilities are in BASIC. 

DOUBLEZAP-ll/80 This program modifies 
Apparat's NEWDOS/80t to run either double — 
or single-density programs — even to run a mix 
of the tvi/o formats on one system! 
DOUBLEZAP-ll/V This program modifies Virtual 
Technology's VTOS 4.0tt to provide the same 
capability as DOUBLEZAP-ll/80 provides for 
NEWDOS/80. 



pansion Interface, requiring no 
strapping or trace cutting. Expan- 
sion Interface disk controller may 
be completely restored to original 
configuration by simply removing 
the DOUBLER"^ and re-installing 
the original disk controller chip. 

• Works with standard 35-, 40-. 
77- and 80-track mini-disk drives 
rated for double-density operation. 

• Introductory price, including 
DBLDOS^" and format conversion 
utility on minidiskette, only 

$219.95. 



Call toII-ftGG. 1-800-527-1592. for the 

address of your nearest authorized Per- 
com dealer, or to order directly from Per- 
com. ^1 




PERCOM DATA COMPANY. INC, 

211 N. KIRBY GARLAND, TEXAS 75042 

(214)272-3421 



"'' triidemaik of Petcom Daia Company. Inc. 

* Irademnrk of Tnndi; Riidio Shark Cor pn tali on u'hicli has no relationship to P<>rcom Daia Company. 

y trademark ol Apparai Conipiiny. Inc. fttrademarkgf Virtual Technology. Inc. 



PRICES AND SPECIFICATIONS SUBJECT TO CHANGE WITHOUT NOTICE. 
PRICES DO NOT INCLUDE SHIPPING AND HANDLING CHARGES. 




Pcrcom Mini-Disk Drive Systems for TRS-80* Computers . . . 

Now! Add-On and Add-In Mini-Disk 

Storage for your Model III. 

The industry leader in microcomputer peripherals, 
Percom not only gives you better design, better 
quality and first-rate service, but you pay less 
to boot 

Still #1 for Model I 

As if greater storage capacities, exceptional quality 
control measures and lower prices aren't reasons 
enough to make Percom your first choice for Model I 
add-on drives, ail Percom Model I drives are also rated 
for double -density operation. 

Add our innovative DOUBLER™ adapter to your 
Model I Expansion Interface, and with Percom drive 
systems you can enjoy the same double-density storage 
capability as Model III owners. 

The DOUBLER includes a TRSDOS*-like 
double -density disk operating system called DBLDOS™ 

We also offer a double-density Model 1 version of 
OS-80 as well as D0UBLE2AP programs for modifying 
NEWDOS/80 and VTOS 4.0t for DOUBLER 
compatibility. 

Of course you don't have to upgrade your computer 
for double -density operation to use Percom mini-disk 
drive systems. In single-density operation, our TRS-80* 
Model I compatible 40-track drives store 102 Kbytes of 
formatted data on one side of a diskette, and our 
80-track drives store 205 Kbytes. By comparison, 
Tandy's standard drive for the Model I stores just 86 
Kbytes. 

And like our Model III drives. Model I add-on drives 
are optionally available with "flippy" storage capability. 

System Requirements: 

Model UI: 16-Kbyte system (min) and Model III BASIC. 
The second internal drive may be installed after the first 
internal drive kit is installed, and external drives #2, #3 
and #4 may be added if either an internal or external 
first-drive kit has been installed. External drives #3 and 
#4 require an optional interconnecting cable. 
Model 1: 16-Kbyte system (min). Level II BASIC, 
Expansion Interface, disk operating system and an 
interconnecting cable. For double -density storage, a 
Percom DOUBLER must be installed in the Expansion 
Interface and DBLDOS {comes with the DOUBLER) or 
other double-density DOS must be used. For 
single-density operation, a Percom SEPARATOR™ 
adapter, installed in the Expansion Interface, will 
virtually eliminate "CRC ERROR — TRACK LOCKED 

UU I read errors. Prices and specllicahonssubjeci to change without notice. 



New for the TRS-80'' Model III 

Patterned after our fast-selling TFD Model I drives. And 
subjected to the same reliability controls. These new 
TFD mini-disk systems for the Model III provide more 
features than Tandy drives, yet cost far less. 

• Flippy Capability: Both internal (add-in) and 
external (add-on) drives permit recording on either 
side of a diskette. 

• Greater Storage Capacity: Available with either 40- 
or 80-track drive mechanisms, Percom TFD mini-disk 
systems store more. A 40-track drive stores up to 180 
Kbytes — formatted — on one side of a 5-inch 
diskette. An 80-track drive stores a whopping 364 
Kbytes. 

• 1.5 Mbyte On-line: The Percom drive controller 
(included with the initial drive) handles up to four 
drives. With four 80-track mini-disk drives you can 
access over 1.5 million bytes of on-line file data. 

Moreover, the initial drive may be either an 
internal add-in drive or an external add-on drive. And 
whichever configuration you get, the initial drive kit 
comes complete with our advanced 4-drive 
controller, interconnecting cables, power supplies, 
installation hardware, a DOS and of course the drive 
mechanism itself. 

• First Drive Includes DOS: OS-80™, Percom's fast 
extendable BASIC-Ianguage disk operating system, is 
included on diskette when you purchase an initial 
drive kit. Originally called MicroDOS. OS-80 was 
favorably reviewed in the June 1980 issue of Creative 
Computing magazine. 

• Works with Model 111 TRSDOS: Besides being fully 
hardware compatible. Percom's Model III 40-track 
drive systems may be operated with Tandy's Model III 
TRSDOS — without any modifications whatsoever. 
And, TRSDOS may be easily upgraded with simple 
software patches for operating 80-track drives. 

Percom TFD add-on drives start at only $399. Model 
111 Drive kits start at only $749.95. 

Quality Percom products are available at 
authorized dealers. Call toll free 1-800-527-1592 
for the address of your nearest dealer or to order 
direct from Percom. 




1^408 



PERCOM DATA COMPANY. INC. 

3^^ N KIRBV GARLAND, TEXAS 750d2 

(214J 272-3421 



•Trademark of Tandy Radio Shack Corporation whEch has no relaiionship to Pcrcom Data Company. 
™D0UBLER, DBLDOS. OS-80 and SEPARATOR are trademarks of Percom Dali Company, he, 
■^Trademark of Virtual Technology Corporadon. 



April 1981 Issue #16 




PUBLISHER 
Wayne Green 

EXECUTIVE VICE PRESIDENT 
Sherry Smyths 

CORPORATE CONTROLLER 
Charles Garniss, Jr. 

ASSOCIATE PUBLISHER 
Edward Perm an 

ASSISTANT PUBLISHER 
Jeff DeTray 

ADVERTISING MANAGER 
Kevin Rushaiko 

CIRCULATION MANAGER 

(603) 924-7296 

Debra Boudrleau 

BULK SALES MANAGER 
GInny Boudrleau 

ASSISTANT TO PRESIDENT 
Matt Smith 

ADVERTISING SALES 
(603) 924-7138 
Penny Brooks 
John Gancarz 



Manuacfipts aro welcome at 80 MIcmcomput- 
ing, we will consider publication of any TRS-80 
oriented material. Guidelines for budding auth- 
ors are available, please send a salt-addressed 
envelope and ask for "How to Write for SO JW/cro- 
computing." Entire contents copyright 1981 by 
1001001 Inc. No part of this publication may be 
reprinted, or reproduced by any means, without 
prior written permission from the publisher. All 
programs are published tor personal use only. 
All rights reserved. 



80 Microcomputing (ISSN -0199-6789) Is pub- 
lished monthly by 1001001 Inc., 80 Pine St., 
Peterborough NH 03458. Phone: 603-924-3873. 
Subscription rates In U.S. are S18 for one year 
and $45 for three years. In Canada, $20— one 
year only, U.S. funds. Canadian distributor: 
Micro Distributing, 409 Queen St. West, Toron- 
to, Ontario, Canada M5V 2A5. Foreign sub- 
scriptions {surface mall}, S2S— 'One year only, 
U.S. funds. Foreign subscriptions (air mall), 
S60— one year only, U.S. funds. In Europe con- 
tact Monlka Nedela, Markstr. 3, D-7778 Mark- 
dorf, W. Germany. In South Africa contact 80 
Microcomputing, P.O. Box 782815, Sandton, 
South Africa 2146. Australian Distributor: 
Electronic Concepts, Attention: RudI Hoass, 
55 Clarence Street, Sidney 2000, Australia. All 
U.S. subscription correspondence should be 
addressed to 80 Microcomputing, Subscrip- 
tion Department, P.O. Box 981, Farmlngdale, 
NY 11737. Please include your address label 
with any correspondence. Postmaster: Send 
form -3579 to 80 Microcomputing, Subscrip- 
tion Services, P.O. Box 981, Farmlngdale, NY 
11737. 



Contients 



Parti 116 

Advanced Graphic Techniques 

by Bob Boothe 

In the first of a three-part series on 
straightline graphics, Bob Boothe will show 
you what to expect from a TRS-80 and a dot 
matrix line printer. Part one deals with disk 
commands in ways you may never have 
thought of— especially in an 80 without 
drives. 

A Turn of the Screw 117 

by Bob Boothe 

Some simple math programs by Bob 
Boothe produce some three-dimensional 
graphics that twist, turn and travel across 
your 80. 




134 



A High-Density Graphic Interface 

by Dennis Murray and Paul Fowler, Jr. 

Authors Murray and Fowler design a high-density graphics inter- 
face that will let you plot high-res graphics with no effort. The 
directions are here; you'll emerge with a better understanding of 
raster scan video concepts and more powerful graphics. 

Programming for Education— Part 3 144 

by Jerome I. Weintraub 

This final installment in the Weintraub education series, tells 
you how to differentiate between types of educational programs 
and their objectives, while it offers some hints for clarity and 
keeping a student's interest up. 

Rushing toward Courseware 74 

by Pamela Petrakos 

80 takes its first look at a new market trend. We surveyed a field 
of traditional book publishers to find out what their intentions 
were toward the burgeoning educational software market and 
how that industry will effect the textbook market in the future. 



cgccoikyfiiiiMKi mMM M®mn}5 



The May issue of 80 explores personal finance. Ever wanted a 
clear guide to the stockmarket? We've got an article which will 
guide you around the major pitfalls. We also have some sound 
advice on buying a new car and when to turn a profit on a new 
house. If that isn't quite what you need, another article will lead 
you through the whys and wherefores of sensible mortgage 
shopping. 



4 • 80 Microcomputing, April 1981 



276 The Model 1 As a Dumb Terminal Talk to peripherals. Jim Tallman 
210 The Dot Game Play games to learn programming. Arthur J. Welcher 

nmmw 

195 NEWDOS-80 Find out what it really is. Allan J. Domuret 

246 Loops and Arrays Two ways to streamline your programs. L Mitchell Wein 
297 Block that Cursor Stop your 80 from winking at you. Ron Balewski 



240 Fast Clock DOS Teach your DOS to run races. Allan J. Domuret 

(LDTTOlLflW 

271 Compare For identical twins. William B. Everett 

298 Smart Answers How to hex your 80. James F. Williams 



7 Remarks Wayne Green 

8 Inside 80 Ed Juge 
12 80 Input 

31 Reviews 

44 80 Applications Dennis Kitsz 



49 80 Accountant Mtcttael Tannenbaum 

52 Education 80 Eari R. Savage 

53 The Assembly Line William Barden, Jr. 
61 News 

70 New Products 



^[p(Fy©^int©G^§ 

179 This Ain't No Party! Pin friends and influence people. Stewart E. Fason 

186 Sans Disks Data base management on cassette. Stewart F. Hunter 

192 Two Cents Worth The TRS-80 oid coin dealer. Jack Clayton 

214 Endorse It It's easy to spend a miiilon bucks. Arthur J. WeJcher 

252 WHERZIT Wonder what these tities rea//y mean? James H. Fox 

261 Check Writer Endorse a work of art. Charles Z. Tzinberg 
266 Exponential Smoothing Smooth out your forecasting technique. Len Gorney 

218 TheiWodellVa Cut those cords. Larry Fortna 

248 Red Letter Day for Lowercase A holiday modification story. George C. Ferber 

228 Lower Cost Lowercase Ten bucks and some time will put you lowdown. 
Philip M. Van Praag 

154 Simul-80— A Weird Game Surprise! Now you are a data bus. Dennis Kitsz 

178 The Unexpurgated Version Real meanings of micro fables. David D. Busch 

222 Cost Effective Word Processing Without disks and with class. Larry M. Hewin. Ed.D. 

262 TRS-80 Joystick Control Stick it to your 80. Stephen Barker 

272 TRS-80 Bus Conductor Fox took what Radio Shack wouldn't give. L. Joseph Fox 



PUBLISHER/EDITOR 
Wayne Green 

MANAGING EDITOR 
Michael Comendul 

TECHNICAL CONSULTANT 
Jake Commander 

PRODUCTION EDITOR 
Clare McCarthy 

NEWS EDITOR 
Nancy Robertson 

REVIEW EDITOR 
Pamela Petrakos 

ASST. TECHNICAL EDITOR 
Chris Brown 

ASSISTANT EDITORS 
Chris Crocker 
Debra Marshall 

TECHNICAL CONTRIBUTING EDITOR 
Dennis Kltsz 

EDITORIAL ADMINISTRATION 
Pat Graham 
Nancy Noyd 

DESIGN ASSOCIATE 
Diana Shonk 



MANUFACTURING MANAGER 
Noel Ray Self 

PRODUCTION MANAGER 
Nancy Salmon 

ASST. PRODUCTION MANAGER 
Michael Murphy 

AD GRAPHICS MANAGER 
Robert Drew 

AD COORDINATOR 
Sue Symonds 

ADVERTISING PRODUCTION 

Steve Baldwin, Bruce Hedin, Maryann 

Metivler 

PRODUCTION DEPT. 

Joan Ahern, William Anderson Jr., Linda 

Drew, Bob Dukette, Kenneth Jackson, 

Ross Kenyon, Theresa Ostebo, Jane 

Preston, Patrice Scribner, Thomas 

Villeneuve 

PHOTOGRAPHY 

William Heydolph, Terrie Anderson, 

Bill Suttenfield 

TYPESETTING 

Barbara LattI, Sara Bedell, MIcheie 
Desrocher, Luann Keddy, Mary Kinzei, 
Linda Locke, Karen Stewart 



Cover by Diana Shonk 



80 Microcomputing, April 1981 • 5 



PROGRAMS AVAILABLE 
NOW FROM 
MICRO-SYSTEMS 
SOFTWARE INC. 



MODEL III DOSPLUS READY NOW! That's right! DOSPLUS 3.3 for the MODEL III is 
available now. We have our MODEL III, and now you can have our DOS. All the great features of our popular 
MODEL 1 DOS, plus Single or Double Density Operation. The best gets better! Order now, and soon your MODEL 
III will be all the computer it can be. Experience excellence. Experience DOSPLUS. Introductory Offer $49.95 

DOSPLUS 3.2 or 3.2D The flagship of the Micro-Systems line. This is the BEST disk operating 
system currently available, it offers you all the features you could ever use, speed, reliability, and much more! Full 
support of variable length records. No more internal errors during file handling due to poorly written operating 
systems. Allows use of ISAIvrtechnique. Supports 35-80 track drives. The two operating systems are basically the 
same. However, Dosplus 3. 2D will operate double density. The double density DOS has some differences peculiar 
to double density operation. Both systems offer DOS commandsfrom BASIC, BASIC renum, and BASIC program 
compressor. DOS utilities include a sector display/modify program, a utility to purge files, AND a utility to restore 
purged or killed files. Free space map and the most comprehensive directory on the market. Try it and you'll never 
use anything else. All this and much more for only $99.95 either system. 

DISKZAP 2.3 A single or double density disk editor. Works with any number of tracks. It is track and 
sector oriented, and offers total access to all parts of the diskette. It has it all. It will even include a disk formatter. 
With DISKZAP 2.3 it is even possible to convert your single density disks to double density. Priced at only $19.95 
for Model I or III 



MASTER DISK DIRECTORY 1.1 One ofthe most useful programs ever conceived. It 
read the directories of up to 320 diskettes (or 5000 files) . You can then search for a disk name, a filespec (or piece 
of a filespec), free space, or an extension. No more looking for programs that are "around here somewhere." 
Master directory will read any diskette directory, works to either the video orthe line printer, will operate on either 
single or multiple drive systems, and is now available in Spanish. Retail price is $29.95. 

ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE 1.0 (including inventory package) A point of sale, invoice- 
generating and based accounts receivable program. Including INVCO 1.3 (a comprehensive manufacturing 
inventory program), this program will meet the specialized needs of almost anyone engaged in the wholesale or 
distributing business. The fastest and best program of it's type available anywhere. Requires a Model 1 , 32K, twin 
drive system. Also requires DOSPLUS 3.2. For speed, accuracy, and convenience, it can't be beat! Price quoted 
on request due to the custom configuring necessary in any business software. 

SUPERBAK Any disk that will boot-up in your computer, this program will back-up. It will scan any disk 
created by the TRS-80 Model I, and create an exact copy of the disk. Retail price is $19.95. Single density only. 

MOTHER PACKER A string packing graphics generatorforthe TRS-80 Model I. Offers you -,raphics 
tike you never thought you'd have. Draw maps, reports, anything, with lightning speed. Re-draw the screen so 
fast that you can present the illusion of continuous motion. Cost is only $9.95 on cassette. $19.95 on disk. 



2,2 meg on Model I with our Doubler Board and Drives. Blank ^Va" Diskettes 




master chatge 



Specializing in the Tandy Line 




(305) 983-3390 



5846 Funston Street 
Hollywood, FL 33023 



CALL TOLL FREE FOR FAST SERVICE 
(800) 824-7888, OPERATOR 193 

FOR VISA/MASTERCHARGE/C.O.D. ORDERS 

California dial (800) 852-7777. Operatof 193 
Alaska and Hawaii dial (800) 824-7919. Operator 193 
TOLL FREE LINES WILL ACCEPT ORDERS ONLY! 

For Applications and Technical informatton. call 
(305) 983-3390 or drop us a card 



Dealers inquiries invited 



go REMARKS 



by Wayne Green 



"One of the. . . benefits of 

being over fifty is the 

ability to put things into. . . 

perspective; other than that, 

I'd sell the privilege. . . " 



The Home Revolution 

I get a bit annoyed at the term "home 
computer," or even "persona! comput- 
er." To my mind, a computer is a comput- 
er, and it is your use for it that determines 
which kind it is — not the size or the price. 
Yet I can see the day coming when we will 
indeed have some home computers... 
and their impact may be far beyond any- 
thing so far predicted. 

Let's go back and look at the changes 
we've had In home life over the last 50 
years. One of the very few benefits of be- 
ing over fifty is the ability to put things in- 
to some perspective; other than that, I'd 
sell the privilege in a minute. Fifty years 
ago most families had one wage earner 
and they spent a good deal of their time at 
home. Wives, for the most part, devoted 
their time to keeping the home in good 
shape, bringing up the kids, and providing 
a good meal for the breadwinner when he 
came home in the evening. 

We joke about that formula now, but it 
was a comfortable one and it resulted in 
kids getting a lot of attention (and love) 
from their mothers. While feeling the 
home to be a place of love and protection, 
they also got more home education as a 
result. 

When the war came and most of the 
men had to join the armed forces, the 
women had to go out and do much of the 
work. They learned to get along with auto- 
matic washing machines, automatic dish- 
washers, frozen foods and other means 
for cutting down on the needs of the 
home. They also cut back on teaching and 
supervising their children, which may 
have something to do with the change in 
our family relationships, as well as the 
growth of disrespect for almost every- 
thing. 

After the war the men returned, but the 
women kept on working. This gave more 
and more families two incomes, so house 
prices quickly rose to accommodate 
them. This, in turn, forced the one wage- 
earner families to get another wage 
earner out there, with the result that the 
non-working wife today Is the exception 
rather than the rule. 

When I was young my mother had an art 



studio, but the family came first, and I was 
raised with her reading to me during 
lunch. I developed an interest in reading 
which has stayed with me since. We spent 
many evenings playing games. I'm rather 
good at most of them. I enjoy a good jig- 
saw puzzle, a crossword puzzle, crypto- 
grams and card games. 

It may just be that the microcomputer 
will bring about some fundamental 
changes in home life. Firstly, the in- 
creased ability to communicate with any- 
one almost anywhere may allow many 
people to do most, or even all, of their dai- 
ly work at home. 

As the use of connputers in education 
evolves beyond the simple things being 
done today, it may be easier for kids to 
learn at home. It may even be better for 
them. Schools may continue, complete 
with teachers, but more devoted to provid- 
ing skill training than memorization. This 
will reduce the hours of use for the 
schools— perhaps only a couple days a 
week. 

There is little question that computers 
are going to simplify the job of running 
and maintaining a home. Most grocery 
and other shopping should be computer- 
ized, thus making it possible for people to 
spend far more time at home than has 
been the practice during the last two 
generations. With much of the time devot- 
ed to both work and school being focused 
back on the home, perhaps children will 
get the attention and love they need. 

Even movies are coming into the home 
via cable and video cassettes or disks. 
This may not be the best time in the world 
to buy restaurant stock. 

If such a change does come about, I 
wonder if it will result in changes in the 
next generation? Will we see a drop in van- 
dalism? In graffiti? Perhaps even in 
crime? 

The new lifestyle will be much more 
energy efficient, with far fewer short trips 
for groceries and other local shopping. 
We may see a growth in the size of the 
number of malls, wfiere families can go 
out to eat and look through a number of 
stores. 

Our schools may get away from the us- 
ual classroom and tend to have labs and 
workshops where people can learn skills 



such as woodworking, sculpture, metal- 
working, foundry, electronic repairs, 
swimming, and a hundred other skills 
which require both skilled teachers and 
equipment. 

That there has been a major change in 
children is certain. The reasons for this 
change are a bit more difficult to pin 
down. 

We know that there has been a change 
in the home: We also know that the 
change was concomitant with the devel- 
opment of television, so that medium gets 
much flack. We also had the rising influ- 
ence of Dr. Spock encouraging parents to 
give their children much more freedom 
than before. We can add in other factors, 
such as the impact of the Viet Nam war 
and perhaps even the war in Korea, 
neither of which were perceived with the 
patriotic fervor of WWII. I guess Holly- 
wood let us down on our most recent 
wars. . .and television too. ■ 

Keying in Programs 

Since it is a lot of work to key in a pro- 
gram from a magazine and one single 
error can (and usually does) screw up ev- 
erything, we are preparing monthly dumps 
of the programs from 80 Microcomputing. 
They'll be available on cassettes. 

There seems to be some question in the 
minds of many readers about the legality 
of keying in a program and then providing 
a copy of this to a friend. Sorry to say, this 
is absolutely illegal. The material in this 
magazine is copyright. This means that 
you can read it and use the material for 
your own benefit, but you are not per- 
mitted to make copies and send them to 
friends without the specific permission of 
the publisher (me). 

This is also true when it comes to pass- 
ing along copies of these programs at 
clubs, over the telephone, via bulletin 
boards, etc. These are all copyright viola- 
tions. 

Yes, I agree there seems to be little 
harm in saving someone all the work of 
keying In a program— particularly when 
they, too, are a subscriber to the maga- 
zine. But if you take the seat of the pro- 
Conlinues to page 10 



80 Microcomputing, April 1981 • 7 



INSIDE ^0 

by Ed Juge, director of 

computer merchandising, Tandy Radio Sliacl^ 



"I'd like to thank those of you who 

responded to my request to let us 

hear your comments and 

suggestions. This time, you wrote." 



This month, I'm taking a lesson from 
Jon Shirley, our Computer Merchan- 
dising VP. I'm starting my column at 
35,000 feet over Plalnvlew, Texas, enroute 
to beautiful Scottsdale Arizona for a 
three-day industry conference. 

I'd like to thank those of you who 
responded to my request to let us hear 
your comments and suggestions. This 
time, you wrotel Our product managers 
have lots to work on, and It helps. 

Model III Program Compatibility 

Here's a subject which needs to be put 
to rest! Rumors have the compatibility 
figure between Models I and III running 
between 10-90 percent. A list follows of 
every Model I program which we know is 
not directly compatible or convertible to 
Model III. If the Model I program you're 
concerned with is not listed, you may 
assume it will run on or convert readily to 
Model III. (There may be Incompatibilities 
we haven't found yet). 

Programs which require program 
changes before use {your Model Ml comes 
with detailed instructions for changing, or 
you may order a modified version through 
your store at no charge, if you own the 
Model I package): 



Cassette Portrollo 
Tape Mail LisI 
Real Estate III 
Dancing Demon 



Budget ManagBment 
Lvl II Course-ll 
Real Estate IV 
Casino Games 



The following programs cannot easily 
be converted. We will furnish a Model III 
compatible version at no charge to own- 
ers of the Model I version. (Model III ver- 
sions are being included in future pack- 
ages): 



Mallgram 


Scrlpsit Cassette 


Scrlpsit Disk 


Versarue 


Profile 


Microriies 


Fortran 


S&P Stockpack 


Business Mailing List 


Micro Movie 



Scrlpsit Disk, Fortran, and Stockpak 
Model III versions are not completed as of 
the date I'm writing, but we hope they will 
be by the time you read this. 

Following are the only programs which 
will not run on or convert to Model III: 



Space Warp 
MicroChiess 
Editor/ Assembler 
Visicaic— Model I 
Disk Instruction Course 
T-Bug 



RS-232 Comm Pack 

RS-Term 

Tiny Pascal 

Renumber 

Disk EDTASM 



Similar packages for the Model III are in 
the works for all of these except Renum- 
ber, which will work on Mode! III. In-Mem- 
ory Information 26-1502 has already been 
replaced with 26-1508, same name. Model 
III compatible. 

All programs not listed will run on or 
convert to Model III, using the Model III 
TRSDOS convert utility. 

Scrlpsit and Line Printer IV 

I want to correct a misunderstanding re- 
garding the Line Printer IV. When we ad- 
vertise a printer, of course we advertise 
the capabilities of the hardware. All of you 
aren't using all Radio Shack software, 
most of you have some programs you've 
written, and some (perish the thought) 
non-Radio Shack programs you've bought. 
Some of you bought one of our printers to 
use on someone else'scomputer.(See. . . 
we do admit there are other computers!) 

We told you LP IV is capable of several 
different software-selectable type sizes or 
fonts, including high-density proportional 
spaced type— and it is. Unfortunately, our 
Scrlpsit packages do not support all the 
printer's capabilities. For example, Scrlp- 
sit currently can't send the control codes 
to the printer for the change of type sizes. 
From BASIC or from a short user-supplied 
machine language program, but not Scrip- 
sit, you can command LP IV to go into pro- 
portional spacing. 

Scrlpsit cannot justify proportionally- 
spaced type {our experts tell me there are 
maybe a half-dozen very expensive word 
processors which do offer this feature). 
Proportionally spaced type (on LP IV or 
Daisy Wheel II) looks great, but you can't 
use it with Model II Scrlpsit features like 
underlining, bold face, or decimal align- 
ment tabs. Proper line length is also hard 
to judge, since different proportional char- 
acters occupy different widths. 

We've never indicated in a Scrlpsit ad or 
story that these things could be done. 
Some folks misunderstood and expected 



to do things with LP IV that couldn't be 
done. We're sorry, there was no intention 
to mislead you. 

Model II Scripsit offers three methods 
of justification. Space insertion works 
fine on LP-IV, and inserts full spaces be- 
tween words. The other two methods are 
word Increment and character increment, 
which insert fractions of spaces between 
words or characters to justify the line. 
Leave them for the Daisy Wheel II owners! 

LP-IV is a dot-matrix printer, so the head 
must be travelling at a specific speed to 
print a character. If the printing is inter- 
rupted to process a command like back- 
space or space insertion, the head must 
return to the left margin and start over to 
print the next character. The result is that 
in these last two justification modes, the 
head will go "home" between every word 
or every character. Needless to say, 
throughput suffers. 

Model II Owners Note 

Two items: There seems to be some 
question about backing up Model II Scrip- 
sit disks. You can only do it with Scripsit's 
own backup utility. It won't backup using 
TRSDOS's backup command. 

Secondly, a fair number of disk error re- 
ports from the field are still turning out to 
be eight-inch diskettes manufactured to 
single-density standards. They cause 
problems on a double-density system. 
You should weigh the cost saving careful- 
ly against your budget for disk errors. 

Line Printer IIIA^ Tips 

The first of this year we got some bad 
ribbons for LP III and V. They have all been 
replaced, and should be out of our system 
now. One fact that many peopledon't real- 
ize is that these printers will lay about 
500,000 characters on paper in an hour of 
continuous printing. The rated ribbon life 
is two million characters. That's only four 
hours of hard use! 

Pushing a ribbon for more service can 
cause it to tear. When this happens, the 
torn ribbon can hook one of the print wires 
and destroy the head. That's expensive — 
on anybody's dot-matrix printer! 

To help you extend your LP III or V head 



8 • SO Microcomputing, April 1981 



META TECHNOLOGIES 

26111 Brush Avenue, Euclid Ohio 44132" 

CALL TOLL FREE 1-800-321 -3552 TO ORDER 
IN OHIO, call (216) 289-7500 (COLLECT) 



FILE BOX 

DISKETTE STORAGE SYSTEM 




$24 

$29.95 . . 



95 

for 5%" disks 
. for 8" disks 



MTC brings you the ULTIMATE diskette 
storage system, at an affordable price. Stor- 
ing 50 to 60 diskettes, this durable, smoke- 
colored acrylic unit provides easy access 
through the use of index dividers and ad- 
justable tabs. Unique lid design provides 
dust-free protection and doubles as a carry- 
ing handle. 



'RINGS' & 
THINGS 

Help prevent data loss and media damage 
due to improper diskette centering and 
rotation with the FLOPPY SAVER™ rein- 
forcing hub ring kit. 7-mil mylar rings In- 
stall in seconds. Kit is complete with 
centering tool, pressure ring, 25 adhesive 
backed hub rings and instructions. 

HUB RING KIT for 5'//' diskettes . $10.95 
REFILLS {50 Hub Rings) $ 5.95 

Protect your expensive disk drives and 
your valuable diskettes with our diskette 
drive head cleaning kit. The kit, consisting 
of a pair of special "diskettes", cleaning 
solution and instructions, can be used for 
52 cleanings. Removes contamination 
from recording surfaces in seconds 
without harming drives. 

CLEANING KIT for 5'a" drives S24.95 



PLASTIC LIBRARY CASES 

(not shown) 
An economical form of storage for 10 to 15 
diskettes, and is suitable for your booksfielf ! 
Case opens into a vertical holder for easy ac- 
cess. 

5'/i-inch diskette case S3. 50 

8-inch diskette case S3.95 



MICROPA RA PHERNA LI A 

DISKETTES (box of ten) 

5"/." PLAIN JANE™ S21.95 

5'//' DATALIFE™ MD 525-01 . . S26.95 
8" DATALIFE™ FD34-1000 .... S33.95 
8" DATALIFE™ FD34-8000 .... 543.95 

NEWDOS by APPARAT 

NEWDOS/80 *SPECIAL S129.95 

NEWDOS ■ to 

NEWDOS/80 UPGRADE CALL 

NEWDOS -t- with ALL UTILITIES 

35-track S69.95 

40-track S79.95 

BOOKS 

TRS-80™ DISK 

AND OTHER IVIYSTERIES . . S19.95 
MICROSOFT™ BASIC DECODED S29.95 
1001 THINGS TO DO WITH YOUR 

PERSONAL COfWlPUTER .... $ 7.95 



Let Your TRS-8G™ Test Itself With 

THE FLOPPY DOCTOR & 
MEMORY DIAGNOSTIC 

by THE MICRO CLINIC 

A complete checkup lor your Model I. THE 
FLOPPY DOCTOR completely checks every sec- 
tor of 35- or 40-track disk drives. Tests motor 
speed, head positioning, controller lunctions. 
status bits and provides complete error logging. 
THE MEMORY DIAGNOSTIC checks for proper 
write.'read, refresh, executability and exclusivity 
of all address locations. Includes both 
diagnostics and complete instruction manual. 
SYSTEM DIAGNOSTICS $19.95 

An improved version of the SYSTEM 
DIAGNOSTICS above. Designed for single 
or double density. 35-. 40-. 77-, or 80- 
track disk drives. Includes new and 
modified tests. Features THE FLOPPY 
DOCTOR. Version 3.0. 

SYSTEM DIAGN0STICS-V3 . . $24.95 



TRS'80 is a trademark ol the 

Radio Shack Division ol Tandy 

Corporation. DATALIFE is a 

trademark ol VERBATIM. PLAIN 

JANE. AIDS-I. AIDSIII. CALCSIII. 

CALCS-IV. MERGE. Ill are 

trademarks ol MTC. 
1981 by Metatechnologies 
Corporation, Inc. 



MOST ORDERS 

SHIPPED WITHIN 

ONE BUSINESS DAY 

Products damaged in 
transit vi/iil be exchanged. 



PRICES IN EFFECT 

April 1. 1981 THRU 

April 30. 1981. 

Prices, Specificiations. 

and Offerings subject to 

change without notice. 



Single Sided. Soft-Sectored S'/Vinch, 
(forTRS-80™) Mini-floppy 

DISKETTES 



$21 



95 



box of 10 



These are factory fresh, absolutely first 
quality (no seconds!) mini-floppies. They are 
complete with envelopes, labels and write- 
protect tabs in a shrink-wrapped box. 



PLAIN JANE " 

DISKETTES 

The Beautiful Floppy 

with the Magnetic PersonalityTw 

Thousands of people have switched to this 
tow-cost alternative. These quality diskettes 
are packaged in a plain white box ... no fan- 
cy printing, fancy names or fancy labels, not 
even our own (labels cost money). Trust us. 

PLAIN JANETM Diskettes 521.95 

10 boxes of 10 (each box)S21.50 



VERBATIM'S PREMIUI^ DISKETTES AT 
AFFORDABLE PRICES 

DATALIFE" 

Seven data-shielding improvements mean 
greater durability and longer data life. 
These individually, 100% error-free cer- 
tified diskettes feature tliicker oxide 
coating, longer-lasting lubricant, improved 
liner, superior polishing and more! (\^eets 
or exceeds IBM, Shugart. ANSI, EGMA 
and ISO standards. Reinforcing HUB 
RINGS help prevent data loss and media 
damage, reducing errors. 
Buy the best ... buy DATALIFE^m. 

VERBATIM DATALIFETM DISKETTES 

5'j-inch (box of 10) 

MD525.01 S26.95 

10 boxes of 10 (each box)S25.95 

8-inch FLOPPIES 

Single-Density. FD34-1000 . . S33.95 
Double-Density, FD34-8000 . S43.95 



MORE 

PRODUCTS 



A 



WE ACCEPT 

• VISA 

• MASTER CHARGE 

• CHECKS 

• MONEY ORDERS 

• C.O.D. 3,^ 



•Add S3. 00 for shipping 

& handling 

•S3.00 EXTRA for C.O.D. 
'Ohio residents add 6'/j% 

sales tax. 



i 



t 



msntSO 



life, we have a head cleaning kit availabie, 
specifically for these printers. Your local 
Radio Shack store shouid order Cat. No. 
700-3010. Though not usualiy a store- 
stocked item, they're readily available. 
Simple Instructions are included. 

Computerama '81 

I hope you'ii watch for this Radio Shack 
computer show when it hits your area. 
We're putting on shows in major cities 
again this year until June. We're showing 
all the new computers. Model III, Pocket 
Computer, Color Computer, and, of course, 
Model II. Theformat Is a little different this 
time, and after a shorter main show, you 
can visit Individual display areas for Scrip- 
sit, VIslcalc, home uses (Including Video- 
tex), accounting applications, computers 
In education, and the Pocket Computer. In 
each room, there Is a ten minute videotape 
presentation, followed by a chance to ask 
questions. I think you'ii enjoy the show, 
and find there's lots of new material to 
see. 

One new item at the show is Radio 
Shack's new Extended Color BASIC for 



^ 'One fact that many 
people don't realize Is that 

those printers will lay 

about 500,000 characters 

on paper in an hour of 

continuous printing. " 



the Color Computer! You must have 16K 
RAM to use Extended BASIC. Space is re- 
quired for BASIC to operate, for graphics, 
and for video; a maximum of about 14.5K 
is user-available. 

You'ii see one-tine instructions to draw 
a line from point A {x,y) to point B {x,y), 
make it either the foreground or back- 
ground color. You can set foreground and 
background colors or draw a box by desig- 
nating the coordinates of opposite cor- 
ners in a single command. 

You can draw a circle by specifying cen- 
ter and radius or just start and ending 
points, If all you want is part of a circle. 
You can also specify a height/width ratio 
to squeeze the circle. There's even a color 
parameter, if you're in a more-than-one- 
coior mode. 

With Extended Color BASIC you can 
load and save machine language tapes. 
You can specify an offset address to add 
to the loading address If desired. You can 
specify loading machine language pro- 



grams at 300 or 1200 baud. 

Modem I Specs Changed 

Now for the bad news! It's more embar- 
rassing than bad: Our newest computer 
catalog — RSC-5— and a few magazine 
ads list our new low-cost modem as 
300/600 baud. The art and copy had such 
long lead times, we couldn't correct a last- 
minute change in specs. Modem I will be 
300 baud only. In final Q.A. testing of pro- 
duction units, we found an unacceptable 
error rate at 600 baud. Sorry for any incon- 
venience. Model I owners will find a listing 
of a software package (and cable) which 
let you connect the Modem directly to 
your cassette port, for half-duplex opera- 
tion without an expansion Interface! 



New, Low-Cost Line Printer VII 

LP Vll Is an 80-column wide, tractor- 
feed line printer which uses plain paper 
and a ribbon that sells for $399. Its trac- 
tors are adjustable from 4yz toOVz Inches. 
Printing can be 80 or 40 characters wide 
on an eight-inch print line, upper and low- 
ercase, at 30 cps. There's also a graphics 
mode for fully dot-addressable graphics. 

We've provided both a serial (color com- 
puter) and parallel (other 80s) Interface. 
I'm going to take my life in my hands and 
say it's available now. (Remember, your 
"now" Is April, mine is early February, and 
there are two months in between for Mur- 
phy and his law to play with.) 

Weil, time files when I'm having fun. I'm 
late again, so until next month. . . ■ 



^0 REMARKS 



gram's author, your perspective will 
change substantially. The author has a 
deep interest in getting the most from his 
hard work. The money he receives for one 
time publication really isn't enough, espe- 
cially when his is a particularly useful pro- 
gram. This is why we are going to provide 
all of the 80 Microcomputing listings on 
cassettes, with the royalties going to the 
authors. 

In some cases, where a program is par- 
ticularly valuable, it may also be issued by 
Instant Software as a separate package, 
or as part of a package, in this case the 
royalties may escalate surprisingly. 

We're aiming at making the cassette 
dumps of the programs available for each 
issue of 80 as the magazines come out. 
They will hopefully be in stock in the com- 
puter stores carrying the magazine 
. . . and eventually they will be availabie by 
subscription. As soon as everything is 
ready to go, you'ii be seeing announce- 
ments of the service and the cost. ■ 

Programmer Demands 

I f one were to try to judge from the letters 
B and phone calls, it is a jungle out there 
for programmers, with rip-offs right and 
left. Well, what should a programmer be 
looking for If he wants to get his program 
distributed? 

A programmer needs to look into sever- 
al aspects of program publishing before 
making a decision. He needs to know 
about the distribution the firm has set up, 
the royalty arrangement, the reliability of 
the firm and the advertising backup his 
program is going to get. 



it stands to reason that a firm Is going 
to be able to do a better job of selling a 
program if it is able to get it Into almost 
every computer store in the U.S. and also, 
translated into other languages, into com- 
puter stores in other countries. A funda- 
mental fact of life in sales: the more out- 
lets you have, the betteryour likelihood of 
selling. This is why Instant Software has 
not only instituted a rep sales organiza- 
tion to cover the entire United States, but 
is also developing sales in 22 other coun- 
tries. 

Royalty Percentage 

Your royalty is important too. instant 
Software pays 20 percent and this seems 
to be both the standard and the top royal- 
ty being paid by any of the major software 
publishers. This is a good deal higher than 
book royalties, but then the idea was to 
encourage software writing— good soft- 
ware writing. 

Another serious problem for the pro- 
grammer is connecting with a reliable 
firm. One after another, program publish- 
ers have been going out of business, or 
selling out to other firms. This can raise 
hell with programmer contracts. Large 
ads do not a reliable firm make, unfortu- 
nately; so programmers should be wary. 

Broad-based Advertising 

Even the best of software won't sell if it 
is not advertised, so the ability of the pro- 
gram publisher to back up your program 
with ads is important. If your program is 
being sold only by mail order, you will 
fiave to make do with a fraction of the 
sales that you might expect if it were also 
sold through dealers. 

More and more firms are developing 
their own distribution and advertising, so 
keep your eyes open and make sure that 
you connect with a good firm. ■ 



10 • 80 Microcomputing, April 1981 



META TECHNOLOGIES 

26111 Brush Avenue, Euclid Ohio 44132 
CALL TOLL FREE 1-800-321 -3552 TO ORDER 

IN OHIO, call (216) 289-7500 (COLLECT) 



TItH-Sli insK 




The perfect supplement for your 
NEWDOS, from IJG, Inc. 

"TRS-80™ DISK AND 
OTHER MYSTERIES" 

by Harvard C. Pennington 

132 pages written in PLAIN ENGLISH packed 
with HOW TO information with details, examples 
and in-depth explanations. Recover lost files and 
directories, remove file protection, make BASIC 
programs unlistable. How to use SUPERZAP, 
recover from DOS errors and MORE! 

TRS-80TMDISK $19.95 



"OTHER MYSTERIES" 
VOLUME II 

loreword by 

H.C. PENNINGTON 

*himi-H ittrrt/itf 
fill- I III- lltS-SI> 



Let your TRS-SO'" Teach You 

ASSEMBLY 
LANGUAGE 

REMSOFT's unique package, "INTRODUCTION 
TO TRS-80^ ASSEMBLY PROGRAMftflING" in- 
cludes ten 45-minute lessons on audio cassettes, a 
display program for each lesson providing illustra- 
tion & reinforcement, and a text book on TRS-80'' 
Assembly Language Programming. Includes use- 
ful routines to access keyboard, video, printer and 
ROM. Requires 16K - Level II. Model 1. 

REMASSEf/l-1 $69.95 

FOR DISK SYSTEMS $74.95 



Let Your TRS-80"'' Teach You 

ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE 
DISK I/O TECHNIQUES 

REMSOFT does it again! REMDISK-1 is a concise, 

capsulated supplement to REMASSEM-1. Package 
consists of two 45-minute lessons on audio casset- 
tes, and display programs providing illustration 
and reinforcement. Provides specific track and 
sector I/O techniques, and sequential and random 
file access methods and routines. 

REMDISK-1 $29.95 




C9II now and place your order tor tnis new twok, 
■MICROSOFTTM BASIC DECODED & OTHER 
MYSTERIES for the TRS-80TM", from IJG, Inc. 
A primer for cassette and disk BASIC on the 
TRS-80TM, the information provided applies to 
similar MICROSOFTTM BASIC interpreters. 
Features include definition of terms, an over- 
view of BASIC and DOS. explanation of exits, er- 
ror codes, verb actions, "cold" and "warm" 
restart procedures and examination of system 
utilities, arithmetic support and I/O driver 
routines, and the communications region in 
RAM. Individual routines are explained in detail, 
with an index provided for easy access. Appen- 
dixes include tables for BASIC and DOS vectors, 
stacks and interrupt locations. PLUS thousands 
of comment lines for the complete 
MICROSOFTTM BASIC. 
MICROSOFTTM BASIC DECODED . . $29.95 



MICROPA RA PHERNA LI A 
DISKETTES (box of ten) 

5'/«" PLAIN JANETM S21.95 

5'A" DATALIFE™ MD 525-01 . . 526.95 
8" DATALIFE™ FD34-1000 .... S33.95 
8" DATALIFETM FD34-8000 .... S43.95 

NEWDOS by APPARAT 

NEWDOS/80 ♦ SPECIAL * . . . .$129.95 

NEWDOS -f to 

NEWDOS/80 UPGRADE CALL 

NEWDOS -f with ALL UTILITIES 

35-track $69.95 

40-track $79.95 

BOOKS 

TRS-8OTM DISK 

AND OTHER MYSTERIES . . $19.95 
MICROSOFTTM BASIC DECODED S29.95 
1001 THINGS TO DO WITH YOUR 

PERSONAL COMPUTER .... $ 7.95 



1001 



THINGS TO 
DO WITH YOUR 
PERSONAL COMPUTER 

BY MARK SAWUSCH 



333 pages 

$7.95 



333 pages, written in simple terms, of "what-to-do" and "how-to-do-if 
Suitable not only for microcomputers, but for programmable 
calculators as well. Includes program listings, formulas, a glossary of 
computer terms and morel Definitely a MUST BUY! 
A PARTIAL LIST OF APPLICATIONS 



Electrk; Memorandum 
Energy Efficiency Computation 
Test Your Typing Speed 
Statistk:al Analysis 
Options Analysis 
Logic Circuit Analysis 
Antenna Design 
Carpenter and Mechank:'s Helper 



Income Tax 
Speed Reading 
Check Digit Generator 

Personality Test 

Morse Code 

Finances and Investments 

Bwrythm 

Letter Writing 



Cateulatkxi of the Number of Days Between Two Dates 



Simultaneous Equation Solver 

Real Estate Evaluatnn 

Astrok^ 

General Purpose Ctock/Timer 

Recipe Index/Calculator 

RPN Calculator 



MORE 

PRODUCTS 



TRS-80 is a trattemark ol the 

Radio Shack Division ol Tandy 

Corporation. DATALIFE is a 

trademark ol VERBATIM. PLAIN 

JANE. AIDS-I. AIDS'lll. CALCS-III. 

CALCSIV. MERGE.III are 

trademarks of MTC. 

- 1981 by Melatechnologies 

Corporation. Inc. 



MOST ORDERS 

SHIPPED WITHIN 
ONE BUSINESS DAY 

Products damaged in 
transit will be exchanged 



^ 



PRICES IN EFFECT 

April 1, 1981 THRU 

April 30, 1981, 

Prices, Specificlations, 

and Offerings subject to 

change viftthout notice. 



msmm 



A 



WE ACCEPT 

• VISA 

• MASTER CHARGE 

• CHECKS 

. MONEY ORDERS 

• COD. 



8104 



•Add $3.00 for shipping 
& handling 
•S3.00 EXTRA for C.O.D. 

•Ohio residents add 6W% 
sales tax. 



so INPUT 



"A little got to the printer 
but most just spilled right out on the floor. 

It was horrible — 
wall-to-wall alphabet soup! 



Oh, Really? 



I recently acquired a printer for my 
TRS-80 and wished to produce a inard 
copy duplicate of the monitor screen. Al- 
though 1 am not very proficient at pro- 
gramming, I could think of several possi- 
ble vi/ays to do this. However, as I am not 
too ambitious, I resorted to the yearly in- 
dex in your December issue and came 
upon several articles detailing this very 
nicely. 

Having made my selection, I carefully 
entered a screen printer subroutine from 
the March issue. I listed the program and 
proofread it carefully. I was all ready to go. 

I hurriedly filled my screen with Quick 
Brown Foxes and several Lazy Dogs along 
with a couple of Now is the Times, and 
turned on my new toy. This is where the 
fun began. 

While the program apparently ran per- 
fectly as I GOSUBed 20000, 1 had failed to 
tighten the printer cable sufficiently and, 
as you have probably guessed by now, 
nearly all the screen's contents were 
dumped right on the carpet. A little got to 
the printer but most just spilled right out 
on the floor. It was horrible — wall-to-wall 
alphabet soup! 

I am only glad that it was not the large 
print, for the vacuum cleaner may not 
have gotten it up. 

/. T. Phoolesme 

TaWorrie, NW 01313 

Prechilling the interface cable generally 
slows this type of overflow to the point 
where you can catch it in a bowl If it oc- 
curs.— Eds. 



CROSSREF Complication 

D. N. Ewart's CROSSREF In the Jan- 
uary issue immediately struck me as a 
very valuable utility— if only I could get it 
to work. After two attempts to key it in, I 
still couldn't get it to output the right line 
numbers. 

Closer inspection showed that the com- 
putation Is done in an absurdly compli- 
cated way: The program DIMs an array of 



the powers of two, and does successive 
additions to sum up the line number. 

I recommend that others who've had 
problems with this try deleting lines 
65520-65522, and insert: 65520 Y = 
PEEK(I -I- 4).256-(- PEEK(H-3}:RETURN. 

The wasteful B{) array can be omitted 
altogether from line 65504, and all the non- 
string variables can be DEFined at the in- 
teger level. These are helpful tips since 
the program can be quite useful for very 
long programs. 

Dr S. C. Mills 
Wittenberg University 
Springfield, OH 45501 



Betrayed 



On page 185 of the February, 1981 issue 
of 80 Microcomputing, I see an ad for a 
PMC-80 computer. 

1 thought 80 Microcomputing was for 
"TRS-80 users". As a TRS-80 user who is 
proud of his computer and his magazine, I 
feel betrayed by this ad for a competitor's 
machine. 

Let PMC-80, PET, Apple, and the like 
advertise in their own users magazine. 

If the ads in my magazine cannot sup- 
port my machine, I am not interested. 

David C. Mauldin 
Hickory. NC 28601 

Will you feel betrayed by our coverage 
of the Color Computer? The Model II or III? 
The Pocket Computer? 

The PMC-80 bears a closer resem- 
blance to the Model I than any of 
these.— Eds. 

Deathmaze, Anyone? 

"To Everything There is a Season" says 
Debra Marshall, as she explores Death- 
maze 5000 (Med Systems Software). Upon 
reading the review by Ms. Marshall, I be- 
came very excited about this particular 
software program. Well, I looked up in the 
list of advertisers for Med Systems Soft- 
ware, and lo and behold, page 49 was to 
be my salvation {or destruction??). It was 
2:00 pm on a Saturday and I thought I 



would have to wait until Monday to give 
MSS a ring (RatsI). I gave it a try anyway 
and they answered. A very polite gentle- 
man Informed me that my phone order for 
Deathmaze 5000 would be in the mail 
Monday. 1 asked him if he had read the re- 
view by Ms. Marshall and he said he had. 
He also said that if she likes Deathmaze 
5000, shewould "fall out of her chair" over 
Asylum. 

By means of this letter I am offering to 
supply Ms. Marshall with a seat belt for 
her chair. After all, if she isn't getting any 
work done due to Deathmaze 5000, she 
will get even less done on the floor!! 

See you in the Mental Ward! 

Jeffrey Machusak 
Joseph City, AZ 86032 

I will take your kind offer under advise- 
ment, and add the seatbelt to my collec- 
tion of crystal balls, rotten sneakers, and 
magic rings. — Debra Marshall, 80 Edi- 
torial 

Programma Review 

I appreciate your review {80 Reviews, 
February 1981, Bruce Douglass) of the 
80-Grafix board from Programma Interna- 
tional, inc., but I hope you'll give me the 
opportunity to clear up some minor mis- 
understandings the reviewer may have 
had concerning our product. 

Mr. Douglass' review may leave the mis- 
conception that our use of the cassette 
port may somehow interface with normal 
cassette operation. Use of the 80-Grafix 
board does not interfere with either nor- 
mal or high-speed cassette operation. 
There is no external connection to the 
cassette port; the Interface is entirely in- 
ternal to the TRS-80. None of the port out- 
puts affect cassette operation in any way. 

Mr. Douglass seems to feel that pro- 
gramming our board requires a great deal 
of memory. He points out that program- 
ming the board requires up to one full K of 
memory, and video memory at that. There 
are advantages to this method. For exam- 
ple, to obtain an effective resolution of 
384 X 192 pixels, it would take a memory- 
mapped screen of 9K; we require only IK! 



12 • 80 Microcomputing, April 1981 



META TECHNOLOGIES 

26111 Brush Avenue, Euclid Ohio 44132 -"'^ 
CALL TOLL FREE 1 -800-321 3552 TO ORDER 

IN OHIO, call (216) 289-7500 (COLLECT) 



MTCAIDS- 

MODEL I... $69.95 



TM 



MODEL II... $99.95 

Introducing the latest addition to MTC's family of data management systems, AIDS-III NO 
PROGRAMMING, easy to use. COMPLETE PACKAGE including demonstration application, 
documentation and MAPS-HI (see below). 

• Up to 20 USER-DEFINED FIELDS of either numeric- or character-type. 

• CHARACTER-type fields may be any length (total: up to 254 characters). 

• NUMERIC-type fields feature automatic formatting, rounding, decimal alignment and 
validation. 

• Full feature EDITING when adding or changing records: 

- ENTER FIELD (can't type-m more characters than specilied). 

• BACKSPACE (delete last character typed). ■ RIGHT- JUSTIFY FIELD contents 
■ DELETE FIELD contents. . SKIP FIELD (to next or previous field). 

- RESTORE FIELD contents. - SKIP RECORD {to next or previous record). 

• SORTING of records is MACHINE CODE assisted. 

- 200 RECORDS (40 characters) in about 5 SECONDS. 

- ANY COMBINATION of fields (including numerics) with each field in ascending or 

descending order. 

" SELECTION of records for Loading, Updating, Deleting, Printing and Saving is 
MACHINE CODE assisted. 

• Specify up to 4 CRITERIA, each using one of 6 RELATIONAL COMPARISONS. 

- LOAD or SAVE selected records using MULTIPLE FILES. 

- Example: Select records representing those people who live in the state of Col- 

orado, but not in the city of Denver, whose last names begin with "F" 
and whose incomes exceed $9000.00. 

- Example: Select records representing those sales made to XYZ COMPANY that 

exceed $25.00, between the dates 03/15 and 04/10. 

MAPS-III (MTC AIDS PRINT SUBSYSTEM), included at no charge, has the following features- 

• Full AIDS-III SELECTION capabilities, 

• Prints user-specified fields DOWN THE PAGE. 

• Prints user-specified fields in titled, columnar REPORT FORMAT, automatically 
generating column headings, paging and (optionally) indentation. 

• Can create a single report from MULTIPLE FILES. 

• Prints user-defmed formats for CUSTOM LABELS, custom forms, etc. 

BELOW ARE TESTIMONIALS from owners of AIDS systems. These are absolutely authentic 
statements and are typical of the comments we receive. 

"This program will do 
have, combined." 

David Wareham, Vice President (EDP). National Hospital and Health Care Services Inc. 

"We have 32 different Data Base Management packages for the TRS-80. AIDS-III is easily 
the best. It also makes it easier for us to step up to our Model II since the package is 
available for both computers." 

Jack Bilinski, President. 80 Microcomputer Services 

"Your AIDS program is far and away the finest information management system that I've 
ever seen. I am currently using it to maintain a clear picture of the demographic data on all 
the kids in our residential treatment program and it is working for me superbly." 

Frank Boehm, Director, Front Door Residential Treatment Program 

Hiili 



more for my business than all the other programs I 



MTC AIDS CALCULATION SUBSYSTEM! 

MODEL I . . .$24.95 MODEL II . . .$39.95 



MTC's most popular AIDS subsystem. Use 
for report generation involving basic 
manipulation of numeric data. Features are: 

• User- specified page title 

• Columnar Headings 

• Optional Indentation 

• Use for accounting, inventory, financial 
and other numeric-based information 
systems. 



Columnar subtotals generated when 
there is a change in a user-specified 
column. 

User-specified Columnar Totals 
Columnar values computed using con- 
stants and/or column values 
Balance forward calculatnns (Ex: Gross 
sales equals previous gross sales -i- sale 
amount + sates tax). 



Compare AIDS-lir^/CALCS-lir" with any other data management package under $100! 
CALCS-in" REQUIRES THE PURCHASE OF AIDS-III'" 



AIDS OWNERS! 

WE HAVE WHAT 

YOU'VE BEEN 

WAITING IV. . . 

MTC CALCS-IV™, that is. 

• More Computations 

• Save Report Formats on Disl( 

• Faster, and morel 

CALL FOR DETAILS and 
CALCS-III UPGRADE PRICING 



MTC AIDS MERGE-lir" 

This subsystem will combine up to 14 AIDS- 
created data files into a single, large file. An op- 
tional purge capability removes duplKate entries 
while performing the merge operation (can even 
be used to eliminate duplicates in a single file). 
Machine-code assisted for High-speed perfor- 
mance, MERGE-IIITM properly handles files sorted 
by any combination of fields, including numerics, 
with each field in ascending or descending order. 

MTC AIDS MERGE-IN™ $19.95 

For Model H $29.95 



MICROPARAPHERNAUA 

DISKETTES (box of ten) 

5'/." PLAIN JANETM $21.95 

5'//' DATALIFE™ MD 525-01 . . $26.95 
8" DATALIFE™ FD34-1000 .... $33.95 
8" DATALIFE™ FD34-8000 .... $43.95 

NEWDOSbyAPPARAT 

NEWDOS/80 *SPECIAL* ....$129.95 

NEWDOS+ to 

NEWDOS/80 UPGRADE CALL 

NEWDQS-i- with ALL UTILITIES 

35-track $69.95 

40-track $79.95 

BOOKS 

TRS-80™ DISK 

AND OTHER MYSTERIES . . $19.95 
MICROSOFT™ BASIC DECODED $29.95 
1001 THINGS TO DO WITH YOUR 

PERSONAL COMPUTER.... $ 7.95 



MORE 

PRODUCTS 



TRS-80 Is a trademark ot the 

Radio Shack Division ol Tandy 

Corporation. DATALIFE is a 

trademark ot VERBATIM. PUIN 

JANE. AIDS-I. AIDS-III. CALCSIll. 

CALCS-IV. MERGE-lllare 

trademarks of MTC. 

(&1961 t)y M eta technologies 

Corporation. Inc. 



i 



MOST ORDERS 

SHIPPED WITHIN 

ONE BUSINESS DAY 

Products damaged in 
transit will be exchanged. 



PRICES IN EFFECT 

April 1, 1981 THRU 

April 30, 1981. 

Prices, Specificiations, 

and Offerings subject to 

change without notice. 



A 



WE ACCEPT 

• VISA 

• MASTER CHARGE 

• CHECKS 

• MONEY ORDERS 

• C.O.D. 8104 



•Add S3.00 for shipping 

& handling 
•53.00 EXTRA tor C.O.D. 
•Ohio residents add 6Vi% 

sales tax. 



I 



^0 INPUTS 



Once the board is programmed, it re- 
mains programmed until the mode is 
changed again. You can program the 
board from DOS, or System, or from an- 
other BASIC program, and never use any 
space in an appiication program at aii. 
This unique programming method aitows 
you to design high resoiution graphics 
characters for programs designed for 
Radio Shacl<'s standard low-resolution 
graphics. 

We do state that you can use both high 
resolution and low resolution graphics af- 
ter our system is installed — and you can. 
Our experience answering telephone in- 
quiries has shown that users don't mind 
not having them both at the same time. 
They generally want either the old (for 
their old programs), or the new. But if you 
must have some of each, there's no rea- 
son you cannot program Radio Shack's 
low resolution graphics into our high 
resolution 80-Grafix board 

Though I suppose there is somewhere a 
firm distinction between lowercase and a 
graphic character that only looks like 
lowercase, in general use, I cannot find 
such a difference. Programma's lower- 
case includes the ability for both DOS and 
BASIC input in lowercase. The problem 
with the printer substituting uppercase 
for lowercase and vice versa is directly a 
fault of the internal design of the TRS-80; 
the shift-key was designed by Radio 
Shack to operate backwards. We fixed it 
for the screen. 

You can still use SET and RESET with 
low resolution characters, while using the 
high resolution characters elsewhere at 
the same time. All you have to do is pro- 
gram each of Radio Shack's low resolu- 
tion single-pixel characters into the same 
positions in the high resolution mode. 
Then SET and RESET (and POI NT) work as 
before. 

I don't really see any reason for berat- 
ing the demonstration software included 
with the board. True, one of the programs 
is a rather lengthy ad for our own product. 
What better way to show off lowercase, in- 
verse video, high resolution and extensive 
graphics, than by using them to explain 
themselves? The program is, after all, a 
demonstration program; looking at the 
listing (simple, straightforward, and well 
commented) demonstrates more than ade- 
quately how to get the features in your 
own programs. 

The character generator you get does 
appear different from the one in the ad. 
The one in the ad hadn't been invented yet 
when the photograph had to be taken. The 
programmer just programmed the screen, 
for the convenience of the photographer, 
due to the long lead times involved in ad- 



vertising photography. When the charac- 
ter generator was finally programmed, 
there were differences between the orig- 
inal conception and the final program. But 
the character generator we supply is more 
convenient to use, as it supplies data 
statements which can be used directly in 
your own BASIC program, instead of hav- 
ing to use separate machine-language 
drivers. 

If you do prefer working with machine- 
language files, we have reasonably priced 
systems which manipulate pre-defined 
and custom character sets in disk and 
tape files. 

Jeff Lasman 

TRS-80 Project Coordinator 

Programma International, Inc. 

Burbank, CA 91504 

ZBUG Thanks 

Your ZBUG article in the January '81 is- 
sue forced me to take pen in hand and 
thankyou and Lt. John B. Harrell, because 
it really is a super Debug monitor. 

I enjoy programming in BASIC and have 
only dabbled at assembly language, hav- 
ing only EDTASM but no T-BUG or facsim- 
ile. ZBUG worked the first time I loaded it 
and I am now more enthusiastic about 
writing some assembly language subrou- 
tines for my BASIC programs. 

I did find a minor flaw in the ZBUG list- 
ing in Part 4 which 1 corrected to clean up 
the screen display. Line 406 needs seven 
more blank spaces between CONTENTS 
and MODE for the TITLE. 

Many thanks to the authors throughout 
the country making my family's hobby 
more fulfilling and enjoyable. 

Bob Clark 
Plainfield, IN 

Shack Statistical Fix 

Thank you for Robert P. Johnson's re- 
view, "STATS," in the December issue of 
80 Microcomputing. It is a thoughtful eval- 
uation of the Radio Shack and Creative 
Computing statistical programs, and it 
helps in making a choice between these 
two packages. 

Radio Shack has issued corrections for 
a few errors in their statistical programs, 
but there is a bug in their chi-square pro- 
gram that has not been mentioned in any 
Radio Shack literature that I have seen. 
The error occurs only in chi-square prob- 
lems involving one degree of freedom, for 
which the Yates' correction for continuity 
is applied. The Yates' correction is sup- 
posed to reduce the chi-square value, but 



in the Radio Shack program it has the op- 
posite effect. The program can be fixed by 
changing the last statement in line 280 to: 
CS = OS -)- (ABS{0(1,J)) - E(I,J)) - CCt2/ 
E(I,J). 

Theerror resulted from the simple omis- 
sion of the ABS term in the original state- 
ment. The error (and the fix) would be ob- 
vious to anyone with fair knowledge of 
both programming and statistical infer- 
ence—if one suspected a problem and 
checked the program. 

Cynicism may be an unappealing trait, 
but "suspecting problems" is almost a vir- 
tue for the software user. The old advice 
still holds: Conduct trial runs of a new pro- 
gram and compare the results with results 
that are known to be correct, before rely- 
ing on the program for any serious appli- 
cation. 

Alfred L. Brophy, Pfi.D. 
West Chester, PA 19380 

Packing Color Strings 

if you have a Color Computer, you have 
noticed that SET and RESET graphics are 
just as slow as they are on the Model I. 
With the Model I you have an alternative 
by using VARPTR to pack strings with 
graphic characters, but that command 
was left out of the 8K Color BASIC. 

As a software author, I wanted to get 
the Color Computer and see what I could 
do with high resolution color graphics, but 
Tandy hasn't released the information on 
how to get into HI-RES yet. I started to 
search for an alternative method to pro- 
duce graphics until 1 became more adept 
at the 6809 instruction set. 

The Color Computer stores variables in 
much the same method as the Model I. 
Strings are stored as follows: 

NAME1/NAME2/LEN/MARKER/ADDR1/ 
ADDR2/MARKER 

Name1= first character of variable 
name 

Name2 = second character's ASCII val- 
ue -1-128 

LEN = length of the string 
MARKER = Is apparently a delimiter 
(00) 

ADDR1 = first byte of string's address 
ADDR2 = second byte of string's ad- 
dress 

MARKER = another delimiter (00) 
Because the 6809 doesn't store num- 
bers backward, you can find the string's 
address with the formula ADDR = ADDR1 
•256-1-ADDR2. 

Non-SET graphics on the Color Com- 
puter are even simpler than I first imag- 
ined by using this information: 



14 • 80 Microcomputing, April 1981 



META TECHNOLOGIES 

26111 Brush Avenue, Euclid Ohio 44132 -^^o 
CALL TOLL FREE 1 ■800-321 -3552 TO ORDER 

IN OHIO, call (216) 289-7500 (COLLECT) 



TAKE YOUR 

MODEL II TO 

NEW HEIGHTS 




fK«N 



MTC is proud to announce MTC EXTENDED 
BASIC for the Model II, by R. Ryen. Features in- 
clude "fixes" to existing BASIC, multi-line func- 
tions, extending an existing sequential file, PEEK. 
POKE, greatly enhanced screen control and ex- 
panded editing capabilities. The contents of 
variables are NOT CHANGED when editing, delet- 
ing, inserting or merging lines, allowing continued 
program execution! All this and much more. 

MTC EXTENDED BASIC S 99.95 



MICROPARAPHERNAUA 

DISKETTES (box of ten) 

5'/4- PLAIN JANE^M S21.95 

5V," DATALIFETM MD 525-01 . . S26.95 
8" DATALIFE™ FD341000 .... S33.95 
8" DATALIFE™ FD34.8000 .... S43.95 

NEWDOS by APPARAT 

NEWDOS/80 * SPECIAL* .,, .S129.95 

NEWDOS - to 

NEWD0S/8C UPGRADE CALL 

NEWDOS ■ with ALL UTILITIES 

35-track $69.95 

40-track S79.95 

BOOKS 

TRS-80™ DISK 

AND OTHER MYSTERIES . . $19.95 
microsoft™ BASIC DECODED $29.95 
1001 THINGS TO DO WITH YOUR 

PERSONAL COMPUTER... $ 7.95 



80-20=12995 

THE ORIGINAL NEWDOS/80 

WITH MTC QUE CARD 

^ SPECIAL PRICE • 
SAVE $20 $129.95 



Apparat's long-awaited successor to NEWDOS -(- is here! This is not an enhanced ver- 
sion of NEWDOS, but a completely new product. Simplified DOS commands can be in- 
stantly executed from BASIC, even within a program, without disturbing the resident 
code. System options, such as password protection, number and type of disk drives, 
BREAK key enable/disable and lowercase modification recognition, can be quickly and 
easily changed. Five new random-access file types allow record lengths of up to 4096 
bytes, and no FIELDing! A powerful CHAIN facility allows keyboard INPUTs to be read 
from a disk file. An improved RENUMBER facility permits groups of statements to be 
relocated within program code. Diskettes may even be designated as RUN-ONLY! 
Features all NEWDOS + utilities {SUPERZAP 3.0, etc.) and much more! One MTC 
technical staff member said having NEWDOS/80 is "better than sex" (you'll have to 
judge for yourself!). Includes 180-page instruction manual and MTC QUE card. 

NEWDOS/80 # SPECIAL # $129.95 

MTC QUE Card only $ 7.50 

CALL REGARDING OUR NEWDOS + UPGRADE PRICING 



Let Your TRS-80™ Test Itself With 

THE FLOPPY DOCTOR & 
MEMORY DIAGNOSTIC 

by THE MICRO CLINIC 

A complete checkup for your Model I. THE 
FLOPPY DOCTOR com pletely checks every sec- 
tor of 35- or 40-track disk drives. Tests motor 
speed, head positioning, controller functions, 
status bits and provides complete error logging. 
THE MEMORY DIAGNOSTIC checks for proper 
write/read, refresh, executability and exclusivity 
ol all address locations. Includes both 
diagnostics and complete instruction manual. 
SYSTEM DIAGNOSTICS $19.95 

An improved version of the SYSTEM 
DIAGNOSTICS above. Designed for single 
or double density. 35-. 40-. 77-, or 80- 
track disk drives. Includes new and 
modified tests. Features THE FLOPPY 
DOCTOR, Version 3.0. 

SYSTEM DIAGN0STICS-V3 . . $24.95 



Complete for Model I with all utilities 
Plus exclusive MTC QUE card! 

NEWDOS + 






$69 



95 



by Apparat 



Includes REF. RENUM. SUPERZAP, 
EDITOR/ASSEM.. DISASSEM., DIRCHECK, and 
more! This is the original NEWDOS with all of 
Apparat's utility programs. Includes exclusive 
MTC QUE (Quick User Education) card. 

40-Track Version S79.95 

MTC QUE Card only $ 1.50 



TRS-80 is a trademark ol the 

Radro Shack Division of Tandy 

Corporalion. DATALIFE is a 

Irademark ol VERBATIM. PLAIN 

JANE. AIDS-I. AIDS-III. CALC5>ril. 

CALCS-IV. MERGEIIIare 

trademarks of MTC. 

- 1981 by Metatechnologies 

Corporalion, Inc. 



MOST ORDERS 

SHIPPED WITHIN 

ONE BUSINESS DAY 

Products damaged in 
transit will be exchanged. 



A 



^ 



PRICES IN EFFECT 

April 1, 1981 THRU 

April 30. 1981, 

Prices, Speciticiations. 

and Offerings subject to 

change without nottce. 



A 



WE ACCEPT 

• VISA 

• MASTER CHARGE 

• CHECKS 

- MONEY ORDERS 

• C-0,D. 



A 



■Add S3.00for shipping 

& handling 

•$3.00 EXTRA for C.O.D. 
•Ohio residents add 6Vi% 

sales tax. 



^0 INPUTS 



basis (see TRSDOS technical information 
in TRSDOS & Disi< BASIC Reference Man- 
ual). This facility seems to consistently 
drop the last sector, so I have found it nec- 
essary to pad my files at the end. Check 
out the LOF function— I haven't tried it on 
these files. 

Bill Bunn 
Covelo, CA 

BASIC Doodle 

In the article "Doodlebug," I felt the 
unexperienced programmer without ma- 
chine language orientation was left out. I 
have developed an 11 second, BASIC, re- 
verse video program for Level II: 

5 ON ERROR GOTO 120 



100 FORB 15360TO163B3:POKE B,319- PEEK(B):NEXT 

110 RETURN 

120 RESUME NEXT 

One word of warning: The program wilt 
demolish any letters on the screen. 

Mike Case 

2304 Lai<eview Dr. 

Melbourne, FL 32935 

TC-8 Cassette Interface 

I am the owner of an early model TRS-80 
microcomputer, which has a CTR-41 cas- 
sette recorder instead of a CTR-80. 

A few weeks before Christmas 1 pur- 
chased a TC-8 Cassette Interface unit 
from JPC. I assembled the unit at a 
friend's home, following thevery well writ- 
ten assembly Instructions. The system 
tested flawlessly and just as advertised. I 
was extremely pleased and delighted with 
my new hardware and software. 

I later connected my TC-8 to my CTR-41 
cassette recorder after modifying it in the 
manner explained in the TC-8 Cassette 
Operating System users manual. I was 
surprised to find that the recorder motor 
control function was not working. The 
CTR-41 motor ran whenever any of the 
control buttons were depressed. This mal- 
function made it impossible to make use 
of one of the TC-8's nicest features; the 
ability to position to various program and 
data files on the tape. After ascertaining 
that the required modification had been 
performed correctly, I decided to call the 
folks at JPC. 

I was introduced to a Mr. Bruce Ker- 
nodel and we exchanged Information to 
establish exactly what my problem might 
be. Mr. Kernodel was highly knowledge- 
able of the inner workings of both the TC-8 



and CTR-41 . He explained that the CTR-41 
modification is designed to connect sys- 
tem ground to power supply ground 
directly while bypassing the remote jack. 
He also explained that this leaves only the 
motor to be switched by the remote jack 
and thus reduces the amount of current 
that the TC-8 and TRS-80 must handle in 
turning the cassette recorder off and on. 
Mr. Kernodel also mentioned that in the 
past all of the CTR-41 recorders they had 
seen were wired exactly the same with 
regard to the wires connecting the remote 
jack to the circuit board. He did say, 
however, that if for some strange reason 
they were not wired that way in my 
recorder I would need to reverse them. 

I followed Mr. Kernodel's advice and re- 
versed the two wires. I was relieved to 
discover that the TC-8 now functioned 
beautifully. 

If you have followed all of JPC's instruc- 
tions correctly and have the problem 1 
have had, locate the two small white wires 
connected to the remote jack and try re- 
versing them. 

My thanks to Mr. Kernodel and the folks 
at JPC. Their product and support is first 
rate and deserving of praise. 

J. P. Richmond, Jr. 
St. Albans. WV 25177 

Short Stuff 

This short utility grew out of a competi- 
tion between my son and myself, with Jef- 
frey finally getting the last word when he 
got it down to 28 characters (including the 
line number). At that point I thought It just 
interesting enough that you might want to 
pass it on to your readers to elaborate on. 
Robert F. Vavasour 
St. Johns, Newfoundland A1 A 385 

The World's Shortest Wordprocesson 
Written by Jeffrey Vavasour, 11 years old 
1 PRINTCHRS(14);INKEY$;:G0T01 

The program could be furtlner stiortened to remove the 
cursor, by only typing ■■PRINTINKEY5:G0T01". Clearing 
the screen, either In whole or in part, is performed by first 
posHloning the cursor by using SHIFT and one of the ar- 
rows, then pressing the CLEAR key which will erase the 
screen from the cursor position to the bottom of the 
screen. 

Printer output is obtained by using the JKL feature of 
NEWDOS. 

END Your Programs 

Your December issue more than paid 
for the first year's subscription. "Assem- 
ble It Yourself" by Richard Koch makes 
Radio Shack's Editor/Assembler usable 
for the first time. The article is quite clear, 
and the Program Listings gave no prob- 



lems. Well done! 

I aiso found Richard Haltoran's "Printer 
Pagination" quite useful, and lost no time 
in using It. No one-upsmanship intended 
with the enclosed listing of my version of 
Mr. Halloran's program. 

10 CLEAR500 

20 0PEN"I",1."PR0GRAM" 

30 CLS:PniNT®320,"LOADING THE PROGRAIvl IN- 
TO I^EI^ORY 

40 PRINT:PRINT"1N CASE YOU FORGOT, FILE 
NAME IS 'PROGRAM' " 

50 PN = PN -HiLPRINTSTRINQSCZO." ") "PAGE 
"PN±PRINT" "iLPRINT" ■■ 

60 IFPEEK(16425) = 50THEN LPRINTCHRS(12) 
-.GOTO 50 

70 LINEINPUT#1.R$ 

80 LPRINT RS 

90 IF RIGHTS(RS.3) = "END" CLOSE ELSE 60 

100 LPRINTCHR$(12) 

110 END 

1 would like to offeryour readers the fol- 
lowing suggestions: Call the last line of 
the program to be LLISTed "END". Then it 
is not necessary to count (or remember) 
the number of lines in the program. The 
printer will stop when the program line Is 
"END" and do a last top-of-form. Line 50 
of the new version automatically prints 
the page number at the top right corner of 
each page of the listing. 

Finally, be sure that the number of char- 
acters in each line of your program does 
not exceed the number of characters per 
line of the printer, otherwise the pagina- 
tion will become skewed. My Line Printer 

11 (Centronics 730) will issue a carriage 
return/linefeed automatically at the end of 
80 characters, while the TRS-80 updates 
location 16425 only when the program 
calls for a linefeed. 

Gary Himler 
Granada Hills, CA 

Two ROM Improved? 

The change by Radio Shack from the 
three ROM version of the TRS-80 to the 
two ROM improved (?) system blocks 
reading tapes on the second cassette 
connected to the interface. They can be 
written to, but not read. This arbitrary 
change is contrary to the claims and tech- 
nical data on the interface, and Radio 
Shack should be pressured into putting 
the feature back. In fact, the read function 
is the most useful aspect of having a sec- 
ond cassette recorder, since it can be 
used as a software ROM to load utility pro- 
grams into protected memory, included in 
those programs is the printer driver, etc. 

Readers should take appropriate steps 
if they are considering buying an interface 
with the intention of using all the stated 
facilities. 

I'fan Gwyddno Hall 
Pickering. Ontario 



16 • 80 Microcomputing, April 1981 



Whatever 
happened to 
eenie. meenie, 
minev, mo? 



. ..a perfect 
gift for that 
urban cowgirl! 



I could be 
another 

Solomon. . . 



This may put 
the Godfather 
out of business. 



If only 
; my heart 
would stop I 
jacing. .. 



It must use 

Bayesian , 

weighted factor 

Mnalysis, and... 



.t?% 



Brilliant.' 
Like a window 
into the future. 



Maybe this'U jg^ 

help me choose 
a career. . . 



w ■ 



I could 
use it to 

select my staff. 



/ ■ >i 



*^mt' 



'^^lfs\ 



•§ 



ieci' 



L&W" 



Should 

buy stock 

or commodities 

in this economy? 






■r Would I ^H 

^V rather have i 
^H Winston 's millions 
^H or Billy Joe's a 
^^^^o ve ^^^fl 


pE 


Hmmmm . . . ^^^^^^M 

be ^^^H 

ticket ^^1 

I to the Boardroom. ^H 


r 1 


m Can't any ^^^| 
of these people ^H 
afford$29.95? ■ 


1i/ ; :m 


■^H^l 






1 M 

When DecisionMaster speaks everybody listens 

Let's face it. We all have to make decisions. Decisions that can change our lives. Decisions that can 
make us happy or unhappy. Decisions that coultl win iis fame or forlunc. Now. DecisionMaster 
can help you niako [he best decisions of your life. 

Use Bayesian theory lo peer into the fuiurc. ..even if you've never heard of the Baycs" Rule. 
Do a complete weighted factor analysis... without knowing what one is. Use discounted 
cash lliiw to compare investment alternatives withoii; hothering with present value 
tables. These and other sophisticated theories that were once the exclusive domain of 
professors and lop business executives are hiiiti into DecisionMaster's algorithms. . . 
so you can use them at [he touch of a key I 

DecisionMaster is easy to use. It features: 

• A fully documented manual developed by an authority in the field. 

• A unique program-controlled cross reference system. 

• A powerfid formatted -screen data entry system. 

■^'ou'll use DecisionMaster in hundreds of routine decisions. 
as well as more important ones such as" Buying a house 
•Changing jobs* Selecting investment • Evaluating insur- 
ance policies' Expanding product lines* Leasing vs. 
purchasing. 

If you buy only one computer program this year. 
make it DecisionMaster. And when it speaks. 
li.'^rcn. 






5J 



^ 






>" ^5^- 






■y ^- Ao 




# 



^"^ .^^^^^^^J;^^^^^^^ 



.€^^X^<^°'-> 



>-"-<.* 



so INPUTS 



point is 1AF8H, and it returns with HL 
pointing to the two bytes of zeros which 
mark the end of the program. Code to use 
this routine would go at the end of the 
compression process, and might look like: 

CALL 1AF8H ;RESET THE FORWARD CHAIN 

INC HL ;BUMPHLPAST 

INC HL ;THE ZERO BYTES 

LD (40F9H),HL ;PARK IT AS END OF PROGRAM 

Anyone who compresses their pro- 
grams should be warned to save the 
original. The first reason is obvious: After 
a program has been compressed, it is 
hard to read, and future updates would 
then be more difficult. The second is more 
subtle: Removing blanks from a 'token- 
ized' BASIC program will not cause any 
immediate problems, but if the program, 
or part of it, were converted to ASCII, and 
then re-tokenized, the meaning of the 
code can change. There are probably hun- 
dreds of situations where this will occur, 
and simply EDITing a line, even if you 
don't change anything, can do the dam- 
age. An example of such a line is: 

10 IFS = TANDU = VTHEN W = X 

After compression, It would be: 

10 IFS = TANDU = VTHENW = X 

This causes no problem until, for example, 
the program is SAVEd in ASCII. When re- 
loaded, BASIC would see (Blanks and ?? 
added for clarity): 

10 IF S = TAN ?? DU = V THEN W = X 

BASIC will misinterpret this line, believ- 
ing that the keyword TAN is Incorrectly 
used. 

Bill's approach to deleting REM lines 
onlygoes halfway to doing the job correct- 
ly. An example of coding you will see time 
and time again follows: 

10 GOSUB 1000 

20 END 
1000 THIS IS THE CALCULATION SUBROUTINE 
1010 A = B + C 
1020 RETURN 

In this case, if line 1000 were deleted, the 
BASIC program would be broken. The 
complete solution is to analyze the entire 
program and determine which lines are 
referenced by other lines, and not to 
delete referenced lines. Numbers which 
follow ELSE, THEN, GOTO, RUN, RE- 
STORE, GOSUB, RESUME, LIST, LLIST, 
DELETE, and ERL tokens are line number 
references. This Is a lot of trouble, and a 
much easier solution Is not to remove the 



entire line, but to remove only its con- 
tents. This results in saving five fewer 
bytes per line, but eliminates the above 
problem. 

Bill's code also does not take Into ac 
count the potential problems in com 
pressing FIELD statements. The pitfal 
here is that the AS keyword is not token 
ized, but remains in the program in ASCII 
An example of a dangerous FIELD state 
ment is: io field 1,2 as cs 
If the blank is removed between the AS 
and the C$, the interpreter will incorrectly 
read it as ASC, another keyword. The easi- 
est solution is to leave FIELD statements 
alone. 

A word of caution is in order for anyone 
who might attempt to implement Bill's 
suggestion for further processing which 
involves consolidating lines: You can not 
mergeajreferenced' line into the preced- 
ing line, so it will be absolutely necessary 
for you to perform the comprehensive 
analysis described above to determine 
which lines are the target of referencing 
statements. 

Robert F. Snapp, President 

Snapp, Inc. 

Cincinnati, OH 45242 



Light Pen 



A number of people have been writing 
to us lately to ask if we still sell the Light 
Pen and Light Pen kits which were de- 
scribed in "Build a Light Pen," April 1980, 
80 Microcomputing. Please tell your read- 
ers that we are still gladly shipping both 
assembled Light Pens ($29.95) and Light 
Pen kits ($19.95). We are very sorry to say 
that we cannot sell individual compo- 
nents used in building the Light Pen, but 
we consider the kit at $19.95 a very good 
value. Thank you for your fine publication. 
IVayne Holder 
Oasis Systems 
San Diego, CA 92103 



Two-chip ROIVI 



Ever since the Model I two-chip ROM 
came out I have been watching for instal- 
lation hints but have not seen any. There- 
fore, my experience may be of value. For 
the newer "G" printed circuit boards the 
proper ROM Level II kit Is part number 
263-1120. 

The new ROM marked "NEC K01049- 
004" goes In the ROM A position marked 
Z33 on the printed circuit board, and the 
ROM marked "SCM 91609P" goes in the 
ROM B position marked Z34 on the board. 



The DIP shunt in socket Z3 is replaced 
with the new one provided in the kit, but it 
must be programmed first. All connec- 
tions remain Intact except for the pin 1 to 
16 connection which is opened for the 16K 
RAM configuration. 

That is all there Is to it, except you 
should take the normal precautions when 
handling CMOS ICs(i.e. ground the circuit 
board, yourself, and the IC insertion tool). 
Make sure the ROM and the DIP shunt are 
properly oriented as well. 

So far I have had no problem running 
old Level II tapes with the new ROM. 

Ronald O. Anderson 
Dayton, OH 45431 

Programmer Review Notes 

In reference to the review of our pro- 
gram "Programmer" that appeared in the 
January '81 issue of 80 Microcomputing I 
would like to make two statements: 

(1) The bugs reported by Mr. Thurlow 
have been corrected; Programmer 
is, so far as we can tell, complete- 
ly free of bugs. 

(2) Anyone owning a copy of Pro- 
grammer, version 1.6 or earlier, 
can obtain a new, bug-free copy 
without charge by returning their 
original to Rational Software 
along with their name and ad- 
dress. 

Tom Little 

Rational Software 

963 E. California Blvd. 

Pasadena, CA 91106 

CMD Functions 

The following CMD functions are avail- 
able on Model I TRSDOS 2.2 and 2.3. 
(Don't call Ed Juge, just try them.) 

1. CMD"E" Display most recent 

disk error 

2. CMD"#"# Display MICROSOFT 

copyright notice 

3. CMD"A" Same apparent func- 

tion as CMD"S" but 
goes through 4030 
whereas CMD"S" 
goes through 402D 
and 4400. 
TRSDOS 2.2 and 2.3 also allow for rela- 
tive record random access with records 
smaller than 256 strung Into 256 byte 
blocks. When asked "How Many Flies?", 
reply nV, This will allocate an extra 256 
byte buffer for each file. Note that this will 
reduce your available memory. To open a 
file for short record access, OPEN "R",n, 
file descriptor, record length. GET and 
PUT will then operate on a relative record 



18 • 80 Microcomputing, April 1981 




ti 



I started 

by selling programs, 

and a year later 

they said I was 

'the standard 

of the industry." 

Now Fm selling 
the whole computer. 

I'm Irwin Taranto, the one who changed the 
TRS-80* into a serious business computer. 

Thousands of businesses tried my 
programs in the last year and a half, and 
sometimes it seems like every one of them has 
caUed me on the phone. With every caU, I get 
another idea. I polish, alter, upgrade and 
correct these programs constantly. 

By now I know how they work best, and 
exactly what they need in the way of 
peripherals. It's only logical that I should sell 
the whole computer system, not just the 
program diskettes. 

So if you look at the computer in the picture, 
you'll see it says "Taranto" on it, not "TRS-80." 
The keyboard and CRT unit are a Tandy 11* 
(that's what the manufacturer calls TRS-80 

•Trademarks of the Tandy Corporation 



Model II when it's not sold through the Radio 
Shack). If it fits your needs better, though, we'll 
get the disk drive or the line printer some- 
where else. 

When you buy one of these Taranto 
computers, you get some serious advantages. 

Some serious advantages. 

You get hardware that's absolutely tailored 
to my programs. This means you'll be able to 
use every bit of the capability that's built into 
these systems. 

You get my backup, down the line. If 
something goes wrong, w^e tell you how to 
fix it over the phone. If the problem's tough 
enough, I get on the phone myself. If we find 
out it's a hardware problem, you can get it 
fixed at any Radio Shack Service Center, even 
though it says "Taranto" on the machine. If you 
want to be completely covered, we'U arrange a 
service contract that takes care of everything. 

In a lot of cases, we can help you set it up, 
too. I'm putting a group of authorized dealers 
together. Before long, they'll be all over the 
country, able to bring the equipment and pro- 
grams right to your business. They'll spend a 
day or so with you helping you shake it down. 
It'll cost a little more, but it's good insurance. 
The programs. 

When you buy a Taranto computer, you're 
also buying these systems — any or aU— each 
custom-tailored to your own needs, aU inter- 
acting with each other, aU integrated with 
the General Ledger. 

General Ledger/Cash Journal 

Accounts Payable /Purchase Order 

Open Items Accounts Receivable/Invoicing 

Balance Forward Accounts Receivable (new) 

Payroll/Job Costing 

Inventory Control (new) 
Of course, if you already own a TRS-80 (any 
model), all our programs are available without 
the hardware. 

Put it aU together, and you have a truly 
serious, truly supported computer, software 
and hardware included— for as little as $8000. 

I think they just might decide I've moved that 
"standard of the industry" up a notch or two. 

Taranto 

& ASSOCIATES, INC. ^45 

The Total System Store. 

121 Paul Drive, San Rafael CA 94903. 

Outside California, phone toll free (800} 227-2868. 

In California (415) 472-2670. 

Authorized dealers throughout America. 



^See List of Actveriisers on page 306 



80 Microcomputing, April 1981 • 19 



QMEG A "WHOLESALE COMPUTER PRICES" 
SALES DIRECT TO THE PUBLIC 

CO. ^389 East Coast: 12 Meeting St., Cumberland, RI 02864 

West Coast: 3533 Old Conejo Rd., #102, Thousand Oaks, CA 91320 



PRODUCT SPECIAL 

of the MONTH!! 




i Intertec Superbrainl 
32K Ram ■ $2449 
64K Ram ■ $2649 




NEC spinvvnter 
5510-5530 ■ $2449 





Products are 

NOW 

IN 

STOCK 

AT 

-I OMEGA 

Sales 

Co. 




Diablo 630 $1995 
(with tractor feed} $2195 






800 16K - $749 
32K-$S49 



Interface Module $159 
Atari 825 Printer $695 



Okidata 
Microline 80 

525 




Centronics - Ltd. qij<in. 

730-3 $ 525 

737-1 $ 625 

704-9 $1250 

730-1 $ 525 

753 $1750 

703-9 $1550 



OMEGA OFFERS THE BEST DELIVERY AND PRICE ON: 
APPLE • ATARI • TRS-80 Model II • INTERTEC • 

DIABLO • EPSON • HEWLETT-PACKARD • SOROC • 
COMMODORE • NEC • QUME • CENTRONICS 






CALL TOLL FREE FOR OMEGA'S PRICE! 
EAST COAST: 1-800-556-7586 



QMEGA sells only quality merchandise to our customers. 
OMEGA will try to match any current advertised price with similar purchase conditions. 

Before you buy anywhere else — be sure to call QMEGA Sales Co. 

WEST COAST: 1-805-499-3678 EAST COAST: 1-401-722-1027 



OMEGA ships via UPS, truck, or air. COD's. 
Visa, Mastercharge accepted, with no service charge. 




Telex: 952106 



20 • 80 Microcomputing, April 1981 



so mwrs 



128 = green 

144 = yellow 

160 = blue 

176 = red 

192 = buff 

208 = cyan 

224= magenta 

240 = orange 
The pixels are numbered: 28/4 
2/1 

To determine what code to use, first de- 
termine the color's number from above, 
add the number(s) of the pixels you wish 
to set and you have the code to be printed 
{i.e.; to set the upper left corner to red, the 
code would be 176 for red plus eight for 
the upper left corner, or 184). Using graph 
paper and colored pencils, plot your 
graphics and computetheircodes, turn on 
your Color Computer and put them In data 
statements. 

The start of variable storage Is at 27D 
and 28D and the end of variable storage is 
at 31 D and 32D. If you haven't guessed by 
now, we're going to start packing strings. 

Determine the names of the variables 
you will use for your graphics. Here's my 
program to pack strings. If you are adven- 
turous you could do all your strings at 
once. 



10 AA$=^"AAAAAAAAAA":. 'orwhatever 

1000 X = PEEK{27).256 + PEEK(28): 'start of variable 

storage 
1010 W = PEEK(31).256 + PEEK(32): 'end of variable 

storage 
1020 FOR Y = XTO W: 'all bytes in variable storage 

area 
1030 IF PEEK(Y) = 65 AND PEEK(Y + 1) = 193 AND 

PEEK{Y + 2) = 10 THEN V^Y + 4 ELSE NEXT Y: 

'H both letter and the length are correct you have 

3 hit 
1040 L = PEEK{V).256 + PEEK(V + 1): 'actual address 

of string 
1050 FOR Y = L TO L -I- 9: 'loop to poke codes 
1060 READ A: 'get code 
1070 POKE Y,A: 'shove it In 
1080 NEXTY: 'do It again 
1090 PRINT AA$r 'check It out 
1100 END: 'done 
9900 DATA; 'store your codes here 

There It is; simple enough. I like my Col- 
or Computer, and when Tandy releases 
more Information, it will be nicer still. 

William Sias, Vice President 

REMart^able Software 

Muskegan, Ml 49443 

Radio Shack and Model I 



In view of my letter voicing strong criti- 
cism of Tandy's level of customer support 
from Fort Worth, and equally strong 
remarks about the computer store in East 
Hanover, New Jersey, which you pub- 
lished earlier, I would be remiss and ir- 
responsible If I did not again take pen (or 



Scripsit) In hand, to state publicly that 
there has been a vast improvement in cus- 
tomer service at both locations. 

The first improvement is that I can get 
through to Tandy on the 800 line. The next 
Improvement is that I am answered by 
somebody both courteous and knowl- 
edgeable, and If this individual is unable 
to answer my problem, he usually follows 
up with a note or piece of printed material. 

The present management of the com- 
puter store in East Hanover is courteous, 
professional, patient, and extremely help- 
ful. The service department simlllarly 
demonstrates a professional attitude and 
a prompt response, both on the telephone 
and with respect to carry-In equipment. In 
my opinion it Is quite unusual to see such 
rapid changes In attitude and efficiency in 
a large company, and the management of 
Tandy and of the East Hanover store de- 
serves to be congratulated on their rapid 
response to customer needs. 

On another note, I was somewhat taken 
back by the sudden withdrawal of the 
Model I from the marketplace. My own 
plan had been to develop office uses for 
the microcomputer and to put them on 
line one by one, with a dedicated comput- 
er system at each operating station, rath- 
er than working on a larger main frame. I 
intended to use the Model I because of its 
modular arrangement. This cannot be so 
easily accomplished with the Model III, 
where the basic unit with disk drives costs 
almost $2,500, and the keyboard, screen 
expansion interface and two disk drives 
are not modules, but are one unit which all 
must be taken In together to the repair 
shop. I feel that we are losing something 
by the more handsome Integrated pack- 
age which the Model 111 provides. 

Robert A. Gotdstone, MD 
Peterson, NJ 



Missing Drives 



Radio Shack boasts that it delivers 
what it promises. When I bought my 
TRS-80 three months ago, they promised 
the disk drive "would be out soon." In- 
deed, today it Is out, but It Is not available 
to customers like me who have already 
bought our TRS-80 computers and or- 
dered the disk drives separately. 

I invested several thousand dollars In 
the Radio Shack Computer, printer and 
some programs. In order for my Invest- 
ment to be useful In any way I must have 
the disk drive capacity to operate the pro- 
grams I need for my business. 

I feel I purchased the Radio Shack un- 
der false pretenses. My back order for the 
disk drive is more than 90 days old and no 



one can tell me when it will be filled. Yet, 1 
am galled each time I see a new TRS-80 
complete with disk drive on the shelf 
ready to ship to any person who has not 
yet made an investment In Radio Shack 
equipment. 

I hope other Radio Shack customers in 
a similar predicament will write to the 
president of Tandy Corp. as I have done. 
Perhaps with some pressure. Radio Shack 
will deliver on its promise. 

Barry D. Mason 
Los Angeles, CA 90069 

Radio Shacl( Responds 

Mr. Mason should be able to get a disk 
kit Installed through his local store In very 
short order. Although the repair center 
could be out of stock, they should be able 
to get him one in a matter of three to four 
days at most. 

Drives were a little slow in coming 
through for us, and when they were 
scarce, we had to commit the majority of 
them to computer systems where the ma- 
jority of the demand was. 

Drive kits should be readily available 
with little or no wait on a continuing basis. 
At least we won't see the six month 
backorder conditions we had in the early 
Model I days. I'm sorry for any Inconve- 
nience Mr. Mason experienced. 

Ed Juge, Director 

Computer Merchandising 

Tandy-Radio Shack 

Ft. Worth, TX 76102 

Program Compression 

We really enjoy reading Bill Barden's 
column, "The Assembly Line." His kind of 
creative thinking helps keep us on our 
toes. We found his program for compress- 
ing BASIC source code (Jan '81) particu- 
larly interesting, since It parallels a re- 
cently completed development project by 
our staff. BIN Is absolutely correct, in that 
the process of correctly compressing BA- 
SIC source code does not lend itself to a 
'short and easy' solution. Since we invest- 
ed about 250 man hours In this project, we 
thought we would pass along to your read- 
ers some of what we learned in the pro- 
cess. 

Bill's concern for keeping the forward 
chain pointers accurate as he compress- 
es the source code is admirable, but more 
work than necessary. There Is a ROM rou- 
tine (which I don't think is ever used, ex- 
cept by Disk BASIC) which will reset all 
the chain pointers so they accurately con- 
tain the required forward chains. The call 



80 Microcomputing, April 1981 • 21 



f(9 INPUTS 




CAL81 



Reference my CAL81 program on 
page 128 of the December, 1980 issue 
of 80 Microcomputing: I have received 
several letters about problems and I 
would like to clarify a point. Be careful 
when keying in lines 1570, 1600, 1640, 
1960 and 2130 because the numbers in 
the data statements are carried on to 
the next line. For example, the 1 in line 
1570 mates with the in line 1580 to 
make the number 10 and not the num- 
bers 1,0. You must have an even num- 
ber of numbers between the 1 's (which 
signal end of line). If you do not, this 
may lead to the (almost) famous illegal 
function call in 1530. 

John F. Strazzarino 

1500 Dundee Dr. 

South S.F., CA 94080 

The Third Dimension 

In my article, "The Third Dimension 
3-D Tic-Tac-Toe)" in the July, 1980 
issue, an inadvertent error has been 
found. It permits easy wins because 
the computer fails to check certain 
winning combinations. 

This •Has brought to my attention by 
Irwin Eckert of Warren, Ml. He pointed 
out that two of the pointers in the D1 
array are reversed. This is easily 
remedied by editing the following lines 
and changing each 53 to 54 and each 
5.4 to 53: 5020, 5040, 5100, 5130(2), 
5160(2), and 5190. 

Without these changes, there are 
eight entry positions that are not 
checked properly by the computer for 
possible winning combinations. 

D. R. Dillehay 

107 Ashwood Terrace 

Marshall, TX 75670 

{Holiday Cheer Bug 

Concerning the Address List Pro- 
gram published as part of my article 
"Holiday Cheer" in the December, 1980 
issue: 

On page 134 a line has been omitted 



which must be distressing novice pro- 
grammers: 3110 CLS: II -I. 

The program will obviously seem not 
to operate without this line, as a list 
retrieved from cassette will not be able 
to be displayed on the CRT. 

Norman S. Kerr 

1571 Burton St. 

St. Paul, MN 55108 

Serial Clank 

The article "The Serial Clank on the 
Printer" by William O'Brien (Oct. 1980) 
has an error in the BASIC program data 
on line 100. The number 248 should be 
inserted between 230 and 246. This will 
eliminate the message "Out of data in 
line 50." 

The assembly listing (number 3) has 
the top part and the bottom part of the 
listing exchanged. This might lead to 
some confusion as well. 

Theo. F. Staniec 
Des Plaines, IL 

Level II ROM Mysteries 

Reference: "Mysteries of the Level II 
ROM" in the December, 1980 issue of 
80 Microcomputing: There were sever- 
al typesetting errors in the article. The 
major errors are: 

Near the end of the second para- 
graph on page 150, the pointers re- 
ferred to are line pointers. 

Near the end of the fifth paragraph 
on page 150, "two-byte addressed 
jumps"-"the two-byte jump addresses." 

On page 152, the reference to Pro- 
gram 3 should be to Program 4. On 
page 156, the reference to Program 4 
should be to Program 5, and the refer- 
ence to Program 5 should be to Pro- 
gram 6. On page 158, the reference to 
Program 4 should be to Program 5. 

At the top of page 158, "beginning of 
any program" should be "beginning of 
any program line," and "positioning 
the program pointer" should be "posi- 
tioning the beginning-of-program 
pointer." In the second paragraph on 
page 158, "position of the table" 



should be "relative position of the 
table (with respect to the end of the 
program)." 

The specifications and usage notes 
under Program Listing 4 should be 
under Program Listing 5. The specifi- 
cations and usage notes under Pro- 
gram Listing 5 should be under Pro- 
gram Listing 6. 

A section of Table 4 was omitted. 
The part of the table from "Double 
Prec. Number" to "Numeric or String 
Array" should read: 

Double Prec: byle 1 — idenlificalion 
Number: code 08H 

byte 2— second character of 

variable name 
byte3— first character of var- 
iable name 
byte 4-11— double precision 

value 
String byte 1— identification code 

03H 
byte 2— second ciiatacter of 

variable name 
byte 3— first character of 

variable name 
byte 4— siring length (0-255) 
bytes 5-6— location of first 

character of string (LSB, 

MSB) . , 

Victor Griswold 

20 Fieldcrest Dr. 

Jaclfson, TN 38301 



Z-BUG Spaces 



I especially enjoyed assembling and 
debugging Z-BUG, Jan. 1981. All the 
bugsweremytypingerrors, except line 
406, page 160 which needs an addi- 
tional seven spaces inserted just after 
'Registers Addr( ), so the rest of listing 
ID will assemble correctly. 

Richard Musick 

1426 Oakbrook 

Lancaster, TX 75134 



Kitsz Column 



Eds. Note: The Program Listing cap- 
tions in the February "80 Applica- 
tions" (page 40), were inadvertantly 
reversed. 



22 • 80 Microcomputing, April 1981 




ow's your 
love life? 



A little dull around the edges? 

Routine? Predictable? Boring? Maybe 

all it needs is a little Interlude. Interlude is 

the most stimulating computer game ever conceived. 

It combines a computer interview, an innovative 

programming concept, and a one-of-a-kind manual to 

turn your love life into exciting, adventurous, delicious fun! 




Interlude is: romantic... playful... outrageous... a fantasy. Interlude is: ■ A Bed of Roses (Inter- 
lude #1) ■ Mata Hari {Interlude #49) ■ The Chase (Interlude #7) ■ Rodeo! (Interlude #71) ■ The King and I 
(Interlude #60) ■ Some Enchanted Evening (Interlude #84} ■ Caveman Caper (Interlude #82) ■ From Here 
to Ecstasy (Interlude No. 30) ■ Satin Dreams (Interlude #72}. 



More than 100 Interludes are included in the program. Most are described in detail in the accompanying manual, 
but several surprise Interludes are buried in the program awaiting that very 
special time when your interview says you're ready. (When you leam secret 
liiteriude #99, your love life may never again be the same!) Interlude 
can give you experiences you'll never forget. Are you ready for it? 



Interlude 

The Ultimate Experience. 



^287 



INTERLUDE. 10635 Richmond, Houston, Texas 77042. I'm really ready. Send my Interlude today. 

TRS-80 (Level lI-ieK)"* Poster Available for immediate shipment. 

D 20"x 24" reproduction of 

this ad without ad copy Please enclose your check payable to INTERLUDE 

($4.95 — includes or complete the charge information: 

shipping charges) 

All charge customers must sign here 

Expiration date : 



Apple UCeK}" 
a Cassette ($16.95) D Cassette ($16.95) 

D Diskette ($19.95) O Diskette ($19.95) 

n Diskette— Pascal or DOS 3.3 ($19.95) 
Add $1.50 for shipping and handling. 

n MASTERCARD D VISA 
Account No. -. 



MasterCard Bank Code 



CHARGE CUSTOMERS: Order by phone toll-free! l<800-231-5768 Ext. 306 (Texas; 1-800-392-2348 Ext 306) 

Name Age 

Address -. 

City 



, State 



.Zip 



'Apple II is a re^tered trademark o( Apple Computers, Inc. **TRS-80 is a registered trademark of Radio Shack, a Tandy Co. 



■I 



5'(P INPUTS 




Upper/Lowercase 
Troubles 



Purchasers of an upper/lowercase 
modification from Radio Shack re- 
ceived with it a program tape contain- 
ing two versions of a software driver 
for the upper/lowercase mod. On one 
side of the tape is ULCDVR/CMD for 
those who are using their Modei I with 
disk. On the other side is ULCBAS 
tor those who use the iowercase mod, 
with Level II BASIC. 

The instructions don't say that after 
this program is loaded and sets and 
protects its own memory size, the user 
is prevented from loading and using 
any other utility programs. Expanding 
the protected memory doesn't change 
the fact that "ULCBAS" has somehow 
write-protected the protected memory 
so that even a direct POKE statement 
cannot implant a value in an unused 
location within that area. One obvious 
solution is to buy a disk drive and 
TRSDOS, as this problem doesn't ex- 
sist with TRSDOS. 

My problem is that inordertousemy 
printer, I must run a software driver 
which is fully relocatable and is 
POKEd into high memory from a 
BASIC program which then self-de- 
structs. So, I must settle for upper/ 
lowercase or use of my printer. 

Neither calls to my local computer 
center nor calls to Fort Worth have 
yielded a solution. Those I have talked 
to have tried to help, but just don't 
know what to do about it, short of buy- 
ing a disk drive and TRSDOS or other 
DOS. Eventually I will, but for now that 
just is not practical. 

! must not be the only user to have 
encountered this problem. I might add 
that my knowledge of assembly lan- 
guage is zilch. Therefore, debugging or 
modifying ULCBAS or my own with- 
out step by step instructions is out of 
the question. 
A solution would be most welcome. 
Joe Brandiner 
426 Grace St. 
Pittsburg, PA 15211 



Line Printer I 



Here is a fix for owners of the Line 
Printer I (Centronics 779) that have 
skipping problems. Change R24 on the 
circuit board, which is an 18K y4W re- 
sistor with a39K 74 W resistor. Refer to 
the Service Manual that comes with 
the unit in locating R24. It is some- 
where near ME2. 

Domingo S. Ang 

iC Systems 

Manila, Phiiippines 



Binkhurst Aid 



In response to Michael Binkhurst's 
call for help ("80 Aid," February, 1981), 
I sent him a letter stating the follow- 
ing solutions: 

You want to expand the character 
display to 80 characters per line. This 
would require major changes in the vid- 
eo drive circuitry and probably a new 
character generator and more video 
memory. While these modifications 
are possible, they would be very com- 
plicated to construct and expensive to 
build; also, since it would not be a 
Radio Shack approved modification, 
you could run into major repair bills if 
you ever returned the computer for re- 
pair (I had to pay over $80 for a repair 
because of a lowercase mod I installed 
which was not the cause of the prob- 
lem). 

The problem with the program line is 
easier to explain, but almost impossi- 
ble to fix. The problem with the line is 
the way the computer handles the 
numbers. When a number is stored, it 
must be converted to binary: 0.01 can- 
not be accurately represented in bi- 
nary; the bits would eventually repeat 
after about two bytes. When the inte- 
ger portion is large, the display routine 
will print the number apparently cor- 
rectly; when the integer portion is re- 
moved, however, the inaccuracy may 
show, as it does here. The only possi- 
ble way to correct this is to round off 
the result to two places after the deci- 
mal point, either by INT(X-100)/100 or 



PRINT USING "####.##";X, where X is 
the result. There is no problem when 
using the value, though; It will be as ac- 
curate as possible. 

Joe Seweli 

6776 Sheridan Rd. 

Melbourne, FL 32901 



Solid Graphs 



The January issue has an article 
on histograms: "Get High On Histo- 
grams" by Daniel Lovy (p. 211). If 
you use the program as written you get 
an open graph. However, if you own a 
printer which prints graphic 
characters, you can produce a solid 
graph by changing line 1280 from: 

1280 IFPOINT(ZP,Z.3 -^ ST) - - 1 THENAS(2) - A$(Z) 
+ '■#"ELSEA$(Z) - A$(Z) -^ " " 

To: 

1280 iFP0INT(ZP,Z.3-^ ST)= - 1 THENA$(Z) = A$(Z) 

+ CHR$(191)ELSEA$(Z) = A$(Z)-f"" 



Carl Reek 

11624 NE 74th 

Kirkland, WA 98033 



Telex Messages 



I would like to obtain information on 
how to go about using my TRS-80 to 
send messages to a Telex Machine. I 
have a TRS-80 48K, one disk drive. Any 
Information would be helpful. 

Rick Thompson 

Box 2617 

Grand Forks AFB 

North Dakota 58205 



interface Aid 



I am looking for information about 
how to Interface a Control Data Corpo- 
ration Impact Printer, Type 0769-06-00 
to a TRS-80? 

I am willing to pay for the cost of 
copying any materials and/or postage 
needed for this information. 

Jon Presley, WDOEAO 

Route 3 

Lebanon, MO 65536 



24 • 80 Microcomputing, April 1981 







SOFTWARE 

AUTHORS! 

We ivant to sell 

your programs! 

SEND YOUR TAPE OR DISK 
(with any documentation) 
TO OUR SOFTWARE 
REVIEW BOARD - Dept. R 



* ■ 



^~ ■'■■ -i- . . 



. r 




m 


&! 


? 


1 



^^4^ 



xt-Sr' 






w^^:^^r^^^^ 



si^A'i 



'-i: 



^^Uoenrmr-^ 



Ort^icrs (T)J(^ 0^/tS»cS''i 



?3S- 



'^-STDIIfnDF ^tuMMiis 



TOURNAMENT 



■'"^'f^tXg^lTflM ■^rjiYTT? 






^p^ 









'^■'-* W,li 



^-^'^'^ 



.ion SA1 



rHriDRDID 



r 







CVentifrft^ >,>. 






9 



S 1 



'v. 



•:\ 



iiri 




5Ji 






BLACEJACE 



OiUn^Mtckim 



ICQKCFilJllATiDN 
^-^ Diet 



I, 



r^.V^ 







W.T11C*IU)CADe-GA 






wc? 



sutsarrrss 



N 






interastlvcV iDteraetlvej II 







f^?^=?^^- 



2)1 



<WQJlillbS 



c^^W)? Owcitsiog 



dventutd fTf'' 

INTERNATIONAL S^-fe* 



^213 



ADVENTURE INTERNATIONAL BOX 3435 LONGWOOD. FL 32750 (305) 862-6917 



Yes, You Can 
Increase Your 
Programming 
Productivity 

SNAPP II EXTENDED BASIC 

SNAPP II EXTENDED BASIC A Family oF 
enhancements to r,he Model ii BASIC 
interpreter. Part oF the pcicKage origi- 
nated with the best oF apparat. INC.'s 
thoughts in iniplei nei itn ig NEWDOS 
BASIC The system is written entirely in 
machine language For SUPER FAST exe- 
cution. The extensions are Fijlly 
integrated into Model ll BASIC . and 
require NO usei Memory, and NO user 
disK sptice. The pacKage is made up oF 
the following six modules, each oF 
which may be purchased separately. 
XBASIC-Six single Key stroKe com- 
mands to list the First, last, previous, 
next or current program line, or to edit 
the current lifie. Includes quicK way to 
recover BASIC program Following a 
NEW or system or accidental re-boot. 
Ten single character abbreviations For 
Frequently used commands: AUTO. 
CL5. DELETE. EDIT. NIL. LIST. MERGE. 
NEW. LLIST. and SYSTEM. S40 

XREF-A powerFul cross-reFerence 
Facility with output to display and/or 
printer Trace a variable through the 
code. Determine easily ir a variable is 
in use. S40 

XDUfl/VP- Permits the programmer to 
display and/or print the value oF any or 
all program variables. identiFies the 
variable type For all variables. Each ele- 
ment of any array is listed separately 

540 

XRENUm-An enhanced program line 
renumbenng facility which allows 
specification oF an upper limit oF the 
blocK of lines to be renumbered, sup- 
ports relocation oF renumbered blochs 
of code . and supports duplication of 
biocKsoFcode. S40 

XFIND-A cross reference facility for 
Key words and character strings, also 
includes global replacement of 
Keywords. S40 

XCOMPRESS-Compress your BASIC 
programs to an absolute minimum. 
Rernoves extraneous information; 
merge lines: even deletes statements 
which could not be executed. Typically 
saves 30-40% space even for pro- 
grams without our REM statements! 
Also results in 7-10% improvement in 
execution speed. 540 

ENTIRE PACKIAGE ONLY S200 

PL/B 

What do you get when you taKe out 
the weaKest components of BASIC and 
add the most powerful components 
ofthePL/ilanguage?Snapp. inc. has 
the answer . . , PL/B. Snapp's devel- 
opment of PL/B resulted in an 
unbeatable structured piogramming 
facility that can increase programmers 
productivity i.jp to SC't., PL/B is fully 
integrated into the BASIC interpreter. 
Two modes of operation are available. 
(Transparent hidden i or iCompile 
mode', increase your productivity and 
save time with PL/8. 5?00 



SUPERSNAPPX 

You can sort Fast using your present 
Facilities, or you can do it Faster with 
Recets' superb Facilities, or you can use 
the Fastest. SUPERSNAPP x. The heart 
of SUPERSNAPP X is a SUPER F.AST in- 
mei 1 101 g sort routine tl lat has been 
benchi I larKed against everything on 
the marKet and beats them all . . . 
hands down 

SUPERSNAPP X IS the most important 
component of SNAPP X EXTENDED 
BUILTIN FUNCTIONS which IS a much 
needed set of additions to the Model II 
BASIC interpreter thnt will put time sav- 
ing power at your hngertips. Let's 
compaie lusing random data) SUPER- 
SNAPP X and Racefs CSF SORT for 
speed: 

SORT SUtJEKSNAPP X RACET CSF 

1 0.000 integers 39 secoi ids S*J seconds 
5.000 Singles 22 seconds 14 setondb 
2.000 Strings 1 seconds i 'j spconcls 

SUPERSNAPP X !s guaranteed to be the 
FASTEST in memory SORT on the mar- 
Ket or your money bacK. With it you 
also yet these EXTENDED builtin func- 
tions: PEEK. PEEKW. POKE. POKEW. 
XDAT5. XTIM5. ETIMS. FILES, AND THE 

SPECIAL SCMD iSNAPP COMMAND). 

PLUS: open -E" Set SCROLL PRO- 
TECTION. ERASE all ARRAYS in one 
command Specify size and BlinK rate 
oF CURSOR. Long ERROR messages. 
Read From Video Screen Read. Disk- 
ette IDs and more! IF you want the 
FASTEST SORT on the marKet. you 
want SUPERSNAPPX. SlOO 

AUTOMAP 

Save time creating a formated screen 
with our Extended Basic Mapping Sup- 
port system. The programmers tasK of 
communiceung and displaying Infor- 
mation with the user operator is 
completely automated with simple 
SEND and RECEIVE statement com- 
mands. Many different types of 
information can be sent and received 
from the operators with the use of a 
single command. Many hours of pro- 
gramming time are saved and cost 
efficiency is truly realized using 
Automap. S75 

AUTOFILE 

Another Dig time saver from Snapp. 
Inc. Autofile offers all programmers 
much needed time saving tools to use 
when worKing with direct files. Elimi- 
nate tedious commands such as 
LSETs. MhlSS. MKD5S. MKSS'S. CVD"S. 
CVls and CVS's. When used in con- 
junction with Automap an update 
program can typically be reduced by 
as much as 90%. S50 

DIAL 

USR 330DAuto Ahswer/Auto Dial. 
Direct Connect Modem. 300 baud, 
originates/answers I03J compauble 
When used in conjunction with our 
DIAL, software is capable of complete 
origination oF communications with 
rernote locations without operator 
intervention. Special combination 
price, modem and soFtware, S420 
Software only S50 



BREAKOUT 

With BreaKout you can learn the inter- 
nal worKings of TRSDOS 2.0 using any 
Standard disassembler. Find your way 
out of the maze and save program- 
ming time by eliminating the 
unneeded steps in TRSDOS 2 0. This is 
a must product for all advanced TR580 
programmers. S200 

MASTER/SLAVE 

This soFtware pacKage was designed 
to support the transFei ring of hies 
from one Model II to another, via direct 
connection or modem/phone line 
connection, all Kinds of files, and 
baud rates up to 9600 arc Fully sup- 
ported. TransFer files in either 
direction, even with the SLAVE Model ii 

UNATTENDED! SI 50 

HOSTII/TERMIl 

Allows I ei I lote control of a Model I! 
From another Model ll, or any ASCII ter- 
minal Our Host system. unliKe the one 
supplied with TRSDOS 2.0. supports 
accurate screen positioning on the 
Term station. Without this feature, for- 
mated displays appear on the screen 
looKinq liKe randomly placed garbage. 
Requires NO user memory! This sys- 
tem IS designed to provide software 
support to our customer locations 
without ever leaving the oFFice. Cus- 
tom versions are now available For 
most nationally distributed terminals 
as a S25 00 option. Call for details. s50 

SPOOLER AAodel I. Model II 

andAAodel 111 

Our worKhorse! unliKe the one sup- 
plied with TRSDOS 2.0. ours requires 
no special Knowledge or training on 
the part oF the operator. Additionally, 
ours performs much better. On the 
Tandy SPOOLER, every time a disK is 
accessed, the printer stops dead! This 
pacKage is available For Model i. in the 
TRSDOS/NEWDOS 80 versions, or For 
the Model ii dr Model ill. Greatly 
enhances system perFormance when 
running typical business applications 
Many applications have been bench- 
marKed to run nearly TWICE AS FAST 
with the SPOOLER installed, installs in 
minutes and no changes are required 
to your programs. The Model ll version 
requires NO user memory. IF purchas- 
ing more than one system, call For 
pricequote. siOO 

D0UBLETAKE374I 

This IS not a Football play but the way 
to play ball fast in converting IBM 3741 
and similar formated disKettes to Radio 
ShacK formated disKs dr vice versa. 
Fast IS the name of \X\q game. s200 

SNAPP SCREEN 

Another dependable product from 
Snapp. Inc. Using rigid plastic. Snapp. 
Inc. designed the ultimate green 
screen at the lowest price The Snapp 
Screen installs in a Snapp with the use 
of pressure sensitive tape. Reduce 
user fatigue with the Snapp Screen. 

sio 
2. 00 shipping and handling-waived 
with the purchase of any software. 



BPRINT 

Allows you to access a serial printer 
simultaneously with the standard par- 
allel printer. Easy interface to BASIC, 
Drive two pnnters at oncei S75 



ULTRA PPD 

This the ultimate Proportional Printer 
Driver that does chejob the others do 
not. Add to the Electric Pencil and your 
print will looK liKe its copg has been 
typeset. No word processor should be 
without this enhancement Now avail- 
able for the DWil and the LPIV, s 1 00 

ITOII 

A helping hand when converting BASIC 
programs from the Model I to the 
Model II, Automatically adjusts PRINT 
@. and PRINT USING to compensate for 
differences in the language. Advises 
you where adjustments a're necessary 
for PEEI^, POKE. etc. S2S 

DOSFIX 

A collection of patches to TRSDOS and 
BASIC to enhance then usability and 
function. Includes oiji well Known 
BREAK7E potchcs diid facilities to dis- 
able and verify detect which will 
increase average dish speed by 30%, 
Free with any Model II Software PacK- 
age, Puichased separately. sio 



•• • 
- •••• •• •• 

. . •• •• • 

•• •• • • ••• 



••• • • •• • 

••••• • •••• ••••••• 

••• •• • • ••• ••• • 

••• ••••••• • •• ••• •• • • ••• 

' • ••• ••• • • • ' 

• • ••••• • •• •• ••• • 

• • •• •• •• ••• •• I - 

••• ••• •• •• •• • • •• 

«• •••••■•• •_ , 

•••• •• • • • •••*• • •••• 

••• ** •••• ••• •••••• • • ••• ••••••• 

• • • ••• •• • • ••• ••• •■ • 

••• • - — — 



••• 
••• «•••• •• •• •• •••• 

••• •• •• •• ••• •• • • 

••• ••• ••• •• •• • • ••• ••• 

•••• •• • • ••• ••• • 

••••• ••• ••• •••• ••■•< 

••• ••••••••• ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• •• 

••••• ••• ••••• ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• •• 

••••• ••• •••• •••••••• ••••••• ••••••• 

••• ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• «•• 

•■••••• ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• •• 

•••••• ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• ••• •• 



3M SCOTCH DISKETTES 

Double density certified 8" Floppies 
for the Model ll. Better quality is not 
available ot any price Ten diskettes to 
a box 



3M 



Quantity Price 

(boxesi Per/Box 

I 53^ 

5 S33 

10 532 



20 



S3 



53.00 shipping charge. This charge is 
waived if software is purchased on 
same order. 



TERMS OF SALE: 

Credit carO custornei;;, ddd ?% plus freighl COD 
cuscomei s piiij ri eiciht Prepaid df c!er5 are 
sh[p[)fd |)i Lt'tiiti oiun ipsidwusadd 5 .%saies 
tax ShitJrrii.-n(brioijikillL| rridde llie Siinit'day we 
rr-Ti'ivf yoni ordK'i Cri'diEiiranieil (0 qoverh- 
mf"'Mi,il,iL;t'n( it's, pcltirttlinnril inslilijIidFisand D r, 
n rdLt.'d dLibiness finiib Pleijse include purchase 
tiidei number wheiiofdeiifig 

OUR GUARANTEE: 

If ijoijf disiiHtie <iiriv(^s Oamacjed. we wiii replace it 
writioiii cliartie if you ever accident.iliy dairidciP 
II. we wJll leplace it for a SIO hrindltny cliarqt^ Kor 
a pHiiod of one year, we wiii piuvnie you widi 
liny enhancemems oi upddif.'sfor asm litinoiinq 
cliarqe Fin iipenodoroneLjetii iferrorsaredis- 
covereoindiep'O'l'fi"!^ (hey will He corrected 
witnoui cMdiye Initie event we Ciinnut correct an 
erroi, you may reuirn tliepnuiiani niaienal foi d 
retniid f.lecinc Pencil ib a irademarK of Michiiel 
Scliroyer Soflwaie. inc TRS-BO and TRSDOS are 
uadeinarks of the Radio snacK division or Tandy 
Coiporatiou 

NEWOtJS and NEwoos/OU are traOennai hs of 
Appriitjl Inc 
RACET GSr ifi a iiadenirirh of Race! Computes 



Call our toll Free number: 1-800-543-4628 

Ohio residents call collect: (513)891-4496 



NOW ALL PRODUCTS 
AVAILABLE FOR THE AAODEL III 



5NAPP, INC. .232 
8 1 60 Corporate Parh Dr. 
Cincinnati, Ohio 45242 



ALPHA BYTE IS NE 




INTRODUCTORY 
SPECIAL 

$320 



NEW SHUGART 

40 TRACK DRIVE 

AND APPARATUS 

NEWDOS + 40 TRACK 



This package includes Shugart's new 
40 track drive, case, power supply, 
and Apparat's fannous NEWDOS + 
40 track operating system. 102K 
Bytes of storage per disk. 
We also have the new MPI 80 track 
drives in stock and ready for im- 
mediate delivery. 




818.95 



ALPHA DISKS 



We looked all over the country for a quality, low 
price disk. Each disk is certified for Double Density 
drives, AND Guaranteed to format. We bought a 
huge quanitity and we're passing the savings on to 
you! We also have a huge inventory of Verbatim 
Datalife diskettes: 
Varbatim Datalife Diskettea 
5y4"MD525-01 E2B,5Q 

1 boxes of 1 Q [each box] 325.00 



EPSON 
MX-80^ 




The hottest selling 

printer on the market. 

Bidirectional, logic 

seeking, 80 cps, true 

decenders, adjustable tractor 

feed, disposable print head, 

plug compatible with the TRS-80. 

IN STOCK AND AVAILABLE FOR 

IMMEDIATE DELIVERY. CALL FOR 

LOWEST PRICE IN THE COUNTRY. WE 

PROMISE! 



CENTRONICS 

737 

Same as the Line Printer IV at a 
much better price. N x 9 pro- 
portional spacing, underline, 
superscript, and subscript 
capabilities. 




'PROSOFT' Word processing software 
is written for the TRS-80 and the 737. 
Takes full advantage of all the capabil- 
ities available on this amazing printer in- 
cluding true proportional spacing. Comes com- 
plete with a 11 page users manual. $79.95 




Color In tha tlluitratlont do not raprviant th« producli actual color. Prkai da not Includa ihlpplng. Vlia and Ma»t«r Card occapted. All prices featurad on thata 
pagai or* iiib|act to changa (vlthout notlca. School purchoia orderi gladly accapted. Quanitity dlicounti available. Never undariold offer good at lupply lasli. 
Pleaie add S4 tor oil COD order*. Pleaie call for Itemi not llttad. Eiprast •arvlce oHar good until tarmlnated by Alpha Byte Storei. 



VER UNDERSOLD. . . . 



NEVER UNDERSOLD 

If you can find a lower price in this magazine on any of 
the items listed in this ad, deduct 5% from our com- 
petitors price. THATS OUR PRICE!!! But if you 
don't see what your looking for, call for it, we WILL 
beat anybody. 



S pecial 



If you purchase the 
"TRS-80 DISK AND 
OTHER MYSTERIES" 
Book for the regular price 
of $22.50, you can buy 
1 Verbatim Datalife 
diskettes and a plastic 
library case for £22.00 
for a total of: 

$44.50 



S pecial, ^ 



If you purchase the new 
book "MICRDSGFT 
BASIC DECODED AND 
OTHER MYSTERIES" for 
the regular price of 
S23.95 you can buy 10 
Verbatim Datalife disket- 
tes and a plastic library 
case for £22.00 for a 
total of: 

$49.95 



S pecial 




If you purchase the 
MICROSOFT BASIC 
COMPILER for the reduc- 
ed price of £1 90 we will 
give you a box of Ver- 
batim Datalife diskettes 
and a plastic library case 
FREE!! 



$190 



Special no. 3 

Not our normal Special #3 ! ! ! 
For the month of April, you will receive Ap- 
parat NEWDOS/BO, a box of Verbatim 
Datalife diskettes, and a mini flip sort. For the 
incredible price of: tt^^Q 




TURN PAGE 

for more 

SPECIALS 




NEVER UNDERSOLD. 



j^^ 



r^m_ 



'iol^rt' 









MODEMS 



"^e 












is p, 






WUCBOPOLIS 

barrier on jv ^ ^ and 
track dnves^m st^^^.^ 

available tor ^teed. 

delwerv* FuUy gu^ggg and 



We found a great 
acoustic coupled modem 
and are selling it foran 
unheard of price! This 
modem is the LEXICON 
LX_1 1 that sells nor- 
mally for about S1 69. 
Alpha Byte's got them 
in stock and there 
going for: 

$125 

We also have the 

Novation Cat for 

S^ 45 and the 

D-CatforSl55^ 






^^4 



^S^\\\ S3®® 









.06 



INTRODUCING^ 
ALPHA BYTE'S 
24 HOUR 
EXPRESS SERVICE.. 

it's fast and reliable. Just dial our 
number. If the product is in stock, 
it's sent on it's way-ALWAYS 
WITHIN 24 HOURS-lf we don't 
ship it within 24 hours you get a 
10% discount. Guaranteed. We 
are out to be YOUR one stop shopp- 
ing place. ^ — 



13-883-8594 



Id I 




fiLPHfl 

BYTE 

STORES 



SEND FOR OUR NEW 
FREE CATALOG 



.^69 




'^> 



5115 Douglas Fir Road 

Suite B 

Calabasas, Calif. 
91302 






so REVIEWS 



Edited by Pamela Petrakos 



"\Ne are not inundated with technical 

information. We learn how and why 

the machine does what it does." 



Pascal 

Paul M. Chirlian 

Matrix Publishers, Inc. 

Interscholastic Book Service 

Forest Grove, OR 

Sottcover, 211 pp. 

$9.95 



by Dennis Thurlow 



Pascal Spoken Here! You see it on T- 
shirts, bumper stickers, and store 
windows. Recent magazine polls indicate 
that it may soon be spoken everywhere! 

The phenomenal growth of this lan- 
guage is due, at least in part, to its incred- 
ible flexibility as a structured language. 
Syntax is kept to the barest minimum, 
which is a help to the novice. 

Grasping the Basics 

Professor Chirlian has made every ef- 
fort to keep this textbook simple. The pro- 
fessor explains how a computer works, 
how to use a flowchart, and the differ- 
ences between v^orking from a terminal 
and preparing a program for a batch op- 
eration. Debugging is well covered, as 
well as the idiosyncrasies in the language 
as it is used in different makes of com- 
puters. 

Once the basics of programming in any 
language are grasped, understanding a 
new language involves only recognizing 
limitations and syntax. 

The book is loaded with syntax flow- 
charts so the experienced programmer 
can quickly skim through them. The lim- 
itations of the language are found in the 
text, but an index makes the job easier. 

The teacher's edition includes answers 
and example solutions to problems pro- 
vided at the end of each chapter. ■ 




The Creative Kid's 
Guide to Home Computers 
Fred D'Ignazio 
Doubleday&Co., Inc. 
Garden City, NY 
Hardcover, 130pp. 
$9.95 

by Chris Crocker 
80 Staff 



To a novice, the computer is at first 
nothing but a toy. Getting beyond that 
stage is the trouble. 

The Creative Kid's Guide to Home Com- 
puters is a good starting point. D'Ignazio 
attempts to take you beyond the fun-and- 
games stage with a computer. He inspires 
you to become more than just a user. 

A caution: This is not a how-to book. It 
is, as D'Ignazio says, a "What if?" book — 



a creative guide. 

"What if?" asks D'Ignazio. "What if I did 
my math homework on the computer? . . . 
What if I composed my own music?. . . 
Used it to draw a picture?. . .Used it to 
help a friend of mine who's deaf?" 

A Whirlwind Tour 

The book is divided in four sections. The 
introduction develops a cursory under- 
standing of how microcomputers work. 
Here D'Ignazio teaches us some vocabu- 
lary, and talks about what a computer is, 
and how to make it work. It is, as he calls 
it, "A Whirlwind Tour." This is where the 
book proves itself. We are not inundated 
with technical information. We learn liow 
and why the machine does what it does. 

The next section is entitled "Games." 
Here we learn about the many computer 
games (including both the hand-held and 
the microcomputer) available. While we 



57 Practical Programs 
and Games in BASIC 
Tandy/Radio Shack 
Ft. Worth, TX 
Softcover, 204 pp. 
$3.95 

by fUterrilyn Ferris 



When I purchased my TRS-80, the 
salesman recommended this book. 
There is nothing more disappointing than 
to have a new computer and have nothing 
to do with it. 

Certainly one can buy the various pro- 
grams on tape, but it would quickly run up 
a bill. Eventually, I hope to write my own 
programs. 

57 Practical Programs and Games in 
BASIC is well organized and written. Each 
chapter begins with formulas and a flow- 
chart or diagram. A sample run lets you 
see what the program does, and then 
gives the program in BASIC. 

At the beginning of the book, the author 
lists all the BASIC statements that he 
uses. My Level II BASIC has them all and I 



suspect that they can be translated easily 
to other versions. 

Although there is a good selection of 
programs, the author fails to organize by 
subject in his index. The book only offers 
two rather simple financial programs, a 
compound interest program and a depre- 
ciation program. I would have preferred 
the inclusion of more comprehensive pro- 
grams, however, the ones included can 
serve as guides to writing your own. There 
are also programs that do simple electron- 
ics calculations. 

The games programs intrigued me and 
served as an easy introduction to comput- 
ing. I don't think these programs compare 
with the more expensive cassette ver- 
sions but the price is right. 

My only misgiving is the typing in of 133 
lines for the first Space Wars game, or 
worse yet, 287 lines in the second version. 

I found this book useful. It allows me to 
use my computer right away and gives me 
models to base my program writing on. My 
complaints are: an inadequate index, and 
the lack of extensive financial programs. 
However, I recommend this book to any- 
one new to microcomputing. ■ 



80 /Microcomputing, April 1981 • 31 



so REVIEWS 



read about all of these fun and exciting 
games, we stumble upon a cfiapter en- 
titled "You're Trapped!" 

And we are. D'IgnazIo led us rigfit into it. 
Tfie program "Trapped!" is a simple BA- 
SIC program listed opposite a flow chart. 
The program demonstrates commands 
such as RANDOM, PRINT, LET, INPUT, IF, 
GOTO, GOSUB, FOR. ..NEXT, END and 
RUN. 

The listing is set up with guidelines 
which describe what each section of the 
program does. D'IgnazIo uses a game to 
help us learn BASIC. 

The next section, entitled "Projects," is 
about other possible uses for the micro- 



computer, from robotics to aiding the han- 
dicapped. 

None of the projects are particularly 
simple. However, even some of the most 
complex, such as those in robotics, are 
projects that have been done by teenag- 
ers and high school students. 

The final section, the appendicies, lists 
a limited numberof books, magazines and 
catalogs, a checklist for the first-time 
computer buyer, an ASCII coding chart, a 
decimal to binary chart and a glossary. 

I'm not entirely sure of what grade level 
D'IgnazIo is trying to reach with this book. 
It seems too complex for most grammar 
school students (but not for a grammar 



Master Directory 1.1 
Micro Systems Software 
Hollywood, FL 
$29.95 on disk 

by James B. Penny 

Programs written for the TRS-80 seem 
to be getting better ail the time. The 
program MASDIR 1 .1 from Micro Systems 
Software in Florida seems to be one of the 
goodies. All of my disks and files are now 
organized so that I can find what I want 
without a hassle. 

The program, as furnished, requires 
one or more disk drives. It doesn't seem 
to care how much memory (above 16K) you 
have in the system. It contains its own 
bootstrap routine and operating system. 
When loaded, the program begins with a 
date query. The date entered is appended 
to all directory files entered in this particu- 
lar session. This date is also used in the 
heading of the printout, if one is re- 
quested. 

After the data entry, the program menu 
will allow you to enter numbers 1 through 
9 or the single letter E (EXIT). Even though 
the documentation doesn't indicate it, 
your first entry should be number three or 
READ DISK DIRECTORY. Obviously, you 
must put something on the disk in order 
for the program to have something to do. 
The E is the only orderly way to close files 
and exit the program. Removing the disk- 
ettes before exit by the E command could 
cause a disaster. 

A single disk drive system requires that 
you do some disk swapping, while a multi- 
ple drive system will read the directory in- 
formation off the diskette contained in 
drive number one. The program is smart 
enough to know how many drives are 
available, and will prompt you accordingly. 

You must now enter the number as- 



signed to the target diskette. This number 
may be subscripted with the letter A, B or 
the command -1. Subscript letters may be 
used to indicate a diskette side (if you use 
both sides of your diskettes) or they may 
be used to differentiate between master 
and backup diskettes. The latter is prob- 
ably what the author had in mind, since 
only the B subscript is printed in the list- 
ings. The -I command causes the system 
to read and list files with the invisible at- 
tribute. 

The number of diskettes and the total 
number of files entered are tallied in the 
upper right hand corner of the screen. 
Once entered, the directory entries may 
be recalled to the screen or printer in one 
of the following formats: 

• Individual diskette directory, by as- 
signed diskette name or number. 

• Master listing of all diskettes in numeri- 
cal order. 

• Master listing of all files in alphabetical 
order. 

• Listing of all files with a common exten- 
sion (e.g. /CMD). 

In addition to the above, you may per- 
form a search for a particular file by name. 
The program responds by listing every oc- 
curence of that file. You also get lots of 
other data such as program length in 
granules, file type, protection level, etc. 
The search feature is enhanced by allow- 
ing the use of the question mark as a "wild 
card." The search entry of B??????? will 
list every file beginning with the letter B. 
Another search feature will also locate 
diskettes which have more than a speci- 
fied number of free granules. 

Of course, you may add or delete disk- 
ette directories at will. It seems that these 
folks thought of everything. Well, not 
quite. Here's the bad stuff: 

• There is no way to annotate files with 



school teacher). At times, it seems too 
simple for adults. 

I found most of it to be enjoyable read- 
ing, however, and I think that it could be 
used on the junior high and high school 
levels, as well as for beginning adults at- 
tempting to understand the microcomput- 
er. "Kid's," then, is perhaps a misnomer. 

The Creative Kid's Guide to Home Com- 
puters is not the be-all and end-all micro- 
computer resource guide. D'IgnazIo is tell- 
ing us that microcomputers are not an- 
swer machines, "they are tools to help 
you build models." This is, as I said, a 
starting point— and a good one. ■ 




your own file description. 

• There is no provision for anything other 
than the standard Radio Shack parallel 
port printer. 

• There is no provision for modifying the 
internal print format in case you want 
other than 66 lines per page. 

• Some directory files written by NEW- 
DOS 80 cannot be read or listed by 
MASDIR. 

• MASDIR 1.1 won't read directories for- 
matted for CP/M. 

However, directory files written by 
NEWDOS 80 can be read and listed if you 
make use of SUP^RZAP which, fortu- 
nately, comes with'.NEWDOS 80. Change 
relative byte EC (Hex) in MASDIR relative 
disk sector 13 (decimal) from the current 
value of 40 (Hex) to 00. This ZAP fixes the 
directory read problem but, at the same 
time it changes the action of the -I com- 
mand so that it picks up all of the system 
files along with the invisible files. 

Also if you write your own print driver 
and formatter that solves another prob- 
lem. Relative bytes 3F to 4D (Hex) In rela- 
tive sector 3 are used to locate top of 
memory. The next three bytes store It at 
the address 4C1D (Hex). You can use 
these byte locations to protect memory 
for your printer driver and/or load the stan- 



32 • 80 Microcomputing, April 1981 



dard printer DCB (at 4026H} with the ad- 
dress of your driver. Reiative sector 13 
(Hex), bytes 72 through FF (Hex), are not 
used by the program. They will load Into 
memory, on boot, beginning at address 
5372 (Hex). You can use this space for 
your printer driver if you are careful. While 
you are zapping away In there, you might 
also correct the word "CATEGORY" found 
twice in the program. 

The formatting problem also can be 
dealt with. The byte 3D (Hex) at relative 
sector 4, relative byte AA (Hex) gives the 
number of lines plus one (in Hex), which 
will be printed before each new page 



header is printed. A form length of 66 lines 
is set by relative byte 5 in relative sectors. 

All Things Considered 

The program author makes extensive 

use of lowercase characters in the ASCII 
parts of his program. You may want to 
subtract the necessary 20 (Hex) from 
these character bytes If they drive your 
particular printer "up the wall." Some of 
these print as control characters In typical 
Radio Shack fashion, due to the missing 
bit. 

All things considered (even the painful 
modifications described above), MASDIR 



1.1 is one of the most useful programs in 
my entire library. My copy of f^ASDIR 1.1 
currently holds listings for 108 diskettes 
and 860 files. With that many files, addi- 
tions and deletions of file directories gets 
a little slow because of all the sorting go- 
ing on. Once stored on disk, however, the 
display or printing times are perfectly ac- 
ceptable. 

At every computer session, the first and 
last program used is MASDIR 1.1. First, 
the program is used to find the file that I 
want to work on. When finished, I delete 
and re-enter the diskette(s) which I have 
updated during the session. ■ 



VARKEEP 

Jim Stutsman 

The Circle J. Software Ranch 

Carollton, TX 

$29.95 cassette + disk 

by Tom Andrews 



Here's a typical situation: You have 
worked hours, developing an elabor- 
ate symphony of a program (complete 
with lots of arrays containing precious 
data) then, suddenly, an error message 
appears on the screen and you find your- 
self automatically thrown into Level ll's 
editor. 

The trouble is probably some little bug 
you can repair in just a few seconds, but 
you realize dolefully that editing the pro- 
gram will also erase the data stored in all 
arrays and variables. You'll have to start 
your program run all over again. Frustrat- 
ing, isn't it? If all this sounds familiar, 
hang on friend, because help is on its 
way! It's called VARKEEP, and it's like 
giant relief for a very bad headache. 

VARKEEP is the brainchild of Jim Stuts- 
man, who is also responsible for Percom's 
reliable TRS-80 disk operating system 
OS-80 (formerly MIcrodos). The author 
calls VARKEEP a utility, but it Is really an 
incredibly powerful extension of BASIC, 
that works with either cassette or disk. 
With VARKEEP, annoyances that have 
sometimes made Microsoft BASIC frus- 
trating to use simply disappear. VAR- 
KEEP also adds powerful new features to 
Level ll's already Impressive arsenal. 

Using VARKEEP, it is possible to do 
many things without affecting data stored 
in arrays and variables. VARKEEP makes 
it possible to delete an array during pro- 
gram execution to gain memory without 
destroying data stored in remaining ar- 
rays and variables. VARKEEP makes it 



possible to instantly zero or null an array 
without time and memory consuming 
FOR-NEXT loops. Even more amazing, 
with VARKEEP it is now possible to do the 
unthinkable: String space allocation can 
be changed on the fly, during program ex- 
ecution, with all stored data preserved 
without change. This is a great help when 
a program presents a varying need for 
string space. 

Besides all the goodies just described, 
VARKEEP provides one additional feature 
that Is (by itself) worth the price of admis- 
sion. With VARKEEP, true program chain- 
ing Is possible. Using cassette or disk, 
programs can be moved in and out of RAM 
without disturbing stored data. This 
multiplies the power of the computer by 
making possible elaborate systems of re- 
lated short programs that use a huge data 
base stored in RAM! Everyone of the fea- 
tures just mentioned is useful and power- 
ful. With all it will do, it's amazing that 
VARKEEP occupies little more than 700 
bytes! 

VARKEEP differs from most other ma- 
chine language programs because it re- 
sides In low memory. The loader program 
is a bit unusual as well. Written in BASIC, 
the loader quickly pokes VARKEEP into 
RAM just above whatever else has been 
loaded into low memory, including BASIC, 
and any other low memory programs in- 
cluding the disk operating system. VAR- 
KEEP is fully compatible with every avail- 
able DOS. 

Loading VARKEEP is easy. The loader 
program is simply brought in from cas- 
sette or disk, and run like any other BASIC 
program. A display is presented on the 
screen with a copyright notice, and a 
flashing asterisk "comfort" display to in- 
dicate that something is indeed happen- 
ing. Within a few seconds, VARKEEP is in- 
stalled and the loader, having done its job, 



modestly erases itself. It can also be set 
up to immediately chain in another pro- 
gram from cassette or disk. It's all so very 
neat and quick that I have set up my sys- 
tem so that It always loads in VARKEEP 
from disk, immediately after booting in 
DOS. 

Once loaded into memory, VARKEEP 
becomes an integral part of BASIC. VAR- 
KEEP commands are invoked through the 
NAME vector, which is already built into 
the Level II ROM. Of course, this means 
that with VARKEEP in residence, it is im- 
possible to use BASICR In TRSDOS 2.3 
without first saving the affected BASIC 
program, and re-entering DOS. I believe 
most users will find this an acceptable 
trade-off because VARKEEP will always 
be used more frequently than the renum- 
bering feature of BASICR. 

VARKEEP has four commands: NAME- 
SAVE, NAMERESTORE, NAMEDELETE, 
and NAMECLEAR. All VARKEEP com- 
mands can be invoked from the command 
mode, or as part of a BASIC program. The 
documentation is excellent and the com- 
mands are simple to use. After using VAR- 
KEEP only a few hours, I found myself ask- 
ing, "how did I ever program without it?" 

VARKEEP has saved me hours of frus- 
tration. The ability to edit program lines 
without demolishing data has greatly re- 
duced program development time, and 
markedly reduced the need for driver pro- 
grams to load and test data. The abiliity to 
chain from program to program has per- 
mitted previously impossible program 
systems. 

In my opinion, VARKEEP is essential for 
any serious TRS-80 programmer. In many 
applications, it easily doubles the power 
of any Level II or disk machine. I think 
other 80 readers may find VARKEEP the 
answer to their prayers. In fact, 1 think it 
would be selfish of me not to share the 
good news. ■ 



50 Microcomputing, April 1981 • 33 



5^ REVIEWS 




Aids II 

$49.95 Model I 

$79.95 Model II 

Aids III 

S69.95 Model I 

$99.95 Model II 

Meta Technologies Corp. 

Euclid, OH 

by David E. Wareham 



About five months ago, after taking 
over the job of bringing an insurance 
agency on line, i discovered a genuine 
need for a data base management sys- 
tem. My company had aiready spent over 
$2,600 for a custom written biiling pro- 
gram, and we didn't want to spend a lot of 
money for the further software needs of 
the company. At that time, we were using 
a TRS-80 Model I with 48K, three drives 
and a Line Printer III. I had been using this 
computer at home for about two years pri- 
or to bringing it to work. 

We needed to input, store, and retrieve 
data for report forms, mailing lists and 
labels. Primarily, we needed to write new 
programs and reuse existing data. After 
several weeks of trying to define what I 
needed, I discovered that I needed a pro- 
gram that wrote programs. 

After purchasing the mailsort routine 
from Meta Technologies and finding that 
it was even better than advertised, I de- 
cided to take a chance and order the Aids 
II system. I had been burnt a few times by 
purchasing through the malts and it was 
with some trepidation that I waited for it. I 
received the Aids II software along with a 
36 page manual. The manual was clear 
and concise with explanations of the var- 
ious functions of the Aids II system. The 
disk also contained a sample program 
that gave me hands-on experience with 
the system without risking valuable real 
data. 



As the weeks went by, I created a num- 
ber of programs with the Aids II systems. 
At that time I found a need for more than 
the original 12 user defined fields, 

Meta Technologies came out with Aids 
III, which upgraded Aids II from 12 fields 
to 20. There were many other improve- 
ments such as machine language sort, 
search and delete. It also included Maps, 
which can produce custom reports either 
horizontally or vertically and a label rou- 
tine which is so flexible that I am using it 
for many other uses now. This was what I 
was looking for. 

A few weeks later, Calcs was released 
by Meta Technologies. It couid be used for 
most any type of numeric manipulation. 
The combination of Aids III, Maps, and 
Calcs satisfies my need for a data base 
management system. 

What impressed me most about the 
Aids system was its flexibility. By chang- 
ing only a few lines I could write any pro- 
gram I desired and manipulate the data 
quickly. The machine language sort could 
sort by any combination of five fields in 
ascending or descending order, or in any 
combination. For instance, a mailing list 
could be sorted by zip code, state, city, 
name and address. The Aids HI system 
can also save these records by any com- 
bination of four fields to enable the user to 



create specific data files. Aids III was also 
compatible with files created under Aids 
II, so there was no need to re-enter these 
files. 

Territory Book is a system I created for 
the use of salesmen as a tickler/prospect- 
ing system. For example, I am able to split 
the entire Chicago area by zip code and 
coding the companies by interest in our 
product. We presently have about 18 sep- 
arate programs built on the Aids III sys- 
tem and all of them work perfectly. An ex- 
ample of the savings that can be realized 
from the Aids Ill/Calcs system is the fact 
that I was able to pinpoint an $11,000 
dollar monthly deficit in cashflow by us- 
ing this system— a substantial savings to 
any business. 

Many data base systems presently mar- 
keted run well over $100 with some of 
them over $200. M.T.C.'s price as of Sep- 
tember was about $70 for the Aids III sys- 
tem. The Calcs sub-system is well worth 
the $24.95 presently being charged. The 
Aids III system has out performed the oth- 
ers that I have seen demonstrated. The on- 
ly thing that they are not offering now is 
word-processing, which they say will be 
out in the next few months. The Aids III 
system is worth every dollar, not only for 
business use, but also for personal use.H 



Scrip232 (Scripmod) 
Small System Software 
Newbury Park, CA 
$14.95 



by John A. Records 

Having trouble using your non-Radio 
Shack printer with Scripsit? 
SCRIP232 (also advertised as SCRIPMOD) 
is a program that customizes Scripsit for 
use with your serial printer. 

When I purchased my TRS-80 I also 
wanted a printer. At that time Radio 
Shack's only printer interface was con- 
tained in the expansion interface which I 
couldn't afford. I bought the Small System 
Software TRS232 Printer Interface in- 
stead. The TRS232 is a software driven 
serial output port for use with the serial 
printer. I've used the TRS232 with my In- 
tegral Data lP-125 printer for about two 
years with no problems. 

Enter disk drives, an expansion inter- 
face and Scripsit. The printer wouldn't 
work with Scripsit, although 1 was still 
able to use it with BASIC, i.had depressing 



visions of setting up my typewriter next to 
the computer, with me as the interface, 

I first saw an ad for Scrip232 in July, and 
decided to order it immediately. All in all, it 
took about two months for delivery of the 
software. I found the wait very annoying, 
and I hope Small System Software has 
straightened out this problem. 

Scrip232 was worth the wait, however, it 
arrived on cassette with six pages of 
thorough documentation. Scripsit finally 
worked with my TRS232. 

Additionally, Scrip232 is said to add 
handshake control, automatic linefeeds 
and characters to the serial driver con- 
tained in Scripsit. 

Installation rs straightforward. Detailed 
instructions tell the user how to use the 
tapedisk utility to create a file called 
Scrip232/CMD. On execution, the program 
asks eight questions which it uses to cus- 




34 • 80 Microcomputing, April 1981 



tomize Scripsit to work with your particu- 
lar printer. 

First, you decide wliether to modify the 
uppercase or iowercase version of Scrip- 
sit. The selected version of Scripsit is 
loaded into memory by Scrip232. Next, 
you can modify Scripsit for use with either 
the TRS232 or RS232-C interfaces. 

If the TRS232 modification is chosen 
you can select a baud rate ranging from 
110 to 4800 baud (I use 600 baud with my 
IP-125). If the RS232-C modification is 
chosen, the user enters a "printer ready 
handshake code," based on the require- 
ments of the printer. The rest of the ques- 
tions asked by Scrip232 are common to 
both modifications. 

Since some printers require a line feed to 
advance paper, and since Scripsit sends a 
carriage return but no linefeed at the end 
of each line, Scrip232 wilt modify Scripsit 
to add a linefeed after each carriage 
return. Some printers also require null 
characters after carriage returns to allow 
time for the carriage to travel, and 
Scrip232 lets you select the number of 
nulls transmitted. The documentation en- 
courages experimentation. 

Finally, you are given an opportunity to 



alter your modifications, and to choose 
the drive to which the customized Scripsit, 
now called Scripsit/CMD, is written. 
Scrip232 can then be rerun, to create dif- 
ferent version of Script/CMD for different 
printers. 

After modification, SCRIPSIT WITH 
TRS232 DRIVER is displayed on the 
screen area reserved by Scripsit for com- 
mands. As far as I can tell, the customized 
version of Scripsit occupies the same 
amount of memory as the original. On my 
32K computer, both display 16224 CHAR- 
ACTERS FREE before text is loaded. 

After customization, Scripsit functions 
and commands seem to work pretty much 
as they were originally intended to. 

The documentation contains detailed 
suggestions on what to do in case of prob- 
lems. However, I didn't need these; 
Scrip232 worked the first time. 

In summary, I'm very pleased with 
Scrip232. 1 think it's a real bargain. Judg- 
ing by reader letters in the computer 
magazines, many people are having trou- 
ble getting Scripsit to work with non- 
Radio Shack printers. If you have a serial 
printer and either a TRS232 or an RS232-C 
interface, Scrip232 may solve the prob- 
lem. ■ 



Wordo 

Micro-Fantastic Programming 

New York, NY 

$14.95 

by Debra Marshall 
80 Staff 

For all you wordmongers with an affin- 
ity for games and an uncontrolled 
urge to flaunt your verbosity, this is the 
game for you. A cross between Scrabble, 
Jumble and Hang Man, Wordo provides 
more than ample opportunity to test your 
skill in the five-tetter-word category. 

Wordo can be played by one or two per- 
sons. The program provides the computer 
with a list of over 1,000 five-letter words, 
from among which it randomly chooses 
one word for each play. The player is 
asked to enter a five-letter guess word. 
The computer adds this word to the 
player's list and indicates how many of its 
letters are also in the game word. It does 
not indicate which letter in your word is 
contained in the game word. 

After each guess, the player is able to 
enter or eliminate letters known to be or 
not to be in the game word on the "scratch 
card" at the top of the screen. 

Each play is limited to 30 guesses, after 
which the word is displayed on screen. 

If the player wants to end the game 
prior to reaching this point, entering the 



word "quit" as a guess produces the 
same result. If the player correctly 
guesses the game word, Wordo will flash 
on the screen. 

The scoring method is determined by 
the number of players and is based on 
either accumulated points or on an aver- 
age number of words entered per game. 
The score is carried over and modified 
from game to game. 

Wordo is not a cinch. You'll be sur- 
prised at how many five-letter words you 
don't know, or at least don't commonly 
use. To win the game, your challenge is to 
find several words with letters that are not 
in the game word; this is not always as 
easy as it sounds. 

In desperation, you may be tempted to 
cheat, as I was. The computer accepts 
nonsense words that are in the form of 
true words. It rejects any nonsense word 
which does not follow an English vowel- 
consonant pattern. It also rejects any 
guess word of less than five letters. 

Wordo is not geared for children. There 
is no way to direct the computer to select 
words appropriate for a child. As a matter 
of fact, there is no way to direct it to select 
words appropriate for any adult who has a 
low frustration threshold, either. 

Those of you without that problem will 
find this game interesting and challeng- 
ing. veaH fnulH 



DDT (Disc Drive Timer) 
Disco-Tech Microcomputer Products 
Santa Rosa, CA 
$19.95 on disk 

by Howard M. Berlin 

The DDT (Disc Drive Timer) program 
by Disco-Tech is a versatile software 
utility for the TRS-80. 

It allows the user to check if the disc 
drives are running at correct speed. DDT 
then is really a graphic display tachome- 
ter. This can be Important since one may 
not be able to FORMAT or BACKUP disk- 
ettes if the motor speed is out of range. In- 
correct motor speed can also cause data 
to be lost when loading or saving pro- 
grams and files. 

Disco-Tech's advertisement indicated 
that DDT is available on cassette tape and 
diskette. When I phoned in my order, how- 
ever, I was told that the tape version was 
no longer offered. 

My disk copy came with a well docu- 
mented 18-page Instruction manual. It 
states the DDT diskette cannot be copied. 
It is automatically loaded when inserted 
into drive 0. The system is booted (similar 
to Microsoft's "Adventure" game). 

However, my DDT diskette would not 
load. I realized it was because of a previ- 
ously installed speed-up mod that allows 
my CPU to run 50 percent faster when 
powered up. To prevent this, I placed the 
DDT diskette in drive one and booted the 
system with one of my modified high- 
speed operating system diskettes in drive 
0. For those using any of the advertised 
high-speed modifications, the CPU will 
have to be operated at the standard 1.77 
MHz clock speed in order for the program 
to function. For those who have not 
changed the speed of your TRS-80, the 
above would not apply. 

When the DDT program is executed, it 
automatically loads BASIC and runs. 

The menu selection consists of three 
basic options: The first option analyzes all 
the disk drives in your system which are 
ready. It displays on the video screen the 
motor speed in RPM and the percentage 
error from the required 300 RPM speed. 

The second option is essentially the 
same as the first, except that the user 
specifies the drive to be analyzed. 

The last option is the paramount fea- 
ture which makes DDT so useful as a diag- 
nostic and maintenance software tool. 
Using this option, a linear horizontal scale 
is displayed near the bottom of the screen 
with a graphics block indicating the motor 
speed of the specified disk drive, which is 



80 Microcomputing, April 1981 • 35 







80 MICROCOMPUTING is the best thing that ever happened to the TRS-80. * Through the articles 
and ads in 80 TRS-80* owners are able to keep up to date on the latest in everything to do with the 
system. Indeed, if there is any one factor which may carry Radio Shack through the coming blitz 
from Japan it will be their superiority of support information and programs. . .provided by 80. 

Be sure that you have a subscription to 80 and that every TRS-80* owner you know has one too. 
The more readers 80 has, the more material can be published each month so you have a vested in- 
terest in helping 80 to grow. Send in your subscription. . . and one for a good friend. 






fOR^i' 









What is the one thing which makes your TRS-80 * many times more valuable than any other com- 
puter? It's the wealth ofinformation which is available for it. Through 80 M/CROCOMPL/T/WG you 
have an incredible resource: far more information than is available for any other computer in the 
world. . . information that is available to you on a monthly basis. This information is priceless. 

And what is the second thing which makes the TRS-80* more valuable than any other computer 
ever sold? It's the growing number of increasingly better programs written for it. You'll find 80 a 
continuing source of programs for your system . . . and through the ads, a key to the unfolding world 
of microcomputers. 

'TRS-80 is a Itademark of Tandy Corporalion. 



D VI 



bill me for one year of 80 Microcomputing— $18.00 



Name. 



Address. 
City 



State. 



Zip- 



Canadian $20.00 US funds, 1 year only Foreign $28.00 US funds, 1 year only 

Please allow 4 to 6 weeks for delivery 

80 Microcomputing • PO Box 981 • Farmingdale NY 11737 



SUBS 



36 • 80 Microcomputing, April 1981 



5& REVIEWS 



updated approximately once a second. 

It is not enough tinat Disco-Tech gives 
you software to determine the motor 
speed of your disc drives. They must also 
include detailed instructions on how to 
take your TRS-80 disc drive apart and ad- 
just the speed using only two screwdriv- 
ers. If you have purchased non-Radio 
Shaci< disc drives, there are helpful sug- 
gestions and instructions for adjusting 
PERTEC, MPI, and VISTA units. They are 
idiot-proof! All adjustments are made us- 



ing the graphic tachometer option which 
speeds up things. 

As I mentioned earlier, the DDT manual 
states that the DDT diskette cannot be 
copied, as it has experienced a lot of soft- 
ware pirating (so what else is new!). 

Each DDT disl^ette contains three cop- 
ies of the program: DDT/CM D, DDT1/CMD, 
and DDT2/CMD. If one copy of the DDT 
program somehow becomes damaged, 
just kill the damaged file and then rename 
one of the other two copies as DDT/CMD 



Ultra-mon 

interpro 

Manchester, NH 
S24.95 on cassette 

by Dennis Thurlow 

Radio Shack has been blasted quite a 
bit recently, however, there are two 
excellent products from their computer di- 
vision. One is the Level I BASIC Manual 
and the other is the DOS monitor DEBUG. 

DEBUG's display of the Z-80 chip struc- 
ture was a mystery to me, but once I got 
used to it, I found it indispensable. It's 
also free! I was determined to write an ar- 
ticle explaining its wonders. Then before I 
got to writing about it, someone at Inter- 
pro handed me a copy of Ultra-mon. 

Galling Ultra-mon "Son of DEBUG" 
would not be missing the mark. Like 
DEBUG, it can execute when an error or 
breakpoint is encountered and also when 
a set boundary is overstepped. Like 
DEBUG, it shows the content of each Z-80 
register pair; the next 16 bytes at the rela- 
tive address in ASCII and Hex; displays a 
full page of memory; executes single 
steps or calls; and allows the user to 
modify memory or registers. 

Unlike DEBUG, it shows a disassembly 
of the next instruction to be executed, dis- 
assembles a block of memory, or does a 
dynamic trace at the rate of eight steps 
per second. All the data from a disassem- 
bly or a trace goes to the printer automati- 
cally, if one is available. 

Ultra-mon relocates itself, relocates a 
block of memory (changing all internal ad- 
dresses), or just moves the block. 

The execute mode allows a program to 
run with Ultra-mon in control. Breakpoints 
can be set in ROM. It can even execute 
BASIC, to see how the interpreter handles 
the text. 

In my opinion, the biggest problem with 
DEBUG: It is not a separate piece of soft- 
ware. You can't run it without DOS. 

Ultra-mon, on the other hand, comes on 
tape and runs in standard 16K Level II. 
What more could you ask? ■ 



The Datestones of Ryn 
Automated Simulations 
Mountain View, CA 
$14.95 on cassette 
$19.95 on disk 

by Debra Marshall 
80 Staff 



Creeping stealthily along the passage, 
magic sword at my side, I rounded a 
corner and entered a room. A chest was 
against the far wall: Should I open it? No 
sign of a trap. I opened the chest: 
Spiders!! Thousands of them! I slashed 
blindly, killing some and finally going 
down under a swarm. As my strength be- 
gan to fade, something came crashing 
down on my head. Everything went dim. 

In this bloody manner, I, the nearly in- 
vincible Brian Hammerhand, passed out 
of this life during the 12th of my excur- 
sions into the den of the dreaded Rex the 
Reaver, hidden far from the view of men, 
deep in the bowels of the Haunted Moun- 
tains. 

It was an ignominious defeat. I had 
already despatched Rex himself and his 
robber lieutenant, as well as other 
beasties I found lurking in the passages. I 
had even evaded the dreaded slime, all for 
naught. The Duchy of Ryn would have to 
go without its datestones again. 

Datestones, the most precious treasure 
of the Duchy, have been stolen by the 
brigand Rex and hidden in his mountain 
lair. You, as the player of Datestones of 
Ryn, (a.k.a. Brian Hammerhand, merce- 
nary at large), must retrieve and return the 
stones to the grateful Rynians. 

Datestones requires Level ll,16KRAM. I 
understand there is a version available for 
Apple and PET as well. 

The game comes with a slick looking 
booklet which introduces the user to the 
theory behind the game (this is one of a 
series of more extensive games called 
Dunjonquest). It explains the player's 
character variables, equipment, scoring 
and commands. The scene is set for the 



(pretty good, huh?). 

On the other hand, if you really got 
lucky and messed up the entire diskette, 
Disco-Tech will replace if for an $8 han- 
dling fee. Anyhow, after a little experi- 
menting I was able to copy the DDT disk- 
ette so that the clone runs exactly as ad- 
vertised. Sorry, I can't share the secret 
with you. 

if you want to save some money as well 
as time, the DDT is a worthwhile invest- 
ment. ■ 




game in a short tale of how Rex got the 
stones and why the Rynians want them 
back. 

The Adventure Begins 

As the game begins, you find yourself in 
a room at the cave's entrance. You may 
search for traps, examine the walls for 
hidden doors, or pass into a corridor and 
move into new rooms or hallways. At any 
point you may encounter and be chal- 
lenged by a beastie: robbers, centipedes, 
wolves, spiders, skeletal bats and slime. 
Some of the critters are stationary, others 
move about and pop up unexpectedly. 

The game is timed; you have 20 minutes 
to roam about the cave, find and recover 
the datestones, defeat or successfully 
flee from the cave's many horrors. You 
may enter and leave the cave as often as 
you wish in that time period. 

Scoring is based on the number of 
stones recovered and brought outside, 
the number of foes vanquished, how long 
you survive, and whether you escape from 
the cave at the end of the 20 minutes. The 
experience you gain in each game in- 
creases your ability to stay alive in the 
next. 

There were a few things I did not like 
about the game. The ability and strength 
chart, which appears while the program is 
loading, does not remain on the screen 
long enough for more than a very cursory 



80 Microcomputing, April 1981 • 37 



5^(9 REVIEWS 



scanning; this chart contains potentiaiiy 
important information concerning Ham- 
merhand's strength, intelligence, weapon- 
ry, skill, experience, intuition, etc. I did not 
notice that these qualities changed in 
degree from game to game, as I under- 
stood they would. 

Computer response to fight and flight 
commands is sometimes too slow to 
avoid impending disaster. It's very frus- 
trating to watch yourself being engulfed 
in slime while you keep punching the but- 
ton that should get you out. Conversely, I 
have watched beasties die without my lift- 
ing a finger to aid in their demise. 

What happens during a swordfight is 
also a bit of a mystery; the messages 
which appear during these sequences are 



obscure enough to make it difficult to 
determine whether Hammerhand or the 
beastie is getting the worst of the battle. I 
have been fighting lustily, fully certain all 
the while that I was winning, only to dis- 
cover I was suddenly all but dead. I have 
also fought long and hard and walked 
away unscathed. 

The game is limited in scope and area, 
but it is a microquest rather than a full- 
fledged Donjonquest, and you are fully 
warned of this distinction by Automated 
Simulations. It is best viewed as an intro- 
duction to their larger fantasy games. 

If this game is an indication of the qual- 
ity of the larger quests published by Auto- 
mated Simulations, I hope they send me a 
copy of a long one to review. ■ 



Eliza 

Tandy/Radio Shack 
Fort Worth, TX 
$14.95 

by John Warren 

Danger! This program can be dan- 
gerous to your mental health. This 
warning should be emblazoned across 
Eliza's instruction pamphlet. 

Radio Shack's copy of Doctor (as Eliza 
has come to be known) is relatively faith- 
ful to Dr. Weizenbaum's original program, 
with one disturbing addition. When the 
user signs off, the program presents a 
diagnosis that ranges from relatively 
harmless, "As best as I can determine you 
have no psychological problems besides 
a normal amount of paranoia," to this one: 
"I'm afraid that I must conclude that you 
are dangerously psychotic and should be 
locked up." 

These predictions seem to be selected 
randomly. Radio Shack's disavowal (three 
lines at the bottom of the last page of in- 
structions) is nothing more than a cheap 
out. 

Intelligence Exercise 

Aside from this flaw, Eliza is an interest- 
ing exercise in primitive artificial intelli- 
gence. The program simulates (or as Dr. 
Weizenbaum prefers, "parodies") a Rog- 
erian, or a non-directive, psychotherapist 
during an initial interview with a patient. 

HOW DO YOU DO? PLEASE STATE 

YOUR PROBLEM. 

i hate my brother. 

WHY DOES THAT ANNOY YOU? 

i think that i should love the members of 

my family. 



IN WHAT WAY? 

i should love them, well, like family. 
YOU SAY THAT YOU SHOULD LOVE 
THEM. 

yes, but i do not love them. 
DON'T YOU REALLY LOVE THEM? 
i do not know that, how can i tell? 
PERHAPS YOU DON'T WANT TO 
TELL? 

why did you say that to me? 
WHEN HAVE YOU ASKED SUCH 
QUESTIONS BEFORE? 
i am constantly asking questions. 
WHY DO YOU BELIEVE IT ISN'T 
NORMAL TO BE CONSTANTLY ASK- 
ING QUESTIONS? 

Eliza picks up on keywords and sen- 
tence phrases. As the keywords increase, 
the conversation gets more personal until 
many feel as if they are communicating 
with another person instead of with a 
structured collection of bytes in a comput- 
er. 

Several scientists, including Dr. Carl 
Sagan, have predicted that Eliza is the 
forerunner of an automated form of psy- 
chotherapy; however. Dr. Weizenbaum 
disputes that. In fact he is disturbed at the 
tendency of people to humanize it. 

The program tape's flip side contains 
an Eliza that routes its output through the 
Radio Shack Speech Synthesizer and I 
swear that the synthesizer develops a 
Viennese accent when Talking Eliza is 
running. 

Eliza is about 10K and makes her home 
at hex 5000 to 7800 with the entry point at 
77F2 right above the Level II reserved RAM 
and also where a disk-operating system is 
stationed. Disk operators will have to relo- 
cate the program before use.B 




Pinball 

Space Invaders 

Acorn Software Products, Inc. 

Washington, DC 

$14.95 each 

by Dan Keen 
and Dave Dischert 

All you pinball freaks who have been 
bitten by the microcomputer bug can 
now enjoy the best of both worlds! 

We went to our local Acorn vendor and 
came home with a whole stack of their 
games. The Pinball game stood out 
among them all. Here's a program that 
realistically simulates the feeling of being 
in the finest pinbali palace. The action is 
so real you find yourself rocking the key- 
board, it's a good thing the program 
doesn't say TILT! 

The board is drawn and animation 
begins even before the program finishes 
loading, similar to Radio Shack's Micro- 
chess, where the instructions are loaded 
directly into the video memory. 

The game board has some sequential 
flashes, even when idle, similar to a real 
machine beckoning you to play. 

Hitting the space bar shoots the ball 
just like the plunger. The length of time 
you hold down the bar determines the 
speed at which the ball enters the playing 
area. 

Ball travel is extremely natural, and 
even accounts for the slight gravitational 
effect of the machine being at an angle. In 
fact, you can even catch the ball by the tip 
of the flipper to deflect it. 

Sound effects are not fancy but are 
more than adequate. The right hand side 
of the screen displays your score, bonus 
points awarded, and the best score of the 
games played during the session. 

This simulation resembles pinball play 
in every respect except that the ball is 
square instead of round, but then with the 
TRS-80 graphic limitations we anticipated 
that. 



38 • 80 Microcomputing, April 1981 



NAME THAT SONG 

A revolutionory sound 
program for the 02K TR5-80 disk 
sysfem co-ourhored by the 
musicol director of Broadway's 
"Annie." The gome comes wlrti 
over 1 00 runes and you con odd 
your own using the provided 
ufiltty. This mulri-ployer game has 
fast ocrion ond machine 
language subroutines. Just like 
rhe popular TV show— even has 
commercials! ONE OF THE MOST 
ENJOYABLE GAMES I'VE SEEN 
AND HEARD FOR THE TR5-60"- 
Richord Taylor, author of TRS- 
Opero. 02K disk $19.95 



STELLAR ADVENTURE 

Explore the galaxy and fight 
the deadly Kyroxons In this real- 
time graphic gome with sound. 

Level II 16K tape $14.95 
02K disk $19.95 



CITY ADVENTURE 

Travel from o peaceful suburb 
ro the hustle and bustle of the big 
city. Stonding in your way are 
muggers, runoway cars ond 
numerous other obstacles. A 
knowledge of rhe progrom 
"Interiudes" is helpful. Rated PG. 
Level II 16Krope $9.95 
32K disk $14.95 



MICRONOPOLY 

A full scale version of the 
fomous boord gome Micro- 
nopoly is the only progrom we 
know of thot ploys by the rules, 
ollows troding and doesn't 
require you ro hove a boord. 
Level II 16K tope $9.95 
02KdiskSl4.95 



BREAKOUT 

In this mochine longuoge 
gome wirh sound you must 
desrroy the graphic blocks wirh 
your bouncing ball. This 
simulation of rhe popular orcode 
gome has 64 variations. 
L 2 16K rope $9.95 32K disk 
$14.95 





ALIEN INVASION 

Shoot down rhe spoce 
invaders as they pass over your 
laser cannon. This Is o rtew 
improved version ovoiloble only 
from Softwore Innovotions. With 
sound. 

Level II 16K tope $9.95 
02K d isk $1 4.95 



/ 



.C7 



L- 



Software Innovations 

320 Melbourne Rd. ^47e 
GreorNeck, NY 11021 
(516)482-6004 
MNET-70330.205 



Add $1.00 for shipping. 
Free catalog avoilable. 
Terms; Check, M.O, 
VISA. MC. 

NY res odd sales fox. 
Dealer Inquires Invited. 



ELECTRONIC ORDERING '^ INNOV-80 CDDS(516) 482-8491 
' BS IS HE RE ^ CONNEQION-SO CDDS (516) 588-5836 

COAAMUNICATE!! 



r 



MICROCONNEaiON- S249.00 

For Model I of III, decodes rhe TRS-60 bussondcreoreson 

RS-202 port. Eliminotes need forexponsion boxorxJ/or RS- 

232 board. Provides serial printer ou^ur. Requires sofrwore 

wiirten for porT 206. Requires odoprer coble for Model III. 

ft5232CONNEaiON- Jl 99.95 

Works with vimjolly ony computer or term inol having on RS- 

202 seriol I/O port. Replaces obsolete acoustic coupled 

modems. Compatible with oil TR5-80 terminal softv^are. 

Requires R5-232 cable. 

COLOftCONNEaiON- $199.95 

Converts Rodro Shack Color Computer into o 

communicorions terminol. Provides serial printer output. 

Does not require ony odditlonol memory or extended 

bostc. Complete with cobles. 

AUTOCONNEaiON- t79.95 (option) 

This option permits CONNECTIONS (except Color) ro 

answer the telephone ond/or dial numbers aufomoticolly. 

Supplied with a dialer demonstration progrom. 

EUROPEANCONNEQION- S20.00 (option) 

This option modifies the obove units tof European 

Stondords. 

MODEL III ADAPTER- 529.00 

Coble converts Model III 50 pin buss to 40 pins used by 

Model I peripherols. 

R5-232 CABLE- S24.00 

Four-foot ribbon coble terminated with 25 pin mote DD25 

plugs. 



SMART-80 and SMART III 
Dy Dick Dalcom 

Smart Terminal Programs for the TR5-80+ Model I ond 
Model III Computers! This is the ONLY Smort Terminal 
Progrom ovoiloble for the Model III as of this printing! These 
progroms are ovoiloble in either cossette or disk versions 
for the Mod I ond Mod III. These programs oilow you roup 
AND down text and programs to your TKS-80+ from other 
users. Timeshore Systems (source, MicroNET), ond free 
public DOS (CONNEaiON-aO, etc.). This software 
represents the State Of the Art in terminol software for the 
TR5-80+. 

5mart-fl(XC), Smart III(C) outomaricolly converts bosic 
programs saved on Tokens to ASCII code, ond bock again. 
EDTA5M tapes con olso be loaded thru the terminal! 

Smort-60(D) is the Disk based version of Smart-60 with 
the obility to tronsfer diskfiles to onofher user over both 
phone and rodio with the use of a modem. These 
progroms support Auto Log-on, as well as other features 
not found in other progroms. 

Smort-flO (C) Model I 579.00 

Smart III (C) Model III $99.00 

(1500 Doud Tope) 

5mort-60 (D) Model I 579 00 

Smott III (D) Model III 69900 



i 



D.T. Enterprises -aw 
171 Hawkins Road 
Cenfereach, NewYori< 11720 
Deoler inquiries Welcome 



Add S2.00 5 & H 
NYS res. odd oppr. fox 



(516) 961-6568 (Voice) 
(516) 566-5636 (Dora) 
MNET-70331,105 



fSse List at Advertisers on page 306 



80 Microcomputing, April 1981 • 39 



so REVIEWS 



Acorn's PINBALL is one of their latest 
releases, a company spokesman told us. 
We find it refreshingly different. 

Space Invaders 

We've played all of the invader-type 
games and this one, without question, 
comes closest to duplicating the arcade 
game on a TRS-80. 

The format stays close to the arcade 
version, mXVi invader munchkins de- 
scending down the screen to attack your 
bases. 

The player determines several vari- 
ables, including: the number of bases, 
game speed, the number of shots that you 
can have on the screen at any one time, 
the number of bombs fired back at you, 
and their accuracy. 

The program computes these variables 
to create a weight factor; that is, a number 
from one to 99 by which your score is 
multiplied. The high score, if more than 



one game is played, is kept and displayed. 

Graphics are very good despite the well- 
known shortcomings of the TRS-80. The 
sound effects have that familiar ring of 
Acorn products {remember their "Alien In- 
vasion"? — similar, though these are 
superior). 

The movement of the base station is ex- 
tremely fast; we feel it's a little too fast. 
The left and right arrovi/s move it back and 
forth horizontally. You barely touch an ar- 
rovi/ key and the base darts to the opposite 
side of the screen. With some practice, 
you can position it fairly accurately. 

We like the range of game speeds avail- 
able. A young child can play well vi/ith the 
slovw selection and the fast setting is un- 
nerving! 

To beat the invaders you must score 
655,350, a figure which we haven't been 
able to attain in several days of play. 

Since buying this game we can't tell you 
how many quarters we've saved !■ 



Invaders Plus 
Level IV Products, Inc. 
Livonis, Ml 
$19.95 cassette 
Level II, 16K 

by Owen Linzmayer 



Anyone who has spent time in or 
around an arcade hall will recognize 
the name, Invaders Plus, as coming from 
one of the most popular video games ever, 
Space Invaders. I had been eagerly await- 
ing a good TRS-80 imitation of Space In- 
vaders, and Invaders Plus is a great one. 

The game begins by explaining the con- 
trols and point ratings. Moving your laser- 
bases is accompiished through the arrow 
keys and firing is controlled by the space 
bar. Rapid machine gun style firing is pos- 
sible by simply holding the space bar 
down. The scores range from 50 points for 
hitting a large invader to 150 points for 
shooting a bomb down in mid-air. Failure 
to hit anything with a shot results in a 20 
point deduction. 

If you hook your aux plug into an audio 
amplifier before starting the game you will 




listen to a fine rendition of the theme song 
from Star Wars. This is amusing the first 
few times, but since it cannot be bypassed, 
it soon becomes a nuisance. 

There are nine levels of play, vi/hich 
graduate in difficulty from level one to 
level nine. 

After picking your level of play, the 
screen fills with the first wave of 49 in- 
vaders. Each of these marauding meanies 
is depicted complete with blinking eyes 
and animated movements. 

The object of the game is to terminate 
the lives of all the invaders before they 
send you to an early grave. You can meet 
your maker in one of two ways: by letting 
the invaders reach the bottom of the 
screen, or by letting your laser-base get hit 
by a lethal rain of bombs. 

Should you be successful clearing a 
wave of invaders, you are treated to a 
screenful of even deadlier demons. These 
attackers drop more bombs and move 
more quickly, making them harder to kill 
than the preceding group. 

Unlike Space Invaders, where the num- 
ber of screens is only hindered by the 
player's skill. Invaders Plus offers you 
only four waves of persistent pests. After 
killing all four groups, you have the title of 
Hero bestowed upon you via the comput- 
er. 

I have purchased other invader pro- 
grams and have found Invaders Plus to be 
far superior to any I've seen. This Is a truly 
magnificent programming effort by Larry 
Ashmun, and well worth the asking 
price. ■ 



Dancing Demon 
16K Level II 
Tandy/ Radio Shack 
Ft. Worth, TX 
$9.95 

by Dan Keen & Dave DIschert 



Upon entering our local Radio Shack 
store 'HB saw a crowd of people hov- 
ering around the computer. What was the 
attention-getting program being dis- 
played? Dancing Demon, Radio Shack's 
latest entry in the world of computer 
games. 

Friends sometimes ask, "What can 
your computer do?" Telling them it keeps 
track of the checkbook, helps the kids 
with their homework (when we let them 
use it), manages mailing lists, figures loan 
amortizations, and tracks Amway earn- 
ings, just doesn't seem to impress them. 
Now here's something that will put them 
in stitches. 

This is a good demonstration program 
for the TRS-80, and shows off some of its 
animated graphic capabilities. 

With Dancing Demon, you enter individ- 
ual notes to compose a song, then type in 
dancing instructions and choreograph a 
tap dancer to the music. 

Letters correspond to notes. Each note 
is followed by a click to simulate the 
dancer's tap shoes. Extra clicks can be in- 
serted by entering the letter Z when pro- 
gramming the music. 

The machine writes the timing, while 
you select the tempo. Range extends from 
very fast to extremely slow. Speed selec- 
tion goes from one to 255. 

Once your song has been typed in, you 
can create a dance routine by entering 
various letters and numbers which repre- 
sent different steps and their counts. The 
dancer can be made to move left or right, 
jump, stomp left or right, squat, stand, 
even spin. 

Dancing Demon is another brilliant dis- 
play of string packing. The master of 
string packing techniques, Leo Christoph- 
erson of Android Nim fame, wrote this pro- 
gram too. 

The game is in BASIC, and we had no 
trouble putting it on disk. It runs fine in 
DOS Plus Disk BASIC also. 

Two demonstration programs are in- 
cluded. We enjoy the big production it 
puts on. The curtain rolls up and the figure 
dances to the music, taking a bow or two 
at the end of his performance. 

The audio is not high quality sound, but 
adequate for the needed effects. 

Sit back and let your computer enter- 
tain youl ■ 



40 • 80 Microcomputing, April 1981 




e 



Bringing Word Processing 
Power to the People 



Performance. At a price 
that you can afford. The basis 
on which our company has 
built a reputation that spans 
hundreds of software sales in 
seven countries world wide. 
We're here to stay, providing 
the TRS-HO software you 
want, the service and support 
you need, and a price tag that 
a shrinking budget can keep 
up with. 

PENSA-WRITE 2 - A new 
generation word processing 
system that conforms to your 
needs and requirements. It's 
flexible, versatile, lightning 
quick, and includes system 
features unparalled in the in- 
dustry. Editor features in- 
clude... 

— in memory capacity of 
over 19,000 characters 
(approx. 3500 words), au- 
tomatic chaining of files 
during printing and all in 
just 32K of memory! 

— full editing capabilities in- 
cluding: global search and 
replace, fully controlled 
transparent cursor, selec- 
tive insert and delete func- 
tions, keyword searches, 
non-printing comments, 
forward and backward 
scrolling, visible linefeed 
characters, complete word 
wrap around and much, 
more more... 

— user orientation features 
included on screen. Three 
screen lines are constantly 
dedicated to communica- 
ting information to the 
user, or to allow the user to 




communicate with the 
program. These features 
include: constant read out 
of date and time, program 
location, the number of 
characters that have been 
used in the text buffer, and 
the number of characters 
that remain to be used, au- 
tomatic word counts, free 
disk space (on all drives), 
and a storage indicator 
that will tell you if what 
you have in memory has 
been stored on disk, 
directories for all drives 
available on screen with- 
out exit to DOS 
full error descriptions as 
well as up to eight possible 
suggestions as to what 



might have gone wrong 

— sophisticated program 
structure that will allow 
the addition of program 
modules in the future, to 
further enhance your 
PENSA-WRITE 2 

— complete system and user 
documentation written in 
plain English, and 
supplied in its own- three 
ring binder, so any pro- 
gram updates can easily be 
added to the documenta- 
tion. 

Your initial purchase of the 
PENSA-WRITE 2 will in- 
clude the editor, and at no ad- 
diti(mal charge, a general 
purpose printing program, hi 
the future, as they become 



available and as you require 
them, you will be able to add 
options that fully interlock 
with your editor (with no 
software modifications). En- 
hancement modules will in- 
clude a mailing list, basic file 
editor, report printer, as well 
as printing modules for spe- 
cial printers (such as the Cen- 
tronics 737) and for other spe- 
cial applications. But there's 
more. Pensadyne Computer 
Services maintains that after 
sales services are vital to the 
full implementation and 
support of our programs. 
In the unlikely event that a 
problem should arise with 
one of our products, we main- 
tain a 24 hour service de- 
partment where you can call 
and get your questions 
answered. Software support 
— we guarantee it. In writing. 
We want you to like what we 
do. Because if you do, then 
you will come back again in 
the future. And that's the 
name of the game. 

The price of the PENSA- 
WRITE 2 word processing 
system at our special intro- 
ductory price... $79.95 

Pensa-write 1 and mailing 
list, the industry standard 
BASIC word processor, still 
available on disk for the low, 
low price of just $19.95. 

Mastiii charge, and Visa 
Welcome. Order by phone or 
write. 
Dealer Inquiries Invited. 

PENSADYNE. Giving yoa 
the power to think. 



PENSADIfNE 



COMPUTER SERVICES 



4441 WEST FIRST AVE.. VANCOUVER, B.C. V6R4H9 TELEPHONE: 604-224-3107 

I-- 207 



^Sbb List ot Advertisers on page 306 



80 Microcomputing, April 1981 • 41 



Now Your Child Can Learn More. . 



At a Faster Pace 



^^^ 



.>$i\ 



GEOGRAPHY EXPLORER: U.S.A. 



^^^ 



.■^^ 



OMNI-CALCULATOR 



This program allows your child to travel the country and 
learn vital facts about each of our 50 states. Geography Ex- 
plorer offers the most fascinating w/ay of learning yet. Learn 
each state's name, capitol, largest city, nickname, etc. As a 
bonus, this package offers the capability of light pen use. 
Order No. 0071 RD $49.95 



^^^ 



.•^^ 



MATH MASTER 



MATH MASTER is an educational package designed to 
help your child understand the mathematical concepts of 
addition, subtraction, multiplication and division through 
problem solving. This package also instructs the student in 
fraction problem solving. MATH MASTER will "walk" your 
child through the developmental concepts of mathematics 
with never-ending patience. Order No. 0257R $9.95 

WORDWATCH 

Wordwatch consists of 4 different programs, each de- 
signed to enhance your child's understanding of word rela- 
tionships—this results in an improved vocabulary, In WORD- 
RACE, the student must choose the proper definition for a 
given word. HIDE 'N SPELL asks the student to find misspell- 
ings. In SPELLING BEE, the student takes a pre-recorded quiz 
In which words are played aloud! Completing the package is 
SPELLING TUTOR, where words are jumbled, reversed or 
otherwise altered, and it's up to the student to straighten 
them out! Together, these four programs will help decrease 
dictionary dependency! Order No. 0111R $7.95 



This package is a brilliant solution to the problems involv- 
ing the complex world of different units of measure. It pro- 
vides rapid means of conversion from one unit of measure to 
another in any of 10 categories: length, volume, mass, veloci- 
ty, area density, power, energy, pressure/stress and temper- 
ature. Omni Calculator will give your child a great learning ad- 
vantage, a head start in understanding the complex relation- 
ships between different units of measure. Order No. 0211RD 
$19.95 



^' 



^ 



,#- 



THE ELEMENTS 



This program can be used to introduce students to the 
periodic table of the elements, or for review by students and 
adults who want to refresh their memory in chemistry. It in- 
cludes each of the elements' name, atomic number, weight 
and symbol, as well as its acid/base and normal physical 
state. Enrich your child's knowledge of science with the help 
of THE ELEMENTS. Order No. 0216R $9.95 

LIFE 

Even if you've only been involved with computers for a short 
while, you're sure to have heard of LIFE. This program is the 
computerized simulation of the life cycle of a colony of 
bacteria. It is based on a few simple concepts, but the results 
are captivating, animated graphics and an enlightening intro- 
duction into the world of biology and genetics. The LIFE pro- 
gram may be just the motivation your child needs to pursue 
an interest in the sciences. Order No. 0078R $9.95 



TO ORDER: 



For tHe 
THS-80- 



See your local 

Instant Software dealer. 

If these packages are 

unavailable, order direct 

or 

CALL TOLL FREE 

1-800-258-5473 

(We ship within 48 hours) 

We Guarantee It! 

i ^ ^y^ Guarantee -^^^ g 

|i tJLR )'R(KiR\MS \RI C.L AKANTI I p 

«; TO Bl 01 ALrT".' I'KODIC rs. M* \0\ ^ 

^ CUMPLl Tl LV SATISI-II I) VOL. MAV ^' 

^ RITLRN Till PROCRAM WITHIN (>0 ^. 

"^ DAV-S AtKl.DII OR kl E'LA( 1 Ml M ^ 

?? WIL.1. Bl Wn.LlSC;LY tilVlA [-OR »: 

■^ ANY RI ASON. ^. 

*TnS«l is a trademark of the TANDY CORPORATION. 



"The microcomputer will be a power- 
lul tool in education. One of its greatest 
advantages is its interactive nature— 
tlie student becomes an active partici- 
pant in learning, and the computer can 
give immediate feedback. The student 
does not have to wait until the lesson is 
complete or the teacher is free to check 
his work; the computer can evaluate the 
work Immediately, and reward him if it 
is correct or explain why if the work is 
incorrect. The computer can then deter- 
mine, on the basis of his work, whether 
the student is ready to go on to the next 
lesson or needs to review the present 
one. 

"Educational computer programs 
will be available for students at all 
levels— from pre-schooi to post-col- 
lege, from remedial to gifted— and in 
any subject. These programs can give a 
child a headstart in school; they can 
reinforce and provide practice in con- 
cepts from hand-eye coordination to 
Math to English or even Health. A com- 
puter can individualize a program to a 
child's level and pace. Programs will 
challenge the gifted child, allowing him 
to advance at his own pace. Best of all, 
educational computer programs can 
make learning fun." 



Mary Shooshan, Educational Software Editor and former teacher 




Instant Software 



All packages are on cassette except for 
Gaographv Explorer; USA, Omni-Calculator 
and Teacher's Aide which are on disk. 

PETERBOROUGH, N.H. 03458 
603-924-7296 



42 • 80 Microcomputing, April 1981 



At5y2, 

she's 
reading 

and 

thinking 
at a 4th 
grade 

level. 




is she a prodigy? Not at aii! Whien iearning is fun, your chiiid can rapidly increase reading comprehen- 
sion and reasoning power beyond current age ievei. 

Now you can advance your child's educational level— without coaxing or hiring an expensive tutor. Everyone knows the best 
student-teacher ratio is 1:1. In modern classrooms, this is impossible. But in your own home, it's as easy as C.A.I. (Computer- 
Aided Instruction). Without the distractions of a crowded classroom, students can progress, without pressure, at their own 
pace. 

Computers are fun, and once the fun Is introduced, studying becomes a pleasure— instead of a chore. The ability to interact 
wWh the computer will motivate your child to learn much more than from a book that cannot respond — a book that is too easily 
closed. These Instant Software programs will guide and teach each lesson with the infinite patience only a computer can pro- 
vide. Each of the twelve packages have been written and edited by professional educators who know what it takes to make a 
child want to learn. You can introduce your child to the world of learning by computer with Instant Software's Educational Soft- 
ware Series. All 12 packages are available now. 



ARCHiMEDES' APPRENTiCE 

Archimedes Apprentice is a geometry package that will 
teach your child the formulas used to find the volume of any 
solid object, including parallelepipeds (cubes and rectangu- 
lar solids), prisms, pyramids, cylinders, cones and spheres. It 
will even quiz the student on how well the lesson was learned. 
Give your child the advantage of learning these concepts at 
home, beforebeingfaced with them in a classroom. Order No. 
0092fl $9.95 

TYPING TEACHER 

A complete seven-part package that guides you from 
familiarization of the keyboard through typing words and 
phrases to mastery of touch-typing. Your video monitor be- 
comes a bottomless page for typing practice, and your own 
private TYPING TEACHER, ready to teach when you're ready 
to learn. Order No. 0099R $9.95 

TEACHER'S AIDE 

Now you can have the benefit of Computer Assisted In- 
struction (CAI) in your own home. The Teacher's Aide program 
allows you to create tailor-made lessons for your child. The 
features of this program include the ability to review material 
before taking the lesson, a provision for hints to help answer 
questions and graphic displays as a reward for answering all 
questions correctly. Once you've created a lesson, you can 
save it and create an entire sequence of lessons. 

The Teacher's Aide package is perfect for parents, teach- 
ers, and students who need the unlimited patience only a 
computer can provide. Order No. 0214RD (disk-based) $39.95 



VIDEO SPEED READING TRAINER 

With this package, students can increase their reading 
speed and comprehension. How? With practice! This three 
part program will flash characters, words and phrases onto 
the monitor screen. You must then type what you saw on the 
keyboard and enter it. You can begin at a relatively slow 
speed. As your speed and comprehension increase, the com- 
puter will automatically advance your speed. Order No. 0100R 
$9.95 

IQ TEST 

Are you smart enough to buy this package? IQ TEST will ad- 
minister and score an intelligence test in 30 minutes. There 
are three equivalent tests, each consisting of 35 questions, 
designed to test your general knowledge and problem-solving 
abilities. Most of us claim a "touch of genius" — here's your 
chance to prove it! Order No. 0157R $9.95 

VOCABULARY BUILDER 

One of the most valuable tools your child can possess is a 
comprehensive vocabulary .With Instant Software's VOCABU- 
LARY BUILDER package, you can help your child develop a 
better understanding of the English language— and the fun is 
in the learning! The crossword puzzle format of these pro- 
grams will hold the attention of the most reluctant student. 
The first program in this package is "Polonius," offering 140 
crossword puzzles. The second is "VeeBeeGee," a program 
that provides the letters and allows the student to construct a 
puzzle on the game board. The VOCABULARY BUILDER pack- 
age is educational entertainment for all ages — and it's never 
at a loss for words. Order No. 0198R $9.95 



Instant Software 



Prices subject to change without notice. 

PETERBOROUGH, N.H. 03458 
603-924-7296 



•-$BB List ot Advertisers on page 306 



80 Microcomputing, April 1981 • 43 



5!9appiications 



by Dennis Kitsz 

". . . the Professor folded and smoothed the 

aluminum foil over the CPU, plugged In the 

computer, and answered 'PRETTY BIG' to 

the MEMORY SIZE question." 



Many of you who are audio enthusi- 
asts as well as computer buffs will 
recognize the name of Dr. I. Lirpa, best 
known for his regular feature contribu- 
tions to Audio magazine. I recently had 
the pleasure of speaking with Professor 
Lirpa, and was surprised to discover that 
he has been experimenting with an im- 
ported TRS-80 at his villa in Toltott- 
Kaposta. The good Professor invited me 
for a visit, and we spent very few enjoy- 
able hours sharing our latest develop- 
ments for the TRS-80. 

This month's Applications will deal with 
some of the Professor's remarkable hard- 
ware and software discoveries. Although I 
have not had the opportunity to verify all 
his designs and programming, there is no 
reason to doubt the competence of Pro- 
fessor Lirpa's work. His successes with a 
new hybrid breed of swine for soccer ball 
linings (as well as the early success of the 
renowned Lirpa-1 power amplifier — see 
Audio, AprW 1977) are more than enough to 
recommend him. 

Readers may not find it surprising to 
discover that the tightly controlled social- 
ist government of Transylvania looks 
askance at information-oriented high 
technology brought to private citizens 
from outside its national boundaries. It 
was with that in mind that Professor Lirpa 
demonstrated the measures he had taken 
to keep his TRS-80 a secret. 

"Za number von problem of zis mazhlne 
is za problem of juice excretion," he said, 
referring to RFI as juice, "because za cer- 
tain Party leaders haff very tiny radio re- 
ceivers implanted in zer molars. I haff to 
be very careful." 

Photo 1 shows Dr. Lirpa's solution to 
RFI interference, which, although it is spe- 
cifically designed to block spurious emis- 
sions to European-band receivers, can be 
modified to American standards by vary- 
ing the thickness of the aluminum foil 
used to cover the CPU. The professor ex- 
plained, "I have used vith great success 
vat I learned on my last visit to America; 
zis is called za 'delicatessen fold'. It keeps 
za juice in, like za Faraday cage," 

Quietly, almost as an aside, Dr. Lirpa 
turned to me and vhispered, "Faraday 
spent a good deal of time in prison vith 



me, you know, vhich is vhere I learned his 
technik." I was struck with the poignancy 
of the Professor's intellectual plight, but 
before I could comment he took me quick- 
ly toward his piazza workbench where we 
powered up his TRS-80 for a demonstra- 
tion. 

When his unit began to exhibit typical 
Model I data instability, the professor 
reached for a new product exported clan- 
destinely from the West German electron- 
ics market. There is a scarcity of reliable 
integrated circuitry from the West in his 
country, so marginal ICs must be restored 
to their original specifications whenever 
possible. We used an oscilloscope to 
trace the computer's problem to a balky 
buffer, and then applied a quick shot from 
an aerosol can marked "Schmittspritz" 
(loosely translated as "Schmitt Trigger 
Spray" -Photo 2). It immediately cleaned 
up the waveform. The Professor's comput- 
er again worked like new. 

With the preliminaries finally over. Pro- 
fessor Lirpa led me to his basement labo- 
ratory. A few faded photos of Bela Lugosi 
(autographed "to Prof from Bel") hung on 
the walls, and a distinct, tangy, and cer- 
tainly unexpected aroma of southern fried 
chicken hung in the atmosphere. With a 
professional air, the Professor folded and 
smoothed the aluminum foil over the CPU, 
plugged in the computer, and answered 
"PRETTY BIG" to the MEMORY SIZE ques- 
tion. 

Dr. Lirpa then loaded his own excep- 
tional keyboard bounce program, 
KKBBBBBBXX, which he has allowed me 




Photo la. 




Photo 1b. 

to reprint in this column (Listing 1). Since 
the Professor is a very fast typist, he has 
eliminated what he considers the unwar- 
ranted delays in the original Radio Shack 
so-called "fix" program, producing a key- 




Photo 2. 

board routine for the light-fingered. Al- 
though originally written for his 29K 
TRS-80, 1 have modified it for standard 16K 
machines. To use it, set memory size to 
32640, and load the program as folows: 



SYSTEM 
•? LIRPA 



<ENTER> 
<ENTER> 



The program will patch itself in place, 
clear the screen, and start automatically. 



44 • 80 Microcomputing, April 1961 




List Price Your Cost 



— Okidata 
Microline82.$ 799. 

Features: 80 C.P.S.; 
Bidirectional; Full forms 
Control; Choice of 
Parallel or Serial Inter- 
face as Standard; Buff- 
ered Serial Optional 

Epson Model 

MX-70 $ 495. 

Features: 80 C.P.S.; 
Unidirectional; Bit Plot 
Graphics; Adjustable 
Sprocket from 4" — 10" 



Ask For 
OuF Price 



List Price Your Cost 
Epson Model Ask For 

MX-80 $ 645. Our Price 

Okidata $ISVC^ 

Microline80.$ 599. flyftitU 
Okidata Ask For 

MicrolineSa $1260. Our Price 
Anadex DP-9500 & Ask For 

DP-9501 $1650. Our Price 

Anadex $IM9pC 

DP-8000 $1095. iOJOcD 

INTERFACES — 

Epson Apple Plug-in 

Interface & Cable $110. 

Epson Serial 

Interfaces Cable $ 90. 

Epson IEEE 488 

Interface & Cable $ 80. 

Model TRS-80 Expansion 

Interface Cable $ 35. 

Model 232 Universal 
CA Cable, Universal 
Serial Interface $ 25. 



Okidata Microline 

eOTractor $100. 

Okidata Microline 80 
RS-232 Interface w/ith 256 

Character Buffer $170. 

SYSTEMS FURNITURE - 
We stock Systems Furniture 
tables 

PRINTER STANDS — 
We stock Universal printer 
stands for most printers. 
COUPLERS & MODEMS - 
We handle the broad Tek-Com 
line. 
BREAKOUT BOX 

List Price Your Cost 



NEW I — HAYES Ask For 

TECHNICAL ... .$195 Our Price 

Full RS232 Breakout and 
Patching Interface Box 




§ ASK FOR OUR 
O INSTANT DISCOUNT 
2 From Roy Hawthorne 
2 Talk To BillTokarOn 
A Applications 



CALL TOLL FREE 

U.S.A. 
1-800-521-2764 

MICHIGAN 
1-800-482-8393 



Reminder: 

We are open 

8:30 AM to 5:00 PM EST 

Monday through Friday 



WRITE TO: 

"The Slocking Source" ^^as 



NEW 24069 Research Drive. 



Farmington Hills, Ml 48024 9 
313-474-6708 § 

oooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo 



Announcing 
'Hellfire 
Warrior", 
a fantastic 
new Dunjonquest 
computer game . . . 
that's really 
not for 
everybody: 
Beginners 
are likely to 
be gobbled up 
in the first 
room . . . and 
there are over 
ZOO rooms on 
four levels 



"Hellfire Warrior." Really not for everybody: newcomers to 
Dunjonquest should begin with something easier. Here the 
monsters are deadlier, the labyrinths more difficult, the levels 
far more challenging... 

But for the experienced Dunjonquest game player there are more 
command options, more potions (131), more magical items (including — 
at last — magical armor), more special effects, more surprises. And an 
innkeeper, an armorer, apothecary and magic shops. 

In part a sequel to The Temple of Apshai, up until now the greatest 
of all the Dunjonquest games. Hellfire Warrior can also be played 
completely on its own. 



npu Now the character you've created, re- 
presenting the highest level of role- 
playing to date, can explore the four 
new lower levels: 

Level S — "The Lower Reaches 
of Apshai." With the giant in- 
sects and other nasties that swarmed through the 
upper levels of Apshai. With rooms your hero can 
get into, but not out of. 

Level 6- "The Labyrinth." The only exit is hidden 
within the Labyrinth. And man-eating monsters can thwart 
your hero. 

Level 7 — "The Vault of the Dead. "...And of the 
undead — skeletons, ghouls, mummies, specters... 
invisible ghosts — lurking in the rooms, doors, secret 
passages, ready to reduce your hero to a pale shadow of 
himself. Permanently. 

Level 8 — "The plains of Hell." In an Underworld of 
lost souls and shades of dead, of dragons and fiery 
hounds, of bottomless pits and blasts of hellfire, our 
hero must rescue the beautiful warrior maiden lying 
in enchanted sleep within a wall of fire. And bring 

her past unbelievable dangers and monsters... 

even Death itself. ..to sun and air and life 

itself. 

Hellfire Warrior. The most exciting game yet 
from Automated Simulations, the leading producer of 
computer fantasy games. 

Guaranteed: If It's not the most exciting computer 
game you've played, return it within ten days for a 
complete refund. 

Available on disk for the Apple II and Radio 
Shack's TRS80, or on cassette for the TRS80 
and for the Commodore PET. The cassette or 
disk: $39.95. Boxed with a magnificent 
instruction manual. Some of the drawings in 
the manual are reproduced here (in greatly 
reduced scale). 





TRIPLE WARRANTY 

10 DAY FULL MONEY BACK GUARANTEE: 

If you don't like the game for any reason 
whatever, return it intact within 10 days 
of receipt for a complete refund. No ques- 
tions asked. 

30 DAY DEFECTIVE WARRANTY: Cassette 
or disk not functioning within 30 days of 
receipt: return it for exchange. No charge, 
of course. 

FOREVER — LIMITED LIFETIME WAR- 
RANTY: No matter what happens to your 
cassette or disk: the dog chewed it, . .you 
left it out in the rain... whatever. No 
matter when it happens. Return the 
remains to us (with S5.00 to cover all 
handling and shipping) and we'ii send you 
a brand new cassette or disk. 



Hellfire Warrior. From the people who design and make some of the very, very best 
computer games, games that thinkers play. Including the great role-playing Dunjon- 
quest series— The Temple of Apshai, Datestones of Ryn. Morloc's Tower and now 
Hellfire Warrior And Invasion Orion and Starfleet Orion. And more. 

Hellfire Warrior. Like every EPYX computer game from Automated Simulations, it has 
the unique EPYX triple no-questions-asked warranty. 

Hellfire Warrior Now available on disk or cassette for TRS80. the Apple and the PET. At 
better computer stores everywhere. If you can't find it at your local friendly dealer, 
insist he order it for you. 

Or you may order directly from Automated Simulations. If you want to use your 
MasterCard or VISA, use our toll-free phones: In the United States: operator 861 (800) 
824-7888; In California: operator 861 (800) 852-7777; in Hawaii and Alaska: operator 
861 (800) 824-7919. We'll also send you our new catalogue, hot off the press. 

Or write Department F2. P.O. Box 4247. 1988 Leghorn St.. 
Mountain View. CA 94040. ^^^ 

Please specify if you wish the Disk for TR580 (32K, TRSDOS) and 
Apple (48K with Applesoft in ROM or the Cassette for the 
TRS80(16K. Level 11} or the Commodore PET (32K, old or cfl^^^^ 
new ROMs). Only $39.95. disk or cassette. ...rjt^Ai' 




■^^''f^ 



5^(pAPPllCAT10NS 



INPUT 



DR.LIRms B/B CONVERTER 



-0D7 



OUTPUT 



Fig. 1 



Simple Hardware Projects 

Dr. Lirpa's expertise is by no means lim- 
ited to software; indeed, some of Inis audio 
hardware is world famous, and fiis recent 
computer accessories are certain to fol- 
low that eiectrifying path to notoriety. 

Among the Professor's first computer 
peripherals was the eight-bit B/B (binary- 
to-binary) converter. The circuit (Fig. 1) is 
straightforward enough to be completed 
and tested in a single evening. Lead dress 
is not critical, it may be soldered or wire- 
wrapped, and depending on the applica- 
tion, nearly any size wire may be used. It is 
self-powered, (as the Professor had the in- 
sight to guess correctly the state of ener- 
gy needs in this part of the Twentieth Cen- 
tury) and virtually foolproof. 

The second of Dr. Lirpa's TRS-80 periph- 
erals was a remarkably sophisticated co- 
alescing of work in two distinct fields, and 








00100 


; DR. I 


. LIRPA' 


S KBBBBBBXX 






00110 


; REVISED KEYBOUNCE ROUTINE | 






00120 


; FOR THE LIGHI 


-FINGERED 






00130 








4016 




00140 




ORG 


4016H 


4016 


807F 


00150 




DEFW 


START 


7F80 




00160 




ORG 


7F80H 


7F80 


213640 


00170 


START 


LD 


HL,4036H 


7F83 


010138 


00180 




LD 


BC,3801H 


7F86 


1600 


00190 




LD 


D,0 


7F88 


0A 


00200 


CHKKEY 


LD 


A,(BC) 


7F89 


5F 


00210 




LD 


E,A 


7F8A 


A3 


00220 




AND 


E 


7F8B 


2018 


00230 




JR 


NZ, CKPREV 


7F8D 


77 


00240 




LD 


(HL) ,A 


7F8E 


14 


00250 


INCD 


INC 


D 


7F8F 


2C 


00260 




INC 


L 


7F90 


CB01 


00270 




RLC 


C 


7F92 


79 


00280 




LD 


A,C 


7F93 


D6 80 


00290 




SUB 


80H 


7F95 


20F1 


00300 




JR 


NZ, CHKKEY 


7F97 


06 07 


00310 




LD 


B,7 


7F99 


2D 


00320 


DECL 


DEC 


L 


7F9A 


86 


00330 




ADD 


A, (HL) 


7F9B 


10FC 


00340 




DJNZ 


DECL 


7F9D 


A7 


00350 




AND 


A 


7F9E 


3E00 


00360 




LD 


A,0 


7FA0 


C0 


00370 




RET 


NZ 


7FA1 


321A40 


00380 




LD 


{401AH) ,A 


7FA4 


C9 


00390 




RET 




7 FAS 


A6 


00400 


CKPREV 


AND 


(HL) 


7FA6 


2818 


00410 




JR 


Z , STORE 


7 FAB 


3A9940 


00420 




LD 


A, C4099H) 


7 FAB 


A7 


00430 




AND 


A 


7FAC 


20E0 


00440 




JR 


NZ,INCD 


7FAE 


3A1A40 


00450 




LD 


A, (401AH) 


7 FBI 


3C 


00460 




INC 


A 


7FB2 


321A40 


00470 




LD 


(401AH) ,A 


7FB5 


FEFF 


00480 




CP 


0FFH 


7FB7 


2802 


00490 




JR 


ZrDECA 


7FB9 


18D3 


00500 




JR 


INCD 


7FBB 


3D 


00510 


DECA 


DEC 


A 


7FBC 


321A40 


00520 




LD 


(401AH) ,A 


7FBF 


7B 


00530 




LD 


A,E 


7FC0 


73 


00540 


STORE 


LD 


(HL) ,E 


7FC1 


0A 


00550 




LD 


A, (BC) 


7FC2 


A3 


00560 




AND 


E 


7FC3 


C8 


00570 




RET 


Z 


7FC4 


C3FB03 


00580 




JP 


03FBH 


06 CC 




00590 




END 


06CCH 


00000 TOTAL 


ERRORS 












Program Listing 


1. 





Photo 3a. 



was the immediate result of a period of 
study at Harvard University's Department 
of Psychology and Social Relations under 



the tutelage of a famous behavioral psy- 
chologist. Called the Electronic Flash Er- 
ror Flag (Photo 3a), this peripheral is used 



^See List ol Advertisers on page 306 



80 Microcomputing, April 1981 • 47 



for data entry training; it has two potential 
results, depending upon the skills of the 
trainee. 




Photo 3b. 



The first result of the EFEF is illustrated 
in Photo 3b, taken as a typical trainee en- 
ters complex scientific data into Dr. 
Lirpa's TRS-80. Photo 4 is the operator's 
view of the computer the moment an error 
is made. Finally, Photos 5 and 6 demon- 
strate one of the few unavoidable (but for- 
tunately temporary) side-effects of this 
peripheral device. 

The second potential result of the EFEF 
is shown in Photo 7. Particularly inept but 
determined data entry students have this 
view of the TRS-80 after a few weeks of 
training. 

At this writing, neither the National In- 
stitute of Health nor the Food and Drug 
Administration has approved the EFEF for 
connmercial sale in the United States, but 
the Professor has arranged with 80 Micro- 
computing to make a complete set of 
plans available. Note that this is a five-volt 
device, making it entirely compatible with 
the TRS-80's internal circuitry. (See the 
end of this column for ordering informa- 
tion.) 




Homage to Colonel Sanders 

Biological experiments have rarely 
been a part of the TRS-80 experimenter's 
repertoire, but Dr. Lirpa has begun to 
make advances in this field. He presented 
me with a paper entitled, "Recent Pro- 
gress in the Development of High-Speed, 
Full-ASCII, Biodegradable Interfaces for 
Eight-Bit Microprocessors Running At or 
Near 1.7 MHz". 

The depth of thought amongst personal 
computer pioneers can be astounding, 
and Dr. Lirpa's paper left me speechless. 
The fried chicken aroma I had noted ear- 
lier began to make sense as I paged 
through his report. 



uxTm I. uim ^ W 


3 


• "♦a*^ 


BSCrtuX UWB 

• • 




■■■iiiyiL 


^.jt^.i::. 



Photo 5. 



With pride, the Professor unlocked a 
special refrigeration unit. Inside was re- 
vealed a line of biological interfaces com- 
plete enough to stock a delicatessen: the 
five-volt salami (see Photo 8), read-only 
head cheese, chicken in ASCII, random- 
access mutton, corned beef modems, 
disk-based pork chops, bank-select spare 
ribs, and direct-connect meatballs. 




Photo 4. 



Photo 6. 

Needless to say, I had the distinct feel- 
ing that I was in the presence of a dedi- 
cated but eccentric scientist. Obviously, 
Dr. Lirpa sensed my feelings, for he drew 
me aside. "You see," he explained, "our 
computers are sophisticated but clumsy 
devices. Biological devices, on ze other 



hand, are multi-layered in zer responses. 
Look here." He drew out a frog's leg as I 
slapped at flies. "Observe as I connect zis 

leg onto zis cable." 





■'.ssE«:ra7ns3Ssttff'*.n,'?i*rr* "t jit; 



Photo 7. 

The good professor entered a quick pro- 
gram, and the TRS-80 screen glowed in its 
coarse graphics with Renaissance mus- 
culature designs like those of Leonardo 
da Vinci. Then, amazingly, the frog's leg 
began to write the first line of a restaurant 
menu: "H-U-S L-E-V-E-S". 




Photo 8. 



Dr. Lirpa turned slowly, smiling and eye- 
ing me with an indecipherable gleam. "Tell 
zem. In American zey will know zatze com- 
puter is of two dimensions, but ze body 
and brain is of three. Maybe four. Tell 
zem." 

With that. Dr. Lirpa took my arm and di- 
rected me back to the piazza, where we 
parted company. As I flew back to Ameri- 
ca, I discovered myself inadvertently fon- 
dling the plastic pack of transistors and 
chicken feathers that Dr. I. Lirpa had pre- 
ferred to me in the final moments of our 
visit. 

Think about it, dear readers. The biode- 
gradable interface. Servos. ■ 



48 • 80 Microcomputing, April 1981 



j!0 ACCOUNTANT 



by Michael Tannenbaum C.P.A. 



"... the future is always 

based on the past. If the 

past has been a disaster, a 

disaster will be projected." 



As an advocate of microcomputer busi- 
ness systems I am frequently ac- 
cused by my colleagues of being a "solu- 
tion looking for a problem." I usually re- 
spond that my solution has an application 
in any size business. Naturally, my associ- 
ates have not been surprised that I can 
usually find some way of proposing the 
use of a microcomputer in most firms that 
I tiave visited. 

No doubt this is because most firms re- 
quire functions such as planning, record- 
ing financial activity, and the analysis of 
operating results. With the exception of 
accounting recordkeeping, these func- 
tions are best accomplished at the high- 
est management level. Even though the 
planning and analysis procedures are 
done informally, it's alvi^ays good to docu- 
ment the business plan. 

An excellent example of such a man- 
agement planning tool is Oracle 80, a pro- 
gram for the Model I which is available 
from Instant Software, Inc., Peterborough, 
NH. Oracle 80 is a business analysis and 
forecasting program. Using "time series" 
statistical methods it can store and ana- 
lyze up to ten years of monthly data, 30 
years of quarterly data or 60 years of an- 
nual data. 

Time series analysis methods examine 
a body of data to define the relationships 
between units of data. This procedure un- 
earths questions which must be answered 
if a good plan is to be developed. For ex- 
ample, if theJanuary sales are ten percent 
higher than December, Is that a seasonal 
variation, inflation or the result of a super 
effort by the sales department? 

When using Oracle 80, any data base 
can be entered. The program provides an 
easy to use data entry and edit method. 
This data can later be stored on disk. The 
program is menu driven and self-promt- 
ing; as a result, it is quite easy to use. 

The data can be displayed on the 
screen, graphed or printed. The graph and 
print routines are set up in an interesting 
way. Once the data has been displayed, a 
flashing square appears on the screen. 
This announces that a graph and printing 
routine called "Scribe" has been activat- 
ed. Pressing "G" creates a graph of the 
data. Pressing "P" prints a copy. 



From the data entered, Oracle 80 will 
compute moving averages and rate of 
change information. If three years of data 
is present, you can calculate seasonal in- 
dices, a deseasonalized series and cycle 
factors. From this data, forecasts of fu- 
ture activity can be derived; hence the 
name Oracle. If desired the forecasting 
method can be applied to the data base to 
develop a table of predicted versus actual 
values. 

You can influence these projections by 
entering cycle factors. These factors 
should be used if it is suspected that fu- 
ture activity might differ significantly from 
past performance. Generally, Oracle 80 
assumes the future vt/ill resemble the past. 

This is, of course, the main difficulty 
when using statistical techniques forfore- 
casting. . .the future is alvt/ays based on 
the past. If the past has been a disaster, a 
disaster will be projected. Because of this 
fact, the methods employed in Oracle 80 
should be used with extreme care. 

Improved General Ledger 

One of the most important functions of 
the general ledger is to serve as a history 
of accounting transactions during a fiscal 
year. 

As a record of past activity, it is most 
valuable if your figures can be subdivided 
into months rather than merely a year-to- 
date total. Abnormal relationships could 
indicate mispostings or other accounting 
irregularities. 

Unfortunately, most microcomputer 
general ledger programs don't segregate 
monthly totals. A year-to-date and the cur- 
rent period is displayed, but nothing else. 
If you request a report of account status, 
the information displayed will not be infor- 
mative. 

There is however, a general ledger pack- 
age that displays and retains a separate 
total for each month during a fiscal year. 
This package, theTCS general ledger, was 
originally only available on the CP/M 
operating system. It has been converted 
to TRSDOS and is now available for a two 
drive Model II from the fVlicro Architect, 
Inc., Arlington, MA. 

In this system, current activity and the 
previous year's month-end totals are re- 



tained. The system also maintains a cur- 
rent and a prior year-to-date total. When a 
month has been completed, the system 
shifts each month down one position and 
adds the month to be dropped to the prior 
year's year-to-date total. The current 
month's total is placed into the vacant 
position and the current year-to-date total 
is updated. 

When an income statement is re- 
quested, the system prints comparative 
data for the month for the current and 
prior year. No other system previously re- 
viewed does this. 

Although Osborne general ledger has 
provisions for a quarterly and prior year 
total, it does not maintain monthly totals 
and, therefore, cannot print as much de- 
tail as the TCS system. The Radio Shack 
ledger contains only the current month 
and year-to-date totals. 

The TCS financial reports have other 
features that are unusual for a microcom- 
puter general ledger system. In the TCS 
system you can group accounts for print- 
ing, even though the underlying account 
structure remains quite detailed. 

It is normal practice to set up a sepa- 
rate general ledger account for each bank 
to facilitate reconciliation procedures. 
With some systems all the detail is 
displayed when a balance sheet is printed 
out. With theTCS system you can set up a 
master account for cash and designate 
the detail accounts as subsidiary ac- 
counts. All the detail will be retained but 
only the master total will appear on the 
financial report. 

The report printing program also skips 
over the account code number when print- 
ing the income statement and balance 
sheets. Thus the financial reports have 
only the account amounts which add 
greatly to the appearance of the reports. 

The account structure can prepare de- 
partmental reports. These reports can be 
prepared after the main income statement 
is printed. If there is more than one depart- 
ment, the account activity for all the de- 
partments is printed in summary on the in- 
come statement and by cost center on the 
departmental statement. 

These provisions create management 
reports that are both readable and super- 



80 Microcomputing, April 1981 • 49 



5& ACCOUNTANT 



tfii 



nm 



ior to either the Osborne or Radio Shack 
general ledger packages. However, TCS 
offers yet another feature that appears to 
be unique. Thissystem allows you to enter 
and display an annual budget on the in- 
come statement. 

If It sounds like I realiy liked the system, 
you are right. The real acid test, however, 
was a client demonstration. Despite some 
of the packages weak points, such as Its 
data input modules, the superior manage- 
ment reports sold the TCS system. 

in the data Input modules, the TCS sys- 
tem shows Its age. This system was writ- 
ten for the Altair computer and first re- 
leased In 1978. At that time, data input 
and output used either a separate "dumb" 
serial CRT or a slow speed printer. If a CRT 
was used, cursor control was usually lim- 
ited. The best a programmer could expect 
was a clear screen feature. 

With today's intelligent devices, full 
cursor manipulation is possible. This fea- 
ture is characteristic of the Radio Shack 
accounting programs and makes data en- 
try and edit very convenient. Unfortunate- 
ly, since the designers of the TCS system 



could not even be sure of the I/O devices 
to be used, they designed the system for 
the lowest common denominator: a 
teletype. As a result, data input and 
editing is cumbersome compared to the 
Radio Shack system. 

Another shortfall Is Its inability to per- 
form an interactive edit of account num- 
bers as data is entered. The account num- 
bers are not compared against the master 
file until a data entry batch summary 
report Is printed out. Thus It is quite possi- 
ble to enter an invalid account number 
and not be advised of the error until a 
report Is completed. 

The system still traps an incorrect ac- 
count number and the files cannot be up- 
dated with an improper account. The only 
inconvenience is that the error is not re- 
ported instantly to the operator. This is 
not necessarily a deficiency. Many data 
processing professionals believe interac- 
tive edits are undesirable. 

With an interactive data entry proce- 
dure, the operator must look at the screen 
after each item is entered to verify it. This 
causes a marked increase in data entry 



time. Studies indicate that the highest 
data entry rate is achieved with a blind 
data entry method. 

MARIS Files 

All of the TCS software systems use a 
MARIS (Muiti ARray Indexed Sequential) 
file system. In this system, keys to the file 
are stored in an array in memory. When a 
request Is made to examine or update the 
file, the array is referenced and the data 
file required is located on the disk. Al- 
though this system works quite well, it ef- 
fectively limits the number of accounts 
which can be accommodated in the gener- 
al ledger to 400. 

Since this file method also limits the 
number of customer and vendor ac- 
counts, evaluate your application before 
you install the system. It is also important 
to note that a data compression algorithm 
is used to reduce the size of the data files. 
As a result of this data compression, 
when you store amounts greater than $20 
million, a problem results when you re- 
trieve the number from the file. 

Before concluding the review of the sys- 



While they last . . . 

the complete year of 1980 80 Microcomputing ' 

(in its own shelf box. . . a $2.00 value — Free) 
for only $25.00.* 

Did you miss the 2,256 pages of useful information published for your TRS-80* * in 80 Microcomputing last 
year? Now is the perfect time to catch up for only $25.00. * 

In the first year of 80 Microcomputing here were 335 articles on your TRS-80 — 2 Vt. times more than any other 
computing magazine. Also in 1980 there were new product reviews, news and columns and best of all hun- 
dreds of dollars worth of useable programs. 

So to unlock the key to your TRS-80 and double its value. . .send in today for the complete year of 1980. 80 
Microcomputing (in its own shelf box) for only $25.00.* 

We have a limited number of these complete sets so send in the card today or call our toll free #800-258-5473 
and charge it to your VISA, MC or AE card. 

*vlus shipping and handling ($3.00) "'TRS-SO is a Trademark of Tandy 






, \*»tr - 







. I 



U t^®g I want a year of 80 Microcomputing for $25,00 plus 
$3.00 for shipping and handling. Plus I'll receive a shelf box to store 



them in. 

n Check enclosed for 

Name 

Address ____.^ 

City_ 



State. 



Zip. 



Please allow 4 to 6 weeks jor delivery 
80 Microcomputing * 80 Pine Street * Peterborough, N.H, 03458 
Toll free ordering number 800-258-5473 3-] ^gg 



50 • 80 Microcomputing, April 1981 



PRINT 



Increase throughput. Put printers, plotters, and other 
stow peripherals off-line with a MicroCompatibie Print Buffer. 
Conttnue processing without waiting. Save time by entering 
data while the printer is printing. The MicroC Print Buffer 
accepts data from the host computer(s) as fast as the host 
Gomputer(s) can output through a parallel port, user selected 
1 1 to 9600 baud RS-232 port, or IEEE-488 port. This data 
is stored and transferred to the printer{s) through a parallel 
port, user selected 1 1 to 9600 baud RS-232 port, or IEEE- 
488 port as fast as the phnter(s) can accept it. Run times are 
reduced because the computer doesn't wait on the printer 
and the printer doesn't wait on the computer. There are no 
software changes to make. The Print Buffer is transparent to 
the user. This hardware solution is superior to a spooler 
because it is taster, uses none of the host computers' 
memory, and allows linking one or more host computers to 
one or more printers for better allocation of resources. 




STANDARD MODELS' 



Computer 
TANDY 



.'^I'PI.K 



PKT 
RS-232 



Porl.s 
Parallel pons 

Edge conncrtors gold plait'd 
C't'n Ironies 
standard connectors 
IEEE 488 

RS-232, n0-9fi00baud 
'IBK memory with one pair of ports 

STANDARD OPTIONS 
available upon request 

1. 32K Memory 

2. A second pair of 1/0 ports; parallel, IEEE- 
RS-232. May be different from first set. 

3. Automatic AC power control for printer. 

4. 220 volt. 50-60 Ex. operation. 



^l^'^ 






t;.e"^^°^ 



SEE US IN „a 

^ NEW YORK 



\ 



Oilier configurations available apon reiLjuest. 



Model PB1B, 1 pair parallel I/O and 1 pair RS-232 ports 

The Print Buffer is a communications processor contain- 
ing a microprocessor, ROM, 16K or 32K RAM, and parallel 
and/or serial I/O ports. The host computer(s) and printer(s) 
are constantly monitored. Data is rapidly accepted from the 
host(s), stored in an appropriate FIFO stack, and outputted 
from the appropriate stack when a printer requests a new 
line. In buffers with more than one input port, storage is 
dynamically allocated between users such that the faster 
user gets more storage. A special command code allows 
users to program the buffer. In program mode, data (object 
code) is received and stored in RAM, but the data is not out- 
putted to a printer. Control is passed to the object code now 
residing in RAM. Suggested uses include code conversions, 
e g conversion of ASCII to IBM correspondence code to 
drive Selectncs, or the equivalent of PRINT programs of a 
wo!d processor that prepares edited files for pnnting. 



Having used the Print Buffer in my day to day operations, 
I am impressed with the time it saves my operators. The 
program that we use for general ledger posting first prints the 
ledger information and then posts the information by storing it 
on disk. Using the Print Buffer, the information is quickly 
transferred from the CPU to the Buffer, Before the phnter 
stops printing the posting is usually completed. That means 
my girls don't waste a lot of time waiting on the line printer 
and then again on the posting. Both operations are usually 
done simultaneously. The Buffer handles the printer, my girls 
handle inputting information — and now they don't waste time 
in the process. , ^ r . 

Graham C. Bethel 
Certified Public Account 






■JBMjviHa-fc ia ih fn 



■ ■ i-r ■ ■'■■ . . :^ 




m'^ 



ASK YOUR LOCAL COMPUTER STORE FOR A DEMONSTRATION 

OR ORDER DIRECT 

MicroCompatiblelnc.,P.O. Box 106, Scaly Mountain, N. C, 28775, Phone (704) 526-2782 

Master Charge, VISA, C.CD., or prepaid 



■'See list ot Advertisers on page 306 



80 Microcomputing, April 1981 • 51 



tern, I would like to comment on the cus- 
tomer support offered by the Micro Archi- 
tect. During the volume test of the system, 
I discovered a bug the day before a major 
client demonstration. The bug resulted 
from ttie differences between the Micro- 
soft BASIC interpreter on CP/M and on ttie 
Model II under TRSDOS. 

I called theMicro Architect at 11:00 AM 
and had the fix at 8:00 PM. That's service! 

In addition, the Micro Architect offers 
his customers a newsletter, free for the 
first year. The newsletter advises custom- 
ers of bugs and details programming 
changes. The General Ledger system is 
priced at $129 and comes with a 100 + 
page reference manual, installation 
guide, 15 programs and sample data files 
on an eight-inch disk. It requires a 
132-column printer and a dual disk 
system. 

Visicalc for the Model II 

By now, most Model II owners have 
been advised of the Model 11 version of 
Visicalc. I have only just received a pre- 
liminary copy without documentation. At 
first glance it appears to be identical to 
the Model ! version with the exception of 
the worksheet display which uses the re- 
verse print features of the Model II to out- 
line the edges. 

If you are not familiar with its features I 
recommend that you visit your neighbor- 
hood computer center and see a demon- 
stration. To whet your appetite, let me de- 
scribe some of its outstanding features. 

Imagine a worksheet 64 columns wide 
and 256 lines deep. Although such a work- 
sheet, if it could be fabricated, would be 
impossibly cumbersome to manipulate, 
the electronic worksheet is easy to use. 
When data is entered or examined the 
Model II serves as a magic window. 
Through clever programming, the cursor 
control keys allow any portion of the 
worksheet to be displayed, changed or 
printed. Once you complete your data en- 
try or examination, the large worksheet 
can be stored on disk, chopped up or mod- 
ified in any way that the user deems nec- 
essary. 

Imagine making a change in one num- 
ber and having every number on the whole 
worksheet dependent on that number au- 
tomatically adjust itself. This includes 
column totals, row totals, and dependent 
numbers such as percentages. Sounds 
exciting? It's only the start. 

Using a special replicate command, val- 
ues can automatically be generated with a 
single keystroke. A good example of this 
is the development of expense spreads 
used in budgeting. When budgeting, it is 
frequently necessary to schedule the 



same number in each of 12 months. With 
the replicate command, only the first 
month's value need be entered. Visicalc 
will spread it over the remaining 11 
months automatically. 

Replication is not limited to values. For- 
mulas can also be replicated. If a relation- 
ship can be established between columns 
or rows, the same relationship can be du- 
plicated horizontally or vertically. As a 
practical matter, with the use of this func- 
tion it is possible to create a 12-month 
budget with the entry of only one-month's 
data. 

Further, the program provides a means 
for fixing the horizontal and vertical col- 



umn headings. These are continually dis- 
played regardless of where you are on the 
worksheet. 

The program is supplied with a multi- 
lesson tutorial. A detailed explanation of 
each command and the syntax to be fol- 
lowed concludes each tutorial. In addi- 
tion, a useful pocket reference card is 
supplied, which briefly outlines program 
commands. 

Though I am still learning how to use 
Visicalc, the payback has already been 
self-evident. I just completed a detailed 
system design in two days using this 
program. It should have taken me two 
weeks. ■ 



EDUCATION ^0 

by Earl R. Savaqe %^\^ 



Most of you are probably too young to 
remember when "programmed in- 
struction" first hit the educational scene. 
It made quite a splash and then faded 
away. 

In those days, programmed instruction 
meant printed material consisting of se- 
quenliai frames of instruction, questions, 
and answers. Sequences were linear 
and/or branching. Students moved from 
frame to frame at their individual paces. 

Does that description sound familiar? 
Of course there are differences, but in 
broad perspective it is quite similar to 
Computer Assisted Instruction (CAI). If we 
knew why programmed instruction failed 
to achieve a place in education, we might 
avoid a similar fate for CAI. 

Programmed Potential 

My personal opinion is that program- 
med instruction (PI) had significant poten- 
tial—a view shared by many educators. 

A number of factors contributed to the 
demise of PI, but I believe that three major 
mistakes were made. 

Many proponents of PI let their enthusi- 
asm get ahead of them. They over-sold 
others on the merits and potential of this 
new instructional technique. PI was 
touted as the answer lo all learning prob- 
lems. 

When PI was proven not to be the one 
final answer, reactions turned quite nega- 
tive. 

The second major mistake was also 
committed by overly zealous proponents 
who presented PI as a method to be used 
exclusively. Other instructional tech- 



niques were not needed to supplement 
PI— no lecture, no discussion, no any- 
thing else. 

This was directly contrary to the well- 
established principle that no instructional 
method is suitable for all students or at all 
times. PI proved to be no exception to the 
rule and fell into further disrepute with 
more educators. 

Perhaps the most serious mistake was 
in not refuting the idea that PI would 
replace teachers. It is unfortunate that 
some proponents agreed with this posi- 
tion and few denied it emphatically. 

An ancient axiom in education is that 
nothing will be successful if it is opposed 
by teachers. Teacher reaction was quick 
and sure to PI, a teaching method de- 
signed to "do them out of jobs": PI bit the 
dust. 

We certainly don't want CAI to suffer 
the same fate as did PI! 

Significant Differences 

The similarities between these two in- 
structional methods are striking. There 
are, of course, several fundamental and 
significant differences. 

CAI programming is interactive with the 
student. The student cannot simply sit 
passively; he must do something. The stu- 
dent's progress is controlled. The pro- 
grammer, through his program, deter- 
mines when the next frame is to be pre- 
sented, the number of times answers can 
be wrong, and the branch (if any) to which 
the student should move. 

These and other differences greatly in- 
crease the potential of CAI over PI. How- 



52 • 80 Microcomputing, April 1981 



EDUCATION go 



ever, the basic similarity is so evident that 
there is a real danger of repeating old mis- 
takes. 

Proponents must not even imply ttiat 
CAI is the answer to all learning problems 
of all students. We must not suggest that 
CAI can do the job alone. Especially, we 
must refute any notion that CAI can or will 
replace teachers. 

The idea that CAI can replace a teacher 
is obviously false. Nothing mechanical 
can replace a competent teacher. Recog- 
nizing that, we must prevent opponents 
from raising this particular red herring. 
CAI is just another instructional tool that 
can be extremely effective in the hands of 
a competent teacher. 

One further point: inspiteof all that has 
been said, CAI has one great weakness 
that PI did not have. The material form of 
PI was that of the familiar printed page. 
CAI, on the other hand, requires the use of 
an unfamiliar machine— a piece of "tech- 
nology." 

Those of us who are technically orient- 
ed frequently lose sight of the fear many 
folk have for every new mechanical thing, 
especially if it is electronic. Teachers are 
like the general population in this regard. 
Many of them are suspicious of comput- 
ers. 

We would do well to introduce our new 
instructional technology gently to non- 
technically oriented teachers. Pushing 
too hard or too quickly will only solidify 
their opposition. 

The ultimate role of microcomputers in 
education is in the hands of you and me 
and other folk like us. If we are not careful, 
we'll throw the game without knowing 
how it happened. What a loss that would 
be for the future improvement of educa- 
tion. 

Swiss Cheese 

Hanson House (55 Hanson Place, Strat- 
ford, CT 06497) has several very useful 
utility programs. There is one especially 
for all of us who LLIST programs for any- 
thing more than our own files. When list- 
ings are made for student use, they 
should be neat and well formatted. 

It's hard enough for a student to study a 
program when it is laid out in decent form; 
don't make him study in a maze. And when 
you send one of your programs to a pub- 
lisher, you want to give him as few rea- 
sons as possible to reject it. A congested 
listing can cause problems to everyone 
not already familiar with the program. 

Hanson's Swiss Cheese is a listing for- 
matter. It produces a clear and pleasing 
LLIST. Of course, Swiss Cheese doesn't 
improve your program— just its appear- 
ance! 



The procedure for using Swiss Cheese 
is quite simple. With the program to be 
LLISTED inyourSO, you must key in a cou- 
ple of PEEKS and POKEs which are given 
in the instructions. You then CLOAD 
Swiss Cheese and answer several ques- 
tions. Swiss Cheese and your printer do 
the rest. 

You may be wondering why this handy 
program is called Swiss Cheese. The 
name is quite appropriate but I'm not go- 
ing to tell you why. You'll find out when 
you run it the first time! 

New Text 

If you are teaching or planning a pro- 
gramming course, there is a new textbook 
which you should consider. It is the sec- 
ond (1981) edition of Computer Program- 
ming in the BASIC Language by Neal 
Golden (Harcourt, Brace, Jovanich, NY). 

This textbook begins with program de- 
sign by means of flow charting and trac- 



ing. It progresses from simple commands 
to the complex. The text includes plenty of 
programs and program fragments to illus- 
trate and explain each point discussed. 
One of its strongest points is that each 
chapter contains a large number of exer- 
cises, projects and programs for assign- 
ment to students. 

Do not expect the BASIC to match ex- 
actly the BASIC in your 80. There are mi- 
nor differences, most of which are pointed 
out and should cause no confusion. My 
most serious criticism concerns the print- 
ing of the letter O and the zero. The author 
has reversed the normal convention and 
used the crossed O for the letter instead 
of for the zero. This is a minor annoyance. 

Golden's textbook is very well done. I 
urge you to examine it before making a 
final decision on a text for your course. If 
you are using another text, this one will be 
a good resource book for you. It can be 
very helpful, also, for the student who is 
"going it alone. "■ 



THE ASSEMBIY IINE 

by Wriiiam Barden, Jr. 



Ever wanted to convert a slow-speed 
sort of string arrays into assembly 
language? Ever done it? I'll bet that not 
too many of you have. 

There's are a couple of good reasons 
for this. First of all, the structure of string 
arrays is not too well defined in any docu- 
mentation. Sure, there are some nebulous 
references in the Level II manual about 
the format of string arrays, but there's not 
enough to go on. Secondly, it seems like it 
might be an imposing task. 

I'll give you a definitive description of 
one-dimensional string arrays (the most 
commonly used kind) and show you that, 
yes, it is an imposing task! Actually, strike 
that last comment— in spite of my wife's 
divorce action, I had fun doing it. . . 

Variable List 

BASIC program execution creates a list 
of variables, as shown in Fig. 1. There are 
two sections to this list: simple variables 
and array variables. Location 40F9H in 
working storage defines the location of 
the start of the simple variables, while 
location 40FBH contains the location of 
the start of the array variables. 

Variables in the first part of the list are 
simple and string variables. These are 
non-array variables. In the case of simple 
variables— integer, single-precision, and 



double-precision numeric variables- 
each variable is held in its entirety in the 
list. Associated with each variable is a 
code of 2, 4, or 8, a two-letter name in 
reverse order, and the value of the vari- 
able. Note that the code corresponds to 
the length (number of bytes) in the vari- 
able, as shown in Fig. 2. 

The variables are arranged on a first- 
come, first-entered basis; they are not in 
alphabetic order. String variables have a 
code of 3, a two-letter name, and a block 
of three bytes. The first byte of the block is 
the length of the string, while the remain- 
ing two bytes are the address of the string, 
as shown in Fig. 3. 

The location of the string is in one of 
two areas, either the BASIC program it- 
self, or in the string working storage area 
in high RAM, just below the area reserved 
for system programs with the MEMORY 
SIZE? parameter. 

If the BASIC statement defining the 
string is something like 

100 A$ = ■■PETERBOROUGH? AH YES... I SPENT A 
WEEK THERE ONE DAY. .." 

then the address in the string location 
points to the actual location of the string 
in the BASIC statement. 

If processing of a string is involved, 



80 Microcomputing, April 1981 • 53 



THE ASSEMBIY IINE 




LEVEL H ROM 



I/O ADDRESSES, 
KEYBOARD, VIDEO 



WORKING STORAGE 
DOS, DISK BASIC 



BASIC PROGRAM 
STORAGE 



SIMPLE NUMERIC 
AND STRING 
VARIABLES 



ARRAY VARIABLES 
AND POINTERS 



CHANGES DYNAMICALLY 



FREE 
RAM 



) VARIABLE LIST 



8000H 



FREE RAM, 
STRING STORAGE, 
STACK, PROTECTED 
AREA TO TOP OF 
MEMORY 



Fig- 1. 



then the address in the string location 
points to a string working storage loca- 
tion. The strings buiid down in the working 
storage area. 



100 A$ = 
WEEKS. 



'FORT WOBTH?" + "AH YES. ..TWO 



Now for the second part of the list. The 
second portion of the list contains defini- 
tions of arrays. These are entered as the 
arrays are encountered, either by DIM 
statements, or by references to an array 
such as 



100A2S(0) = "2ND PRIZE IS -TWOWEEKS- IN MISSION 
VIEJO!' 



The numeric and string arrays are de- 
fined as shown in Fig. 4. A type code (3 for 
strings, 2, 4, 8 for numeric) is followed by a 
two-character name, an offset to the next 
array variable definition, the number of di- 



mensions, and the maximum value of 
each dimension. For numeric arrays, the 
elements of the array follow. For string ar- 
rays, three-byte blocks defining the length 
and location of the elements of the string 
array follow. 

We'll confine our discussion to string 
arrays of one dimension since these are 
the most common strings we have to deal 
with. A typical string array in the second 
part of the variable list appears in Fig, 5. 

There are several interesting things to 
note about the string array. First of all, 
unused elements of the array have 
length and address pointers. Secondly, 
the string array definition moves! As new 
simple variables are defined, the entire ar- 
ray section of the variable list slides 
downward to make room for the new vari- 
able. 

In order to write an assembly language 
program to sort a string array, then, we've 
got to handle these null entries. We also 
must pin down the location of the array 



definition just before any machine lan- 
guage call. 

VARPTR with String Arrays 

You've probably used VARPTR to get 
the location of strings for embedded ma- 
chine language. VARPTR can also be 
used for finding the location of the string 
array parameter block. Using 

100 A = VARPTR(AZ$(0))) 

for example, will set A equal to the loca- 
tion of parameter block AZ$(0) in the sec- 
ond part of the variable list. Since this is 
the first element of the string array and 
the remaining elements follow in con- 
secutive order, this is a good start in 
designing an assembly language sort. 

Here's the rub, however: If you use 
VARPTR followed by another dummy vari- 
able in a USR call, the VARPTR address 
will no longer be valid. Using 



100A = VABPTR(AZS(0)]) 
110B = USR0(A) 



will compute the location of AZ$(0} all 
right, but the next statement introduces a 
new (possibly) variable B, which is added 
to the first part of the variable list and 
moves the array definitions down! Make 
certain to use any VARPTR call immedi- 
ately before a USR call without introduc- 
ing new variables, as in 

100 B = USRO(VARPTR(AZ$(0])) 

We now know enough to really get in 
trouble. There's absolutely no reason in 
the world why we can't now design and 
implement an assembly language sort 
that will take any given one-dimensional 
string array of any size and sort the ele- 
ments in a few minutes to replace hours of 
BASIC sorting. 

Bubble Sort 

Use a bubble sort to change the three 
bytes in each array element. The bubble 
sort is one of the slowest sorts, but it does 
have the advantage of using the same buf- 
fer, which is important for large arrays. 
Also, since this is machine language, it 
should be very fast compared to BASIC. 

The machine language code would be 
called from a BASIC program with 
VARPTR pointing to the first element of a 
one-dimensional string array. The address 
of this element would be passed in HL by 
the USR call. The SABUBL (String Array 
Bubble Sort) would then do its thing and 
return with the parameter blocks in the ar- 
ray definition arranged in order of the 



54 • 80 Microcomputing, April 1981 



SIMPLE NUMERIC/ 
STRING VARIABLE 
LIST 



INTEGER 
VARIABLE 



SINGLE- 
PRECISION 
VARIABLE 



DOUBLE- 
PRECISION 
VARIABLE 



02H 



42H 



4IH 



OIH 



lOH 



04H 



OOH 



5AH 



XXH 



XXH 



XXH 



XXH 



OBH 



OOH 



4BH 



XXH 



XXH 



XXH 



XXH 



XXH 



XXH 



XXH 



XXH 



CODE FOR INTEGER 
NAME = AB% 

VALUE ' 1001 H 

CODE FOR SINGLE PRECISION 
NAME = Z 

VALUE IN FLOATING POINT 

CODE FOR DOUBLE PRECISION 
NAME=K# 



>VALUE IN FLOATING POINT 



Fig. 2. 



SIMPLE NUMERIC/ 
STRING VARIABLE 
LIST 



STRING 
VARIABLE 



STRING 

VARIABLE 

A$ 



03H 



OOH 



42H 



lOH 



20H 



70 H 



03H 



OOH 



4IH 



03H 



03H 



FEH 



CODE =3 
NAME= B$ 

LENGTH = lOH 
LOCATED AT 7020H 

CODE =3 
NAME=A$ 

LENGTH =03H 
LOCATED AT FE03H 



fig. 3. 



Strings they represent. An example is 
stiown in Fig. 6. Null entries would be 
moved up to the start of the array defini- 
tion. 

A bubble sort works by scanning the ar- 
ray from beginning to end. During each 
scan, the current entry is compared to the 
next entry in order, if the current entry is 
smaller or equal in weight to the next en- 
try, the scan moves to the next entry. If the 
current entry is larger in weight to the next 
entry, the two entries are swapped— the 
next entry moves up, white the current en- 



try moves down. In effect, the lighter en- 
tries bubble to the top, lighter entries be- 
ing those that start with ASCII characters 
that are closer to the beginning of the 
alphabet or that have a lesser ASCII code. 
Each pair of entries is compared. When 
the last pair of the array (the next to last 
and last) is compared, another pass is 
made through the array. A variable num- 
ber of passes is done until no two ele- 
ments have been swapped, indicating 
that, the array is in order. The minimum 
number of passes is one. The maximum 



number of passes is n, the number of ele- 
ments in the string array. This worst case 
occurs when the array has an order of 
something like Z, Y, X, W .. .A. 

The Program 

The final program is shown in Program 
Listing 1. !t is arbitrarily located at loca- 
tion 7F00H. You may reassemble it at any 
location and call it by conventional Level 
II or Disk BASIC USR calls. 

Since this is a big chunk of code to pick 
up and follow, I'll give you some guide- 
lines. A is used as a working register. B 
generally holds a DJN2 count. C generally 
holds the comparison of the entry lengths. 
DE and HL are used to hold the address of 
the current entry and the next entry in the 
array, respectively. IX points to the current 
entry in the array definition. IX is incre- 
mented by three after each comparison. 
lY holds a flag that is initially 0, but is set 
to 40H if a swap occurs. When lY is still 
at the end of a pass, the array is sorted. 
The slack holds the number of entries left 
to be compared on top, with the initial 
value (VARPTR value) in the next position. 

SABUBL is entered from a USR call. A 
call is first made to 0A7FH to put the 
VARPTR value in HL This is then trans- 
fGrred to IX by a PUSH HL, POP IX. 

The code from SABOIO through line 840 
is the outermost loop of the sort. This path 
is followed for each pass through the ar- 
ray until the flag value lY is 0, indicating 
that no change (swap) has occurred. We 
should explain one tricky portion of the 
test of lY. lY is set to 40H when a swap oc- 
curs. When lY is PUSHed and a POP AF is 
done, the contents of lY goes into AF. The 
one bit in 40H goes into the Z flag. If a 
swap has occurred, therefore, the Z flag is 
set, and the JR NZ,SAB090 falls through 
to the JR SABOIO. 

Each time a new pass is initiated, the 
number of elements in the array is picked 
up from (IX-2) and (IX-1) and put into BC. 
This is decremented by one count, as the 
last comparison is to the last entry-1 and 
the last entry in the array. lY is set to at 
the beginning of the pass. 

The next outermost loop (note the in- 
dented comments) is from SAB020 
through line 790. The code here processes 
the complete array from beginning to end. 
First, the number of pairs to process in BC 
is pushed onto the stack. 

Next, the length of the current entry is 
put into A. If this entry is zero (null) the 
string is a null string and no swap has to 
be made as the entry is already in the 
higher position. A JR is made to SAB070 in 
this case. The code at SAB070 POPs the 
number of entries from the stack, in- 
crements IX by three to point to the next 



80 Microcomputing, April 1981 • 55 



THE ASSEMBIY UNE 



entry, and then decrements the count in 
BC. If the count is not 0, the end of the ar- 
ray has not been reached and SAB020 is 
executed again to compare the next pair. 

If the iength of the current entry is notO, 
the iength of the current string is put into 
B and the length of the next string into A 
(lines 310, 320). A SUB and NEG is then 
done with the result going into C. If the 
result is negative, the length of the current 
entry is less than the next. If the result is 
positive, the length of the current entry is 
greater than the next, and the length of 
the next is put into B. At SAB030, the 
smaller string length is in B. The smaller 
string length is used so that comparison 
of the strings beyond the end is not done. 

The "sense" of string lengths is used in 
the case of both strings containing the 
same data, but one being longer than the 
other. In this case the shorter siring is 
moved to the top of the array. An example 
of this is the set of strings ABC and 
ABCAA; ABC is placed before ABCAAA in 
the sort. 

The code at SAB030 gets the addresses 
of the current string and the next and puts 
them into HL and DE. These tvt/o address- 
es are saved in the stack, as HL and DE 
are incremented in the comparisons. 

The length of the next entry is tested for 
zero. If the next entry is a null string, then 
no comparison will be (or could be) made 
and a JR to SAB060 is made to swap the 
entries after the slack is reset. 

The code from SAB040 through line 560 
is the innermost loop of SABUBL. It com- 
pares the string defined by the current en- 
try to the string defined by the next entry. 
The string addresses are in HL and DE, re- 
spectively. The comparison is handled 
this way: starting from the left byte, a 
comparison is made of each of the two 
strings. If any byte does not compare, the 
strings are unequal, anda JRtoSAB050is 
made. B contains the number of bytes in 
the smallest string. If it can be decrement- 
ed down to zero, the characters compared 
are equal and the code at line 570 is ex- 
ecuted. The LD at line 570 picks up the 
sense of the two strings. The longer string 
will follow the shorter string in this case. 

At SAB050, A contains the sense of the 
comparison or the lengths. The starting 
addresses of the two entries are restored 
in DE and HL from the stack. If the strings 
are equal, A contains a zero, and a JR to 
SAB070 goes on to the next comparison 
with no swap. 

If the current string is less than the next 
string (minus), no swap is required, and a 
JP is made to SAB070. If the comparison 
fell through, but the strings are of unequal 
length, A will be minus if the current 



ARRAY VARIABLE 
LIST 



ONE ARRAY. 
NUMERIC 
OR STRING 



CODE FOR VARIABLE TYPE 
JnAME of ARRAY 

\ displacement to next array 
/variable 

# of dimensions 

) maximum value for first 
•i dimension 

)tW0 BYTES DEFINING MAXIMUM 

i VALUES FOR EVERY OTHER DIMENSION 



VALUES FOR EACH ARRAY 
) ELEMENT OR PARAMETER 
BLOCKS FOR STRING ARRAY 



Fig. 4. 



ARRAY VARIABLE 
LIST 



ONE 

STRING { 
ARRAY 



A$(0) 



A$(l ) 



A$[2) 



A$(3) 



A$(4) 



03H 



OOH 



4IH 



24H 



OOH 



OIH 



OBH 



OOH 



07H 



F9H 



FFH 



OBH 



FIH 



FFH 



03H 



6EH 



6AH 



OOH 



OOH 



OOH 



05H 



8FH 



6AH 



A$(4)-A$(ll) 

DEFINED 

SIMILARLY 



C0DE = 3= STRING 
NAME= A$ 

DISPLACEMENT TO NEXT 
VARIABLE = 24H 

#DIMENSiONS = l 
MAXIMUM VALUE FOR 
DIMENSION = OBH 

LEN(A$(0))-7 

LOCATION OF A$(0)-FFF9H 



LEN(A$( l))=B 
LOCATION OF A$( 



'= FFFIH 



LEN (A$(2)) = 3 

LOCATION OF A$ (2) - 6A6EH 

A$(3)UNDEF1NED 

LEN (A$(4)) = 5 

LOCATION OF A$(4)=6A8FH 



Fig. 5. 



String is of shorter length than the next, 
and SAB070 will be entered. If the current 
string is greater than the next, or if the cur- 
rent string is longer than the next but con- 
tains the same data, the three bytes in the 
variable table entries are swapped to re- 
order the strings, and bubble up the light- 
er string to the top of the array. 



If a swap occurs, lY is set to 40H, indi- 
cating that a change occurred. 

SAB070 continues the comparisons. 

Testing the Bubbles 

Now for the easy part (heh, heh)— test- 
ing the code. Program Listing 2 shows the 
BASIC program we used in the test. Sub- 



56 • 80 Microcomputing, April 1981 



BEFORE 



AFTER 



A$(0) 




PARAMETER 
BLOCKS OF 
> STRING 
ARRAY A$ 
DIM A$(4) 



A$(0) = 
A$[l) = 
A$(2) = 
A$(3) = 
A$(4) = 



PPP 
MMM" 
"(NULL) 
ZZZZ" 
ZZ" 



A$(o)= " " (null: 

A$(l}= "MMM" 
A$(2)= "PPP" 
A$(3)= "ZZ" 
A$(4)= "ZZZZ" 

F/g. 6. 













Program Listing 1. 




7F00 




00100 






ORG 




7F00H 








00110 


*n«* 


********* 


****************************************** 






00120 


« 


STRING ARRAY 


BUBBLE SORTER. SORTS A ONE-DIMENSIONAL * 






00130 


* 


STRING ARRAY 


OF ANV LENGTH 


* 






00140 


* 




iNTRY: 


HL 


=PNTR TO ELEMENT OF STRING ARRAY * 1 






00150 


* 






OBTAINED FROM VARPTR (A5 (0 > ) * | 






00160 


* 




e;xit: 


STRING ARRAY SORTED 


* 






00170 


***** 


**«***«•* 


**********-*.****** 4 ******* **************** 1 






00180 














7F00 


CD7F0A 


00190 


ABUBL 


CALL 




0A7FH jGET POINTER 


7FH3 


K5 


00290 






PUSH 




HL .-TRANSFER TO IX 


7F04 


DDEl 


00210 






POP 




IX 




7K06 


DDES 


00220 


ABH10 


PUSH 




IX 




7F0e 


DD4EFE 


00230 






LD 




C, (IX-2) 


GET # OF ELEMENTS 


7F0B 


DD46FF 


00240 






LD 




B, (IK-1) 


MIGHT BE BIG SOMGUH 


7F0E 


0B 


00250 






DEC 




EC 


MINUS ONE FOR PAIR COHP 


7F0F 


FD210000 


260 






LD 




IY,0 


ZERO CHANGE FLAG 


7P13 


C5 


00270 


AB020 


PUSH 




BC 




SAVE 4 ELEMENTS-1 


7F14 


DD7E00 


00280 






LD 




A, (IX) 




GET LENGTH OF SIS 


7F17 


B7 


00290 






OR 




A 




TEST FOR ZERO 


7Fia 


2857 


00300 






JR 




Z,SAB07 




IF NULL DO NOTHING 


7F1A 


DD7E03 


00310 






LD 




A, (IX+3] 




GET LEN(S2S) 




DD4600 


00320 






LD 




B, (IX) 




GET LEN(SIS) 


7F20 


90 


00330 






SUE 




B 




GET SENSE 


7F21 


ED44 


00340 






NEG 








7F23 


4F 


00350 






LD 




C,A 


; SAVE 


7F24 


FA2A7F 


00360 






JP 




M,SAB0 30 




GO IF LEK(S1S)<LEN (S2S) 




DD4603 


00370 






LD 




B, (IX+3) 




USE SMALLER LENGTH 




DD6E01 


003B0 . 


AB030 


LD 




L, (IX+1) 




GET ADD SIS 


7t-2D 


DD6602 


00390 






LD 




H, (IX+2) 




7t'30 


DD5E04 


00400 






LD 




E, {IX+4] 


;GET ADD S2S 


7F33 


DD5605 


00410 






LD 




D, (IX+5] 




7F36 


E5 


00420 






PUSH 




HL 


;SAVE 


7F37 


D5 


00430 






PUSH 




DE 




7F3e 


DD7E03 


00440 






LD 




A, (IX+3) 




GET LEN (S2S) 


7F3B 


B7 


00450 






OR 




A 




TEST FOR ZERO 


7F3C 


2004 


00460 






JR 




NZ,SAB040 




GO IF NOT NULL 


7F3E 


Dl 


00470 






POP 




DE 




RESTORE ADDRESSES 


7F3F 


El 


00480 






POP 




HL 




7F40 


1813 


00490 






JR 




SAB060 


,-G0 TO SWAP 


7F42 


lA 


00500 £ 


AB040 


LD 




A, (DE) 


;GET S2S BYTE 


7F43 


96 


00510 






SDB 




(HL) 




S2S-S1S 


7F44 


ED44 


00520 






NEG 








S1S-S2S 


7F46 


2005 


00530 






JR 




NZ,SAB050 




GO IF NOT EQUAL 


7F4S 


13 


00540 






TNC 




DE 




BUMP S15 POINTER 






> 












program continues 



routine 1000 through 1050 generates a 
string of random characters in the range 
A-Z. Each string is fronn two to five charac- 
ters long. Typical strings generated might 
be AS, VRF, XXGTT, and so forth. The gen- 
erated string is equated to A$. 

The main body of the code first clears 
string space of 5000 bytes; reduce this if 
required. Next the screen is cleared and 
an array called AZ$ is allocated. At this 
point, all of the entries in AZ$ will be null. 

Now, each of the 500 entries in AZ$ is 
filled with a random string generated by 
the 1000 subroutine. At the same time (ac- 
tually a little later) the entry number and 
string are displayed on the screen. 

After the AZ$ array has been filled with 
random strings, a DEFUSRO defines the 
machine language subroutine at 7F00H. 
The USRO cal) calls the subroutine to sort 
the string. After the sort, a RETURN is 
made to print all of the entries in AZ$, 
which will now be in sorted order. 

The sort itself takes a little over a 
minute. I tried a BASIC version of this, but 
turned it off after several passes (yawn). 

To use SABUBL, reassemble it as re- 
quired for your system. Load SABUBL 
before loading BASIC, and then protect 
the SABUBL area. Call SABUBL using the 
standard Level II or Disk BASIC calling se- 
quence. Use VARPTR to point to the first 
element of your one-dimensional string 
array. 

Rotate Into ROM? 

Sorry about the first paragraph in the 
February column on interrupts. I couldn't 
make sense out of it either. Here's an up- 
dated list of material erroneously deleted 
in previous articles: 

;. CAUTION — DO NOT USE DISK BASIC WITH THIS 
LDIR ;WOVE TO PQUGHKEEPSIE 

;..-DELETE THIS CODE IF REQUIRED... 

Insert as required. 

This infallibitity business is dif- 
ficult. . .in the same column I stated that 
interrupt acknowledge is not available on 
the TRS-80 bus. Of course, it is, as IN- 
TAK*. Jonathan Titus of the excellent 
Blacksburg Press TRS-80 Interfacing 
books caught me on this and also pointed 
out that some CPU hardware mods are 
possible to utilize interrupt modes and 2. 

Now, the results of the Mint-Contest in 
the February issue. First, the answer: In 
debugging I had forgotten that it's rather 
difficult to shift ROM memory with an RLD 
instruction! 

There was an overwhelming response 
to this question. I selected five at random 
from the first three days as i now realize 
that readers should not be penalized by 



80 Microcomputing, April 1981 • 57 



THE ASSEMBIY UNE 



7F49 


23 


00550 




INC 


HL 


;BUMP S25 POINTER 


7F4A 


iaF6 


00560 




DJH3 


SAB040 


;G0 IF NOT DONE 


7F4C 


79 


00570 




LD 


A,C 




GET SENSE 


7F4D 


Dl 


00580 


SAB050 


POP 


DE 




RESTORE S2S ADDS 


7F4y-; 


El 


00590 




POP 


HL 




RESTORE SIS ADDH 


7F4F 


B7 


0600 




OR 


A 




TEST A 


7F50 


28 IF 


00610 




JR 


Z,SAB070 




GO IF STRINGS EQUAL 


7F52 


FA717F 


00620 




JP 


M,SAB070 




GO IF S1S<S2S 


7F55 


DD7 504 


00630 


SAB060 


LD 


IIX+4) ,L 




SWAP ADDRESSES 


7F58 


DD7405 


00640 




LD 


(IX+5) ,H 




7F5B 


DD7 3 01 


00656 










7F5E 


DD7 2 02 


00660 




LD 


(IX+21 ,D 




7F61 


DD7E00 


00670 




LD 


h, (IX) 


;SWAP LENGTHS 


7F6 4 


DD4603 


00680 




LD 


B, (IX+31 




7Fe7 


DD7703 


00690 




LD 


IIX+3) ,A 




7F6A 


DD7 000 


00700 




LD 


(IX) ,B 




7F6D 


FD214000 


0710 




LD 


iy,40H 




SET CiiANGE FLAG 


7F71 


CI 


00720 


SAB07 


POP 


BC 




RESTORE # ELEMENTS 


7F7 2 


DD23 


00730 


SAB08 


INC 


IX 




BUMP PNTR TO NEXT EL 


7F74 


DD23 


00740 




INC 


IX 




7F76 


DD23 


007 50 




INC 


IX 




7F7S 


BB 


0760 




DEC 


BC 




DECREMENT # OF ENTRIES 


lf'7 9 


78 


0770 




LD 


A,B 




GET COUNT 


7F7A 


Bl 


00780 




OR 


C 




TEST FOR ZERO 


7F7B 


2096 


00790 




JR 


NZ,SAB020 




GO IF MORE ENTRIES 


7F7D 


FDE5 


00S00 




PUSH 


lY 


;TEST CHANGE 


7F7F 


Fl 


00810 




POP 


AF 




7Fe0 


DDEl 


00G29 




POP 


IX 




7Fe2 


2002 


00830 




JR 


NZ,SAB090 


;G0 IF NONE THIS TIME 


7Fe4 


1880 


00840 




JR 


SAB010 


IBACK FOR ANOTHER PASS 


7Fe6 


C9 


00850 


SAB090 


RET 




;BACK TO BASICS 


0000 




00860 




END 






00000 TOTAL ERKOHS 










SAB010 7F05 


SAB020 7F13 


SAB030 7F2A 


SAB040 7P42 SAB0 50 7F4D 


SfiB060 7F55 


SAB070 7F71 


EAB080 7FT2 


SAB090 7F86 3ABUBL 7F00 



100 


CLEAR 5000 




105 


CLS 




110 


DIM AZS(499) 




120 


FOR 1=0 TO 499 




130 


GOSUB 1000 




140 


AZS(1)=AS 




145 


PRINT @ 540, I;AS; " 


" ; 


150 


NEXT I 




160 


DEFUSH0=SH7F00 




17 


B=USR0 1VflRPTR(AZ;(0) ) ) | 


1B0 


FOR 1=0 TO 499 




190 


PRINT ASS(I) , 




200 


NEXT I 




210 


END 




1001 


AS="" 




100E 


C=RND(4) 




i0ie 


FOR J=0 TO C 




102E 


B=RND(90) :IF B<65 


GOTO 1020 


i03e 


AS = AS4-CHR5(B) 




i04e 


KEXT J 




105C 


RETURN 





slow mail delivery. The reader who sent 
the telegram is, however, included in the 
five! Winners receiving a copy of my 



Howard W. Sams Z-80 Microcomputer De- 
sign Projects are: Tom Pappas, Scotts- 
dale, AZ; SNAPP Inc., Cincinatti, OH; Lee 



Cole, Gary, NC; Paul Ketrick, Arleta, CA; 
and Calvin Dodge, Lakewood, CO. 

I'm planning a puzzle session for a later 
column; many of you seem to be inter- 
ested. 

Thanks also for comments regarding 
column content— they've been very infor- 
mative. If you have comments, please 
send them to William Barden, Jr., Depart- 
ment Z-80 Hacker, 28182 Palmada, Mis- 
sion Viejo, CA 92692.H 




iragimiiueat! 



In a desperate race against the sun 
you search for SMAEGOR Monarch 
of Dragonfolk, who has kidnapped the 
Princess of the Realm and holds her in 
a distant and unknown place. In a 
quest for Honor and glory, you must 
search the land, seeking out the tools 
needed for the ultimate confrontation. 
On The River Delta, in the abandoned 
Temple of Baathteski, Goddess of the 
Blade, everywhere, clues abound. But 
WHERE is the Princess? 

Now, as never before, the genius of 
CHARLES FORSYTHE shines in this 
new machine language ADENTURE. 
DRAGONQUEST! Can YOU save 
M'lady from the iron clutches of 
SMAEGOR? 



TAPE $15.95 



Dealer Inquiries Invited 



DISK $21.95 



rbc FrogramTYiere Guild 

Box 66, Peterborough, N.H. 03458 
(603) 924-6065 After 6 PM EST 



^364 



58 • 80 Microcomputing, Aprii 1981 




A Dynamic Discount 

on famous ^TDK. Cassettes 
Less than $1«50 ea. (quantities of 10)! 



Dialogue concerning the high quality and 
outstanding performance of TDK recording tape 
for micro computers as well as audio would be 
superfluous , . . what IS important to point out is that 
these are genuine TDK tapes and their regular 
LIFETIME WARRANTY applies 

TDK Full Life Time Warranty 

In the event that this product ever fails to 
perform due to a defect in materials or 
workmanship, TDK will replace it free of charge. 
Simply return it to TDK Electronics Corp. New 
York office or your local dealer NOTE: TDK will 
not be liable for any injury, loss or damage, 
direct or consequential, arising out of the use of, 
or the inability to use this product. 



ATA INC, 



Compare these Low Prices & 
Order Now! 

10D-C60 Cassettes $14.95 
10D-C90 Cassettes $16.95 

■ Add $2.50 per case of 10 to above 
prices for shipping and handhng 

We accept check, money order, Visa or Master 
Charge. (With credit card orders, include card 
number and expirahon date.) 

C.O.D. shipments, $2,00 additional. Direct mail 
orders to LT-DATA INC. at either address below. 

24 Hour phone Order Line 1-303 -575-8518 

P.O. Box 1567 Wheat Ridge, Colorado 80033 
Colorado Residents add 3% Sales Thx 
P.O. Box 1017 Medina, Ohio 44258 
Ohio Residents add 5 1/S% Sales T^x 

Visa/Mastercharge 



^See List qI Advertisers on page 306 



^11 



80 Microcomputing, April 1981 • 59 



u 



/^ He PROGRAM STORE 




DEVIL'S PALACE 

By G reg Hasset from Adventure World 
Find the Devil's Palace somewhere in the 
deep, dark forest. Vou will have to use all 
your wits to enter the palace and conquer the 
evil which stalks the dismal corridors. This 
adventure |iilO| is written in machine Ian 
guage for super excitement and suspense. 

Level II 16K . . .S1'l95 



ASYLUM 



from Med Systems 

Vou are sitting alone. It is I din. Your eyes 
are bloodshot. You peer into yor computer 
Ficreen and suddenly scream, "I must be 
crazy!" If this has ever happened to you, or 
the men in white coats from "Dcathmaze 5000" 
have hauled you away, it's time lo try Asy 
lum, the most ambitious 3 D graphics adven 
ture yet offered by Med Systems. 

Asylum features the 3 D perspective araohics 
that have made Deathmaze 5000 and Labyrinth 
bestsellers. You actually see where you arc 

and where you are going! 

Asylum places you on a cot in in a small room. 
Periodically, a janitor lobs a hand-grenade 
through the window of your locked door. What 
you do next could mean survival or escape! 



Level II 16K . . .514. 95 




DRAGONQUEST 

By Charles Forsythe from Proaramers Guild 
It's a desperate race as you search for 
SMAEGOR, who has kidnapped the Princess of 
the Realm and holds her in a distant and un 
known place. In a quest for honor and glory, 
you must search the land, seeking out the 
tools needed for the ultimate confrontation. 
Clues abound on The River Delta, in the a 
bandoned Temple of the Goddess of the Blade 
everywhere! But WHERE is the Princess? 
Order this new machine lanuage adventure 
now. You may never find the Princess, but 
you'll liave fun trying! 



TRS-80 Level I116K 

unless otherwise 
noted 




COSMIC FIGHTER 

By Hogue Z Konyu from Big f-ive 
Terrific sound, graphics and unique chal 
Icnges mark this new space game a winner! 
While fighting off the alien convoys, each 
more powerful than the last, you must keep 
track of your rocket fuel or risk explosion as 
you maneuver toward the mothership to re 
fuel , Can you dock immediately, or is the sta 
tJon overrun by aliens? Find out by ordering 
Cosmic Fighter today. 

Level II 16K tape. . .&1!|, 95 
3^K disk version. . .S17, D5 



MISSILE 
ATTACK 



L5y Philip Oliver from Adventure Int. 
Closely patterned on the latest king of the ar 
cade games, you must use your twin silos of 
ABM's to fend off barrage after \iafra<;^^ of 
enemy missiles that rain down toward your 
cities. As your skill increases so does the dif- 
ficulty and speed of this ever machine Ian 
guage arcade game! Watch the skies and may 
your aim be true! Missile Attack has sound 
and fast moving graphics. 

Level II ISK tape. .. $14,55 
32K disk, , . i20.95 

TECHNICAL 
SOFTWARE 

By Howard Berlin from Sams SOS 
A series of seven different packages de 
signed to increase your aid your technical 
knowledge and skills : 

PLOTTING GRAPHS FOR LINE PRINTER 

ACTIVE FILTER DESIGN 

DESCRIPTIVh STATISTICS & REGRbSSION 

ANALYSIS 
ELECTRONICS I 
ELECTRONICS II 
ELECTRONICS III 
PLOTTING GRAPHS FOR VIDEO DISPLAY 

Both educational and useful, these proorams 
include thorough and well written docu 
mentation. 





THE 
B00K 

VOLUME 
II 



From Insiders Software 

Everything you want to know about video, 
keyboard, cassette, and print driver rou 
tines. Learn to write your own! Remarkably 
detailed listings illustrate well commented 
source code. Complement Volume I, now. 

SI '1.95 

SUPERScript 

3y Rick Wilkes from Acorn 

Using your Superscript modified Scripsit 
Word Processor and a compatible printer, you 
can now underline, boldface, insert text 
during printout, slash zeros, subscript, set 
type pitch, and of course Superscript! You 
can even read your disk directory and kill 
riles without leaving Scripsit. 

Superscript comes with drivers for popular 
serial and parallel printers, and easy in- 
structions for patching to your Scripsit pro- 
gram (does not include Scripsit) . 

Level II 32k Disk. . .$39.95 



QUICK- 
FIX 




Level II IbK tape. .. SI 5. 35 32K disk , . . 52! . 95 Level II I6K . . . 52'4 . 95 each 



By Kim Watt from Breeze Computing 
Finally a disk repair and modification util- 

ity that doesn't require a PhD to use! Quick 
Fix is a stand alone proaram that has its own 
I/O routines and does not use any ROM or 
DOS calls. As a result, it will operate on 
standard and "CP/M" machines and does not 
even require that the disk be in any drive 
after initalization. 

Quick- Fix does just about everything 
Apparat's "Super;ap" does, and so much 
more: Eliminate system files, kill files with 
common extensions, zero unused filenames 
and sectors, repair boot and directory auto- 
matically, change or eliminate all passwords, 
compute the master password, read 

non standard disks, compare disk sectors, do 
string or sector searches. 

With Quik Fix, you can even reformat disks 
without losintj existing files and data! Great 
for repairing damaged disks and refreshing 
old ones. Oi-der this essential utility today. 

Level I I 32k Disk. . .53W. 95 



Visit Our New Store: W.Bell Plaza -6600 Security Blvd -Baltimore, MD 



Mj TO ORDER CALL TOLL FREE 800 424-2738 caMT202T33f-469i 



THE PROGRAM STORE ^ 

4200 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Dept. K10 Box 9609 
Washington, D.C. 20016 



MAIL ORDERS: Send check or M.O. for totat purchase 
price, plus $1 .00 postage & handling. D.C. residents, add 
6% tax. Charge card customers: include ail embossed 
information on card. 



60 • 80 Microcomputing, April1981 



Get the most from yoor micro with 
software and accessories from one of 
the world's largest selections. 



The 

n'o<jruiii 

Store 



CALL TOLL FREE 

800424-2738 




DUEL 

«N» 

DROIDS 



By Leo Christophei-son from Acorn 
Your 'droid has already learned NIM, so now 
it's time to teach it how to wield a laser sword! 
Leo Christopherson, author of "Android 
NIM," "Dancing Demon" and other animations , 
has developed a new type of animation and 
high-quality sound in his latest work. 

Your 'droid starts out as a lowly clown. You 
teach it how to use a laser sword by control- 
ling its movements. After training it to be a 
"Grand Master, " you enter the tournament 
against the program's skilled 'droid! Enter- 
tainment for all ages. 

Protected Tape... $m. 95 
Protected Disk. . . S20. 95 



DEATH 
MAZE 

5000 




from Med Systems 
A new breed of adventuring! Venture 
through a graphically represented 3-D maze, 
with halls that could dead end -- or recede to 
infinity. Step through the doors or drop into 
the pits. Will you encounter monsters and 
mayhem, or will you be treated to useful ob 
jects and information? Will you ever get out 
alive? 

You may never find your way out of 
Deathmaze 5000, but you'll keep trying! 

16K TRS-80, 32K APPLE 1 1... $12. 95 



Unbelievable Realtime 3-0 Graphics! 




FLIGlHT SIMULATION 



From Sub Logjc 

The wait is over! If 3-D graphics seem impos- 
sible on the low resolution TRS-80, you hav 
en't seen this brilliant program. During 
FLIGHT SIMULATION, you instantly select 
instrument flight, radar, or a breathtaking 
pilot's-eye- view . But be sure to strap your 
self in - you're liable to get dizzy! 

Once you put in some dir lime learning to fly 
your TRS-80, head for enemy territory and 
try to bomb the fuel depot and airstrip while 
fighting off five enemy warplanes. Good 

Luck! 



Level 



II Tape. . .$25.00 




SUPER 
NOVA 



iy t3ill Hague from Big Five 
Asteroids surround your ship. You must shoot 
the asteroids, as well as any alien spaceships. 
Written in fast machine code, this game is 
GREAT! 

You may encounter five different kinds of 
alien ships, including the very deadly flag- 
ship. You shoot from your ship's position, 
rotate it, use your thrusters to move — if you 
are overwhelmed, you can even get away to 
hyperspace. Fast and exciting. 

Tape. . . .Sl't.95 



SPACE WAR 

By Device Oriented Games from Acorn 
A two player, real-time action game that lets 
each player control a spaceship with rotate, 
thrust, fire, and hyperspace. Five game 
options (including gravity) and three playing 
speeds. In fast machine language. 

Tape. . .S9.95 



#^ 



AlfiiliiaiAiliiOiAili 



By Hogue h Konyu from Big-Five 
"The rage of the arcades" is now available for 
TRS- 80! Exciting sound effects add to the ac 
iion as the invaders swoop down to destroy 
your base. Even while you have your hands 
full battling the aliens, you have to watch out 
for the Flagship! Super graphics, super ac- 
tion, super fun ' 

Level I or II , tape. . .i11, 95 



PINBALL 



By John Allen from Acorn 

Get your flipper fingers ready for action in 

this real time, machine language game. 

Lots of sound and flashing graphics make this 
fast action game so much like the real thing 
thai you'll have to remind yourself not to 
shake your TRS-80. Choose from five playing 
speeds to match your skill. Can you beat your 
friends' scores? Will you avoid the dreaded 
"Bermuda Square?" Get PINBALL today and 
f i n d o LI t . 

Protected tape, . . $ 1 4, 95 
Protected disk, . .$20.95 



TYPING TUTOR 




By Ainsworth S Baker from Microsoft 
Speed up your programming and word pro- 
cessing with this excellent touch typing in 
structional program. Divided into two sec- 
tions, the program first leaches proper finger 
positioning . You practice keying various char- 
acters, the program adding new ones as you 
progress. In the practice paragraph section, 
you are evaluated for accuracy and rated in 
words per minute. The program continuously 
adjusts to your increasing skill, telling you 
which characters you miss and where you are 
slow. One of the most practical programs we 
know of for TRS-80. 
$14.95 

- DDT Disk Drive Timer 



h i C 
CPTJE 



ISLD"! 

2?5.1IO 29t.t7 



EACH BARK flEPRESENIS 
ICOBPECi] 
29B,;; 30(1 



F N D T R 
ftPn AhMSE: 
O.i? iiPB, 



(FSSTl 
303.3! JOS.Oi 



.i....i.,..l....i....l....i....l.... I.„.i,„.l,...i...,!. 



from Disco-Tech 

Analyje and adjust your disk drive motor 
speed with a real time graphic display. Ma 
nua I details use for Radio Shack, Shugart , 
.ypl , Per tec and Vista drives, and DDT can be 
used with any drive. All you need is DDT, 
two screwdrivers and five minutes. 



Disk. 



. S2 9.9E 




INVADERS 
FROM 
SPACE 



by Carl Miller from Acorn 

A fast machine language approach to this 
classic (and addictive) space game. As you 
play, the aliens drop bombs, move from side 
to side, and try to overrun your bases. Hold 
them off - and score -- by shooting them 
down. But, just as you think you've got it all 
under control, the action speeds up. 

Choose the game speed, enemy bomb frecjucn- 
cy and accuracy, shots on screen and the 
number of your bases. Move your base and 
simultaneously fire at the invaders — you 
cannot do this in most similar games. Full 
sound effects add even more excitement to the 
Incredible speed and action of INVADERS 
FROM SPACE, Fun for all ages and skill 
levels. 



Protected tape , 
Protected disk . 



.514, 95 

.£20. 55 



THE PROGRAM STORE • Dept KlO Box 9609- 4200 Wisconsin Ave, ^4W • ^shington, D.C. 20016 

l+em Price Postage Si .00 name 



To+a 

□ CHECK 



□ VISA 



addr 
city 



state zip 



□ MASTERCARD MC Bank # Card# Exp 



^See List of Advertisers on page 306 



80 Microcomputing, April 1981 • 61 



5!9news 



Edited by Nancy Robertson 



"He says that the FCC is not 

interested in putting anyone out of 

business; solutions. . . will. . . be 

hammered out by the bureaucracy." 



A Backyard Tinkerer and 

Tenured Bureaucrat on the RFI Circuit 



Milt Mobley is a healthy mix of irasci- 
ble southern gentleman, backyard 
tinkerer and tenured bureaucrat. He's re- 
tired now but he's still working hard. This 
month he is on the seminar circuit. He 
travels from Hilton to Ramada to Hoiiday 
inn telling computer equipment manufac- 
turers all they want to know about radio 
frequency interference and how to mea- 
sure It in their products. Mill knows alot 
about radio frequency interference (RFI). 
Milt enjoys being able to speak freely. 
"This time, I think the commission may 
have bitten off more than it can chew, or 
more than it can swalla, anyhow." Milt is 
responding to a question from someone in 
his seminar audience. The questioner, an 
engineer from Digital Equipment Corpora- 
tion, is wondering how the hell his com- 
pany can continue to sell its systems in 
view of the new Federal Communications 
Commission's (FCC) limitations on 
conducted and radiated RF emissions. It 
seems that while each component (card 



reader, CPU, terminal, mass storage unit, 
printer, etc.) individually meets RFI limita- 
tions, the system falls when put together 
in certain electrical or physical configura- 
tions. The engineer is worried. 

Lite is Getting Tough 

Life got tough for the engineer from 
DEC when the FCC decided to set some 
limilsontheamountof radio frequency in- 
terference that his computer could legally 
generate. Three classes of computers 
exist and interference limits are based on 
the setting in which the machine Is likely 
to be operating. The classes are commer- 
cial. Class A; residential, Class B; and if 
the computing device uses modulated RF 
for video. Class I. (See the tables of regula- 
tions included with this article.) 

Milt counsels him to stay calm. He says 
that the FCC is not interested in putting 
anyone out of business; solutions for 
these problems will somehow be ham- 
mered out by the bureaucracy. 



Technical Standard for Radiated Em 


ssions 


Device 


Frequency Distance 
(MHz) (meters) 


Field strength 
(uV/m) 


Class A: 


30-88 30 
88-216 30 

216-1000 30 


30 
50 
70 


Class B: 


30-88 3 

88-216 3 

216-1000 3 


100 
150 
200 


Class 1 TV; 


30-47.7 
47,7-1000 


15 
15 


Regulations of Power-line Conducted RF) Emissions 




Frequency (MHz) Maximum RF Line VoltagB(uV) 1 


Class A Devices: 




1000" 
3000* 


Class B Devices: 


0.45-30 


250* 


Class 1 TV Devices: 


0,45-25 


100# 



Milt should know. He has over 30 years 
of civil service behind him. He is the re- 
tired Assistant Chief Engineer of the FCC, 
and in his time he has seen alot of RFI 
problems come and go in the commis- 
sion's central lab In Laurel, MD. 

Exo Facto 

When he worked at the FCC an informal 
understanding among staff members pre- 
vented them from discussing the Ins and 
outs of day-to-day business with mem- 
bers of the industries that they regulated. 
It is the same today. The understanding is 
known as exo facto and its point Is the 
prevention of conflicts of interest be- 
tween commission members (some of 
whom are industry veterans) and their 
cronies in business. While in principle a 
good idea, a negative aspect of exo facto 
is that it makes it very hard to get any in- 
formation at all out of the commission- 
information like how to conduct and pass 
RFI tests. 

Since his retirement, Milt can speak 
freely about these matters — and does. 
His services have been retained by R&B 
Enterprises of Plymouth Meeting, PA. 
R&B is one of several firms in the relative- 
ly new field of electromagnetic compati- 
bility testing (EMC). It operates a test facil- 
ity that specializes in the performance of 
esoteric tests for government and military 
radiation specifications. 

FCC Testing 

As the overhead projector whirs away 
late in the afternoon in the stuffy function 
room, transparency after transparency 
slides across the screen. Milt is attempt- 
ing to show 100 computer engineers and 
technicians just what Is expected of them 
when they submit their test data to the 
commission for certification. Both the 
power line conducted emission measure- 
ment and the radiated emission measure- 
ment that these people must make neces- 

(Continues to page 63) 



62 • 80 Microcomputing, April 1981 



Is the Z-80 Shouldering Zilog's Burdens? 



That tiny plastic iniay in all that dental 
bridgework under your keyboard, the 
Z-80 chip, tias drawn much speculative 
press attention. 

80 Microcomputing contacted Zilog, 
Inc. of Cupertino, CA makers of the Z-80 
microprocessor, to assess the impact on 
the microcomputer industry of reported fi- 
nancial reverses. 

The Z-80, which is the central processor 
for the TRS-80 Model I, II and Ml, as well as 
Heath/Zenith's micro, the Personal Micro 
Computer, Sinclair Electronics' ZX-80 and 
other microcomputers, has generated an 
estimated $50 million in unit sales for 
Zilog. According to a study by Dataquest, 
a San Francisco area research firm, 
growth is expected to continue at the rate 
of 20 to 30 percent over the next two years. 

However, reports in the trade papers in- 
dicate that Zilog has suffered reversals in 
the marketplace and that it has scrapped 
its MCZ-2 multiprocessor project. Com- 
pany spokesmen label the press coverage 
misleading half truths. 

Bill Carrico, director of marketing for 
Zilog components, could not comment di- 
rectly on reports by Computer Systems 
News that Zilog had lost a $1.5 million 

contract with ITTforMCZ-1 distribuonand 
its $1 million contract with Ontario Hydro 
for a Canadian Z-Net. He did say that 
"when IBM loses a contract, it never 
makes the papers." 

Carrico explained that Zilog is divided 
into two distinct divisions: component 
manufacture and systems manufacture.' 
Both the MCZ-1 and Z-Net are systems 
projects. 

These system projects, said Carrico, 
are aimed at the electronic office systems 
of the future. These are microprocessors 
used in dedicated environments and do 
not effect chip manufacture for the micro- 
computer market. 

Components Market Strong 

Twice in the last year and a half, threat- 
ened shortages of microcomputer chips 
have caused the marketplace some con- 
sternation. But, according to Carrico, 
Zilog's component manufacture, includ- 
ing a new "Ethernet chip that will allow 
you to access the Xerox net," couldn't be 
stronger. 

In addition to the Z-80 eigfit-bit micro- 
processor, Zilog's Z-8000 16-bit micropro- 
cessor has found wide acceptance. A new 
entry for Zilog, the Z-80B is an improved 
six-MHz version of the Z-80. 

Further, a Z-8 chip will offer Tiny BASIC, 



2K of ROM and 128 bytes of RAM. This, 
Carrico explained, "is a single-chip envi- 
ronment for hand-hefd games, sewing ma- 
chines" and other dedicated uses, 

"We are generally selling and shipping 
more (Z-80s) than ever," said Carrico. He 
rebutted the idea of a chip shortage at- 
tached to Zilog reversals by saying that 
the Z-80 is also licensed by Mostek, SGS 
in Italy and Sharp Electronics of Japan. 

According to Carrico, Nippon Electric 
Corp. (NEC) of Japan is also making their 
chip, "but they're not licensed. They did a 
straight copy." 

The market continues to show steady 
growth for the Z-80 eight-bit microproces- 
sor and Carrico is confident that growth 
rate is secure. He argues that the Z-80 has 
found a "price-performance niche" that 
solidifies its future. 



"A7e rebutted the idea of 
a chip shortage , . , 

saying that the Z-80 is 
licensed by Mostek, 
SGS and Sharp. . , " 



Though it's true that the 16-bit micro- 
processor offers more computing power 
and speed, it is also more costly. This ex- 
tra power is unnecessary for some users, 
said Carrico. "A Cadillac is still more ex- 
pensive than a Ford," Carrico said, and 
"you don't put a V-8 in your lawnmower." 

Carrico compared the price of comput- 
ing to the price of calculators. While it's 
true, he argued, that "the price of a four- 
function calculator has fallen to $10. . .a 
scientific calculator with 20 or 30 func- 
tions... will never be $10." Both price 
points will be constant for years. 

The additional capability of the 16-bit 
processor is not an easy transition. 
"There is a schism that has taken place 
. . .when you go from a Z-80 to a Z-8000. 
They are not binary of source compatible. 
When you go to the 16-bit machines you 
will go into another strata (of comput- 
ing)." This transition, said Carrico, brings 
with it, "a major software challenge." 

Though conversion software may be 
the answer, the key to the original suc- 
cess of Zilog and the Z-80 was the chip's 
compatibility. According to 80 Microcom- 
puting's Technical Consultant, Jake Com- 
mander, the Z-80 was a compatible super- 



set of the 8080 chip by Intel Corp. 

Zilog, too, has recognized this. Their re- 
sponse is Z-80B, an eight-bit chip that of- 
fers 50 percent more computing speed 
than the Z-80, "The Z-80B" said Carrico, 
"will offer. . .six as opposed to four mega- 
hertz." 

Network Microcomputers 

Despite the health of Zilog's compo- 
nent market, Zilog's systems reversals 
cannot go unnoticed in a company that is 
dedicated to what is called a Z-Net. Z-Net 
is cable-connected network of microcom- 
puters, all time-sharing with larger units. 
Locally, Zilog is using such a net to con- 
nect its Cupertino office mail. There is no 
doubt, said Carrico, that "distributed 
computing is the name of the game." 

That commitment is precisely the 
source for speculative rumors that 
emerged recently in the trade press. Over 
a year ago in March, Exxon Enterprise, 
Inc., NY, Zilog's parent company, pur- 
chased Summit, Zilog's own research and 
development arm. Exxon merged that 
company with several other research or- 
ganizations and their Vydec word process- 
ing machine, the Qyx electronic typewriter 
and the Qwip facsimile transmission unit 
into Exxon Office Systems, Co. This re- 
portedly gave Exxon the third largest of- 
fice distribution network, after IBM and 
Xerox, in the industry. 

Summit's link to a national network was 
viewed by some trade press members as 
having an adverse effect on Zilog's own 
Z-Net plans. 

Carrico, however, reported that "Sum- 
mit was a project internal to Zilog that was 
spun off" well before Exxon picked it up. 
"It had nothing to do with Zilog for two 
years" before that time. 

Component support of such networks 
continues and is manifest in Zilog's "Eth- 
ernet chip," Though he admitted to over 
simplifying an eventual Ethernet peripher- 
al, Carrico said that such a general pur- 
pose device will become available and it 
will be compatible with the national Xerox 
system and Z-80 based machines. 

"Software is the more complex issue," 
said Carrico, who did not volunteer a mar- 
ket date for such a peripheral. 

Zilog's own experiments have been 
with interoffice file sharing, but Carrico 
did not discount the use of Zilog devel- 
oped equipment for the "remote user," 
that is the owner of a home micro- 
computer. ■ by Michael Comendul 

80 Staff 



80 Microcomputing, April 1981 • 63 



5^(9 NEWS 



Tracing Roots: 

Who Is Making Which l\/iicro Products? 



When Alex Hailey set out to find his 
"roots," back in the dense jungles 
of Africa, he understood that it would be a 
difficult task. Today it seems no less easy 
to trace just where a microcomputer prod- 
uct truly originates. 

It has long been rumored that the 
TRS-80 Pocket Computer is really a prod- 
uct of Sharp Electronics of Japan, and 
that Centronics Data Computer Corp. of 
Hudson, NH makes some Radio Shack 
printers. 

In the software industry, too, many 
products bear a copyright notice on their 
labels hinting at their true beginnings. 

People at Tandy feel that it should be of 
no concern to consumers just where a 
product originates. So long as the Radio 
Shack label is on it, it is a Radio Shack 
product, says Ed Juge, director of com- 
puter merchandising. 



Becoming the Rule 

Radio Shack is not the only company 
that markets the products of another com- 
pany under its own label. The practice is 
fast becoming the rule rather than the ex- 
ception in the microcomputer industry. 
Competing firms worldwide are entering 
agreements through which one manufac- 
turer allows another to market its prod- 
ucts. 

In some cases, the original manufac- 
turer is recognized on the package. In few 
cases is the manufacturer acknowledged 
in the advertising. 

What are the benefits to such agree- 
ments between manufacturers? 

Consider the business management 
and planning program Visicalc, written for 
Personal Software by Software Arts of 
Cambridge, MA. According to Jeff Walden 
at Personal Software, Sunnyvale, CA, the 
program was very successful from the 
start. When RadioShackagreed to market 
the program for the TRS-80, Visicalc was 
then available in 8,000 additional stores 
worldwide, a distribution that Personal 
could not hope to obtain on its own. 

It is to Tandy's advantage to market the 
program, as well. According to Watden, "It 
took the equivalent of 10 man-years to pro- 
duce Visicalc — a sizable investment and 
risk." Radio Shack, unwilling to invest the 
time or money to produce a business 
package of equal scope, found it more 
reasonable to add Visicalc to their own 
product line. 



Bill Schroeder of Galactic Software in 
Mequon, Wl suggests another benefit. He 
points out that a company like Tandy spe- 
cializes in hardware; they need software 
to support their computers. Schroeder 
feels they contract with another company 
to produce software in orderto boost their 
own computer sales. Or, as in the case of 
Visicalc, they buy a program that is 
already on the market and sell it. 

Often in the hardware industry, a com- 
pany will "farm out" projects that it is not 
prepared to handle on its own. For exam- 
ple, Centronics Data Corp. makes two of 
the Radio Shack line printers (Line Print- 
ers II and IV), and Sharp Electronics 
makes the TRS-80 Pocket Computer, ac- 
cording the Radio Shack's Ed Juge. 



'^People at Tandy feel 
that it should be of no 
concern to customers 
just where a product 
originates." 



Standards and Support 

"Radio Shack's 26 (as of 1980) plants 
build about 42 percent of the products we 
sell," stated Juge. "Our products, how- 
ever, must adhere to the same standards 
whether the vendor is an outside com- 
pany, or one of our facilities." 

The question of product support de- 
pends upon the agreement. When Instant 
Software in Peterborough, NH markets a 
Galactic Software program, according to 
P. T. Wolfe, director of marketing. Galac- 
tic supports the product. 

Contracts and Agreements 

The agreements between companies 
vary and hinge upon who owns the patent 
or copyright to a product, according to 
Schroeder. If a company approaches Ga- 
lactic Software and requests that a pro- 
gram be written to specifications, the 
company that requests to have the pro- 
gram written usually obtains the copy- 
right. In that case, the marketer need not 
recognize the original manufacturer on 
the packaging. 

If, on the other hand, a company labels 



software that is already copyrighted, then 
the original publisher's name usually ap- 
pears on the packaging in a copyright 
notice. 

Unless specified by contract, a firm that 
markets another's products is not obligat- 
ed to recognize the original publisher in 
advertising. Sometimes, however, the 
reputation of the original manufacturer or 
publisher lends prestige to advertise- 
ments. Radio Shack touts Standard and 
Poor's on Stockpack, for example. Juge 
comments, "It was designed by an 
acknowledged leader in the industry, and 
they want the exposure, too." 

A few difficulties do arise from labeling 
practices. !n one case, a consumer was 
unpleasantly surprised to find that he 
bought the same program from both Tan- 
dy and Personal Software under two dif- 
ferent titles. (See "80 News," Jan. 81 .) 

In the process of labeling the Personal 
Software game Time Trek, Tandy re- 
quested to have the title of the program 
changed to Space Warp. According to Ed 
Juge, the request was made to avoid copy- 
right conflicts with the producers of Star 
Trek. Tandy's Bill Walters termed the inci- 
dent "unfortunate," and added that "what 
has happened here will not happen 
again." 

In another case, Taranto and Assoc, 
San Rafael, CA, filed a lawsuit against Ad- 
vanced Computer Products, Inc. of Santa 
Ana, CA, for advertising Taranto and 
Assoc, Inc. TRS-80 Model I and Model III 
software products without any authoriza- 
tion or rights to do so, according to a 
Taranto press release. Taranto obtained a 
preliminary injunction ordering Advanced 
Computer Products "not to sell or offer for 
sale computer products infringing Taran- 
to and Assoc, copyrights, nor to use, dis- 
play, or advertise" their trademarks or 
trade names. 

Whether a case of survival or coopera- 
tion, most attribute the labeling practices 
to the rapid growth of the computer in- 
dustry. Companies are under tremendous 
pressure to maintain their product lines, if 
a firm fails to produce a new product or an 
updated version quickly enough, they jeo- 
pardize their standing in the industry. 

Bill Schroeder states simply, "If a com- 
pany has limited resources and they want 
to stay ahead, they need the help of anoth- 
er company." ■ 

by Chris Crocker 
80 Staff 



64 • 80 Microcomputing, April 1981 



f(9NEWS 



Educational Testing on the Model II ^^i information Exchange 



The Educational Testing Service (ETS) 
of Princeton, NJ has reached an 
agreement with Radio Shack to offer a 
career guidance program for college level 
students using Shack's Model 11 micro- 
computer . 

ETS, best knov\/n for the creation and 
administration of the widely used, and 
lately controversial, Scholastic Aptitude 
Tests (SATs), is the leader in the field of 
educational testing and measurement. 
They have now developed a microcomput- 
er-based career guidance program to help 
students make the right choices at grad- 
uation time, 

ETS' System of Interactive Guidance In- 
formation (SIGI) is a large database pro- 
gram comprised of six modules which are 
designed to help the student clarify career 
values, identify career alternatives and 
understand the implications of a specific 
career choice. Originally developed by 
ETS for use with a PDP-11 minicomputer 
in the 1960s, SIGI has undergone many 
revisions and updates. 



^Jhe Model II version 
represents the first 
application of SIGI 

to a microcomputer " 



This self-prompting program is de- 
signed to lead the student through the va- 
rious stages of career decisions. First, the 
student's values are identified. Then, 
careers that can satisfy these values are 
located in the SIGI database. Several 
career choices are examined, predictions 
of success are made based on the stu- 
dent's interests and abilities; planning for 
the career is then discussed. Finally, a 
strategy for attaining the career is out- 
lined. 

The First SIGI Microcomputer 

The Model II version represents the first 
application of SIGI to a microcomputer. 
SIGI program director PHd. Martin Katz 
told SOM/cro that the Model II was chosen 
"only after an exhaustive survey of the mi- 
crocomputer industry." He added that 
ETS's choice of the Model II was pre- 
dicated upon many factors, some of 
which Vi/ere Radio Shack's comprehensive 
network of retail and service outlets, the 
relatively low price of the system ($5,000), 
the large storage capacity of the Model II 



(64K RAM), thequalityof the video display 
and the availability of the computer and 
all peripherals such as printer and disk 
drives from the same vendor. 

SIGI's conversion from mainframe to 
micro was accomplished by Ehrlich 
Assoc, of San Francisco, CA. The efficient 
use of code was the major software de- 
sign criteria and Ehrlich's conversion em- 
ploys elaborate packing and data com- 
pression techniques in order to squeeze 
the SIGI database into the Model II. A 
CP/M operating system is used and the 
package requires the presence of an ex- 
ternal eight-inch disk drive in addition to 
the Model ll's on-board drive. 

To acquire the use of the SIGI package 
a college or university must apply for a li- 
cense from ETS. When the license is 
granted, the institution receives the Xvjo- 
disk SIGI database and operating system, 
and full program documentation. Each ad- 
ditional SIGI disk pack costs $600. Annual 
updates of the database are also avail- 
able. 

Expanding the Market 

At present, 800 colleges and univer- 
sities around the country are using SIGI 
on mainframes and minicomputers. ETS 
hopes that their affiliation with Radio 
Shack, and the availability of SIGI on a 
microcomputer, will increase that number 
substantially. While reluctant to deal in 
hard figures for first year projections, 
ETS's Martin Katz did indicate that the 
availability of SIGI on the Model II could 
result in a f ive-foid increase in the number 
of SIGI licenses granted in the next two 
years. 

To insure success of the venture 
various sales incentives are being offered 
to institutions who consider acquiring the 
SIGI/Modei II package. The most signifi- 
cant of these is a 15 percent price reduc- 
tion on hardware given to any SIGI ii- 
censee by Radio Shack. 

Though not sought by Radio Shack, its 
affiliation with the Educational Testing 
Service is likely to be beneficial. The pres- 
tige ETS enjoys within the educational 
community can only help the Shack's own 
image in this market, 

Charles Phillips, senior vice-president 
in charge of educational marketing for 
Radio Shack, told 80 Micro, "We are flat- 
tered to be chosen by ETS for the SIGI 
project. I think it speaks well of our hard- 
ware and we are looking forward to a 
mutually beneficial relationship." 

by Chris Brown 
80 Staff 



Looking for a source for information ex- 
change concerning computer based 
instructional systems? 

The Association for the Development of 
Computer Based Instructional Systems 
(ADCBIS) may be your answer. It is an in- 
ternational nonprofit organization with 
members in the United States, Canada 
and Europe. Its membership consists of 
diversified groups such as banks, medical 
colleges, insurance companies, school 
districts, teachers and college professors, 

ADCBIS began in 1964 as ADIS, the 
Association for the Development of In- 
structional Systems. It was started by a 
small group of IBM 1500 system users 
vwho were looking for a forum to informally 
exchange courseware and information. 
From these humble beginnings, it has 
developed into an association with 950 
members and publishes a bi-monthly 
newsletter, a quarterly journal, and hosts 
an annual conference which is open to the 
public. 

ADCBIS members are users of all kinds 
of systems, from mainframes to micros. 
Most micro users are members of elemen- 
tary school systems. 

Interested persons should contact the 
ADCBIS national office at this address: 
ADCBIS, c/o The Computer Center, West- 
ern Washington University, Bellingham, 
WA 98225. ■ 



Tandy to the Rescue 



in February 80 Micro reported on the 
North Carolina School of Science and 
Math, a public school which is doing some 
interesting things with micros in its curric- 
ulum. As you remember, the school is us- 
ing several Apples, and has one TRS-80, 
Despite the efforts of local Radio Shack 
dealers, the TRS-80 has not worked since 
the school opened. 

After talking with Dr. Steve Davis at the 
school and writing the February story, 80 
Micro wrote to Ed Juge at Radio Shack to 
tell him about the problems the school is 
having with its 80. Ed wrote back saying 
that someone from Fort Worth was look- 
ing into the problem. 

A few days after contacting Juge, Dr, 
Davis called the magazine. Things were 
really hopping in North Carolina! He had 
received several calls from Tandy execs, 
and soon after, help arrived in person. The 
fickle 80 is now in working order. 

We hope that the students at NCSSM 
are enjoying their TRS-80 for the first 
time.l 



5^(5 NEWS 



Microcomputing Titles 

Talce Sales Lead in the Technical Market 




^■J^iij^;-?^ 




If you can't judge a book by its cover, you 
can judge a book market by the number 
of covers publisfied and sold. Although 
the market is only a few years old, a good 
guess suggests that there are already 
thousands of microcomputing titles in 
print. So far no independent organization 
has measured the scope of the market. 
Yet several publishers have reported first 
year press runs of over 100,000 copies for 
certain microcomputing titles. Reported- 
ly, Tab Books Inc., Blue Ridge Summit, PA 
has two titles approaching a quarter mil- 
lion copies sold. 

The possibilities of a publishing market 
based on microcomputing topics emerged 
in the mid seventies. Between 1974 and 
1976 several peoplegrasped the impact of 
microprocessors and coupled their in- 
sight with publishing rather than manu- 
facturing. Adam Osborne and Rodnay 
Zaks who started Sybex were among those 
who foresaw the future in terms of books. 

The Early Days 

Zaks recalls the time and the climate 
that spurred him to begin Sybex. Project 
Genie at the University of California's 
Berkeley campus was bringing academ- 
ics together with industry to explore the 
potential of microprocessors. From Paris, 
Zaks brought the equivalent of doctorates 



"is.*":'_ , 







'.^ 


H 


i- 


.[•'■-. 


».* 


1 


'• '■ 


.|:i: 


I 'iS 


^ 






■ ^ M 


p 


• 


■ '^•ii : 


hy "i'lJ 


'i 




:-: 


.:'i- St- 


■ 




* ■ 






m,' i 


^ 




R- 



in math and engineering to Berkeley 
where he had a fellov/ship to study com- 
puter science. 

"Because I had knowledge of both 
hardware and software and a great inter- 
est in the chips, 1 began lecturing and also 
working at the university." The demands 
for lectures began to take all the time Zaks 
could spare. In an attempt to ease the 
burden, he documentd his knowledge and 
reproduced the visual aids he used during 
his talks. The material was bound in a 
book and 10 to 15 thousand copies were 
printed: All the copies sold within 10 days. 
Zaks says that besides seeing the poten- 
tial of the market from first-hand experi- 
ence, "I found I liked book writing." 

Rudolph Langer, managing editor of 
Sybex, recalls early problems that were 
shared by all microcomputing publishers. 
"It's a lamentable fact that most technical 
writers know their field well, but can't rep- 
resent that knowledge either visually or 
verbally." The problem was compounded 
by the lack of copy editors who compre- 
hended the topic. Langer says many pub- 
lishers had to "depend on the literacy of 
the academics who wrote for them and 
then did not edit the work at all." 

Although problems communicating the 
material have endured, the microcom- 
puting market continues to grow. At Mi- 



cromedia Marketing, Inc., of Pasadena, 
CA, Zachary Bovinette says they cull the 
most successful books from various 
publishers and sell to book store chains, 
computer chains and electronics outlets 
nationwide. The company is a wholesale 
distributor. 

Analyzing Sales 

In order to keep track of which titles are 
most lucrative, Micromedia maintains a 
list of their best sellers. Although it Is not 
meant to be a guage of the overall market, 
it is the only overview that considers titles 
from a group of publishing houses. How 
ever, books from companies that do not 
deal through Micromedia, such as Radio 
Shack and Tab, are not evaluated. The 
sales that are considered represent only a 
portion of any book's sales, since most 
microcomputing publishers market their 
books independently as well. 

Micromedia's current best seller has 
been on the market since November. In its 
first three months, it sold approximately 
4,000 copies through Mictomedia Market- 
ing distribution. Bovinette guesses that 
that number may account for a third of the 
copies actually sold. 

Considering the enthusiasm shared by 
publishers, Bovinette's estimate may be 
conservative. While publishers such as 
Sybex, Dtlithium, Matrix, Osborne, Wayne 
Green, Winthrop, Reston, Tab. John Wiley, 
Howard Sams and Hayden all report some 
press runs as low as five to 10 thousand, 
most also report titles that are selling 
close to the 100,000 mark in their first year. 

The Quarter Million Mark 

At Sybex, Zaks says Programming with 
theZ-80so\6 "well over 100,000 in its first 
yearand has been translated into at least 
three foreign languages." Several other 
Zybex titles reportedly sold close to 
80,000 copies their initial year. 

According to Anthony Curtis, managing 
editor of Tab Books, The BASIC Cookbook 
and 57 Programs & Games in BASIC are 
each approaching a quarter million copies 
in print. Within the next year. Tab expects 
to have 100 titles on microcomputing for 
hobbyists and small businessmen. Curtis 
says the initial press run of all of their mi- 
crocomputing titles Is at least 10,000 now. 

At Howard W. Sams, an electronics 
book publisher that is a subsidiary of In- 
ternational Telephone and Telegraph 
(ITT), Don Harrington was more guarded in 



66 • 80 Microcomputing, April 1981 



5?? NEWS 



his response to questions. But lie con- 
firmed the strength of the market by say- 
ing that microcomputing books "at the 
present time are our fastest moving tities 
and the best selling area of our line." 

Both Curtis and Harrington stress the 
importance of their companies' marketing 
divisions. At Tab, Curtis says titles are 
sold "wholesale to book stores vi/orld- 
wide through our network of 250 sales 
reps." Direct mail also accounts for a 
large share of the market with advertise- 
ments running concurrently in about 40 
magazines. Book clubs, such as Tab's 
own Computer Book Club and the Elec- 
tronics Book Club, provide another route 
to consumers. 

Tab Books may have a longer mar- 
keting reach than other companies in 
the field, but the complexity of the net- 
work is typical. Besides book stores, 
direct mail and book clubs, many compa- 
nies distribute their microcomputing titles 
through electronics stores. For instance, 
Microcomedia Marketing distributes titles 
to Computerland and MicroAge. Some 
companies, such are Prentice Hall's sub- 
sidiaries Winthrop and Reston, are also 
selling titles in schools. 

The complexity of the market has so far 
prevented any organization from attempt- 
ing to judge best selling technical books. 
Conversations with New York Times staff 
who help compile the best sellers lists in- 
dicate that the Times has begun to appre- 
ciate the magnitude of the technical pub- 
lishing business but has no plans to moni- 
tor its sales at this time. Currently the 
Times tracks sales "based on computer- 
processed reports from book stores and 
representative wholesalers with more 
than 40,000 outlets across the United 
States." The chore of tracking best selling 
technical titles could be more grilling. 



Belief in the Market 

Despite the inability to get concrete fig- 
ures on the overall market, major pub- 
lishing houses such as McGraw-Hill, 
Hougton Mifflin and Random House are 
beginning to stick their fingers in the pie. 

Publishers experienced with the market 
all project enduring strength and growth. 
Tab Book's Curtis said, "It's really hard to 
talk in dollars, especially with inflation, 
but I think there is something approach- 
ing a half a million microcomputers out 
there now, and by the end of 1982 there 
will be over a million. It's going to keep in- 
creasing, say at 50 percent a year, and, 
well, we can't keep the stuff in stock 
now." 



At Winthrop manager Charles Durang 
sees a unique strength in microcomputing 
books. "In our normal book market there 
are certain life patterns. After a certain 
time everybody will have read a book 
that's going to read that book. In this 
market worries of obsolesence are miti- 
gated because there's going to be a whole 
new audience every year," until microcom- 
puters become as common as televisions. 

Confirming the strength seen by Du- 



rang and Curtis, Ed Ferman, associate 
publisher of Wayne Green Inc. of Peter- 
borough, NH, compares the book market 
to the magazine market. The company 
currently publishes three magazines and 
an industry newsletter as well as books. 
Ferman predicts that "Books will eventu- 
ally be the largest gross revenue in our 
publishing venture."B 

by Nancy Robertson 
80 Staff 



CONVERT YOUR TRS-80 MODEL-I INTO A 

DEVELOPMENT SYSTEM 

Now you can develop Z-80 based, stand-alone devices such as games, robols 
instruments and peripheral contro Hers, by using your TRS-ao as a development system 
Tlie DEVELOPMATE plugs into llie expansion connector of your TRS-80 and adds 
PROM PROGRAMMING and IN-CIRCUIT-EMULATION capabilities lo your 
system (with or without expansion intertace). 

Complete instructions and sample schematics are included to help you design your 
own simple stand-alone microcomputer systems THESE SYSTEMS CAN BE AS 
SIMPLE AS FOUR iCs^onei 
one peripheral interface chip 



FL circuit for clock and reset, a Z-80. an EPROM, and 




When the In -Circuit- Emulation cable is plugged 
into the 2-80 socket of your stand-alone system, 
the system becomes a part o( your TRS-80 You 
can use the full power ot your editor/ assembler s 
debug and trace programs to check out both tiie 
hardware and the sottware. Simple test loops 
can be used to check out the hardware, then the 
system program can be run to debug the logic of 
your stand-alone device 

Since the program is kept m TRS-80 RAM, 
changes can be made quickly and easily When 
your stand-alone device works as Oesirea you 
use the Developmates PROM PROGRAMMER 
to copy the program into a PROM With this 
PROM and a Z-80 in place ol ttie emulation 
cable, your stand-alone device will work by itseH 

The DEVELOPMATE is extremely compact Both the PROM programmer and the 
In-Ciicuit-Emulator are in one small plastic box only 3.2' ■5.4". A line-plug mounted 
power supply is included. The PROM programmer has a personality module which 
defines the voltages and connections of the PROM so that future devices can be 
accommodated However, the system comes with a universal' personality module 
which handles 2758.2508(8K). 2716 2516(1 6K) 2532(32K). as well as the new elec- 
trically alterable 2816 and 48016(16K EEPROMs) 

The COMPLETE DEVELOPMATE 81, with software, power supply, emulation 
cable. TRS-80 cable and universal personality module, is ONLY S329' 

The PROM PROGRAMMER is available seoarately lot ONI Y S239 

ORION INSTRUfiflENTS 

1 72 Otis Avenue, Dept M, Woodside, CA 94062 

(415)851-1172 

Master Charge and Visa phone orders accepted. 

California residents please add 6% sales tax. 



@@@@@@@[^@@@@@@I3@@@@@@@@[^ 



SI 
01 
01 
01 
BJ 
01 
01 
OJ 
01 

01 
BJ 
01 




Icl 
M 

m 

Check our book pages for IS 
the latest books about || 

microcomputers. || 

10 

iBl 



nilElQlBlElBlBlBlBlBlBlBlslBlBlQlElBlOlOlOlBlOlU 



^See List of Advertisers on page 306 



80 Microcomputing, April 1981 • 67 



5&NEWS 



RFI Circuit 

(Continued from page 62) 



sitate the use of elaborate and expensive 
test gear and fixtures. Spectrum analyz- 
ers capable of operating at 1GHz (1,000 
MHz) are only the beginning. Three, 10 or 
30 meter test sites may be used providing 
they meet the site attenuatiori require- 



ments the FCC deems appropriate. There 
are separate tests to determine if the test 
site is certifiable- Complete test records 
must also be kept, just in case the govern- 
ment wants to recreate the test to check 
the accuracy of the data. 

What if the companies these engineers 
work for are unwilling or unable to con- 
duct the RFI tests they need to get their 



^'(P CALENDAR 



May 

May 4-7 the 1981 National Com- 
puter Conference will be heid at Mc- 

Cormjck Place, Chicago. Micro- 
computing exhibits and the Person- 
al Computing Festival will be in- 
cluded in the main exhibit area. 

Professional Development Semi- 
nars, Arlington, VA is offering 21 
seminars at McCormick Inn in con- 
junction with the conference. For 
more information, call (703) 
588-3610. 

The National TRS-80 Microcom- 
puter Show will be held at the New 
York Statler Hotel Exposition Hall 
in New York City May 21-23. 

Sponsored by Kengore Corp., 
Franklin Park, NJ and by 80 Micro- 
computing, Peterborough, NH, the 
show will focus on the Radio Shack 
Model I, M, III, Color Videotex and 
Pocket Computers. There will be 
daily user-group seminars as well 
as a number of guest speakers. 
Contact Kengore Corp. for more in- 
formation. 

May 20-22, the Videotex 81 Con- 
ference and Exfiibit will be held at 
the Royal York Hotel, Toronto, Can- 
ada. Sponsored by Informat, a 
Canadian videotex service organi- 
zation, and by Online Conferences 
Ltd. of London, the conference will 
review topics under the headings of 
International Review, General & 
Business interest and Industry. In- 
ternational videotex designs and 
equipment will also be displayed. 

Videotex is a generic term refer- 
ring to screen formatting of infor- 
mation that is transmitted via elec- 
tronic networks. : 



For more information on the con- 
ference, contact Pam Carter, Video- 
tex '81, Infomart, 122 St. Patrick St., 
Toronto, Ontario M5T 2X8 Canada. 

June 

The National Forum on Comput- 
ers and Health, Alexandria, VA is 
offering a workshop called Mini- 
computers and Microprocessors in 
Medical Practice A/lanagement. tt 
will be held June 4-5 in Philadel- 
phia. To register call (703) 549-8020 
collect. The toll free number for 
Virginia residents is (800) 336-4776. 

June 30 is the deadline for sub- 
missions for The Johns Hopkins 
First National Search for personal 
computing devices, programs and 
designs to aid the handicapped. 
The search is designed to "discover 
existing applications and to inspire 
new ideas for the application of per- 
sonal computing to meet the needs 
of the handicapped," according to 
a press release from Johns Hop- 
kins University. 

A $10,000 grand prize is offered 
along with 100 other awards. The 
three submission categories are 
defined as 1) Computer Based De- 
vices which includes "hardware in- 
vented or modified tor the purpose, 
or working hardware and software 
which can demonstrate a new ap- 
plication," 2) Computer Programs 
which means "specialized software 
and concepts for existing comput- 
ers," and 3) System Concept/De- 
sign, which is "written descriptions 
of ideas not yet implemented." 

The competition is being spon- 
sored by grants from The National 
Science Foundation and by Radio 
Shack. 

For more information, write Per- 
sonal Computing to Aid the Handi- 
capped, The Johns Hopkins Univer- 
sity, P.O. Box 670, Laurel, MD 
20810. 



new equipment certified for sale? In that 
case, R&B Enterprises is capable of doing 
the testing for them. Robert Goldblum, 
President and Technical Director of R&B 
told 80 Microcomputing, "Rates vary de- 
pending on thecomplexity of the test,and 
the type of unit under test, A ball park fig- 
ure is around $1,000 a session (day). Most 
micros or their peripherals can be tested 
in one or two sessions." 

As the fatigued engineers file out of 
function room six at the end of the first 
day's seminar and head for the lounge, 
they talk of microvolts and meters. An in- 
tense core of people surround Mobley and 
barage him with questions. 

"Which rotor is best to use in a turn- 
table?" 

"CDE^s Ham M." 

"Are there any alternatives to expen- 
sive, commercially calibrated dipole an- 
tennas?" 

"No." 

"Is $20,000 a realistic figure to spend on 
a good quality spectrum analyzer for the 
1GHz range?" 

"Yes." 

"In this new era of dereguiation, why is 
the FOG sticking its nose in our busi- 
ness?" 

"Heck, when the boys started building 
computers that interfered with Land Mo- 
bile, commercial, amateur and TV com- 
munications you got yourselves involved 
in our business. The commission is just 
tryin' to keep a lid on interference com- 
plaints. That's all."H 

by Chris Brown 
80 Staff 




Milt Mobley at the Podium 



68 • 80 Microcomputing, April 1981 



/ 



SOFTWARE XJinilMITED 



presenting the LARGEST SELECTION OF SOFTWARE EVER ASSEMBLED. 



the best available on the market today for TRS-80® Computers 

at SUPER DISCOUNT PRICES! 



AVALON HILL 

n MIDWAY 13 50 

□ NUKE WAR 1 3 50 

a PLANET MINERS 13.50 

D CONVOY RAIDER 13 50 

n B1 BOMBER 13 50 

n LORDS OF KARMA 18.00 

PROGRAMMERS GUILD 

□ DREADNA'JGHT 13 55 

D DREADNAUGHT (O] 17 95 

D DUTCH GOLD |D1 17.95 

n DUTCHMANS GOLD 13.55 

D ELECTRA DRAW 2 17 95 

D SPIDER MOUNTAIN 13.55 

n SPIDER MOUNTAIN |Dj 17 95 

D THUNDER 1355 

APPARAT 

n NEWOOS'BO i?5 on 

ADVENTURE INTERNATIONAL 

n ADVENTURE HINT BOOK ,'95 

□ ADVENTURE ffO 6.25 

a ADVENTURE (1,2,3) |D| 35 95 

n ADVENTURE (4,5,61 |D| 35 95 

D ADVENTURE (76,9) |D| 35.95 

a ADVENTURE #10 [D] 1B95 

n ADVENTURE (specify 1-10) 1355 

D MEAN CHECKERS MACHINE 17 95 

D MEAN CHECKERS MACHINE |D1 . . . . 22 95 

O DR CHIPS 1355 

D DR CHIPS [D| 17.95 

a INTER FICTION SAMPLER |D] 13 55 

D INTER-LOCAL CALLS [D| 17 95 

D INTER-TWO HEADS |D| 17 95 

□ INTER-IMPETUOUS [D| 17 95 

□ KID-VENTURE 1 13 55 

O STAR TREK 3.5 13 55 

D STAR TREK 3.5 iD| 17.95 

□ ZOSSEO IN SPACE 13.55 

D MACES #1 , BARLOG 31 00 

□ MACES #1, SISYPHUS 31 00 

a LUNAR LANDER 13 55 

D LUNAR LANDER JD] 1895 

D POKER 13.55 

D GALACTIC TRILOGY |Di 35 95 

ACORN SOFTWARE 

■D A'lERM 17.95 

D SYSTEM SAVERS 13 55 

n TING-TONG 8 95 

O DISASSEMBLER 13.55 

G OtSK/TAPE UTILITY 1795 

□ CHECKBOOK |D| 22 95 

□ STAR TREK SIMULATION 8 95 

Q CODEBREAKER 8 95 

□ OPERA THEATER 3 95 

□ GAMMON CHALLENGER 13.55 

□ BLACKADE 8.95 

O PIGSKIN 13.55 

D STRUCTURED BASIC (D] 26 95 

n ULTRA TREK 13 55 

D SPACE WAR 8.95 

D WARP/LANDER 8.95 

D BASKETBALL |D| 18 95 

n BASKETBALL 13 55 

D DUEL-N-DROIDS |D| 18.95 

D DUEL-N-DROIDS 13.55 

n INVADERS FROM SPACE 13 55 

D INVADERS FROM SPACE |D| 18.95 

D PIGSKIN |D] 1895 

D PINBALL 1355 

D PINBALL |D| 18.95 

D QUAD 1355 

D QUAD |D| 1995 

D SUPERSCRIPT |D| 28.95 



Check program desired. 
Complete ordering information 
and mail entire ad. 
immediate Shipments from stock. 



KEY: 

C-TRS-80 Color 

D-on Disc 

If not marked - Cassette 



HAYDEN 

a SARGON II 25 00 

D SARGIN II [Dl 3000 

AUTOMATED SIMULATION 

□ STAR WARRIOR [CASS, OR DISK] , , . . 35 95 

n THREE PACK [DJ 45.00 

D STARFLEET (CASS, OR DISK] 22 50 

□ INVASION [CASS. OR DISK] 22.50 

□ APSHAI [CASS. OR DISKJ 26.95 

O RYN [CASS, OR DISK] 17 95 

O MOBLOC [CASS, OR DISK] 17 95 

□ RIGEL [CASS. OR DISK] 22.50 

D HELLF IRE [CASS, OR DISK] 26 95 

BIG FIVE SOFTWARE 

D ATTACK FORCE (MODEL 1 OR 3) ...14 55 

D GALAXY INVASION (MODEL 1 OR 3) . . 14.55 

D METEOR MISSION (MODEL 1 OR 3) ... . 9.95 

n SUPER NOVA (MODEL 1 OB 3) 14.55 

n COSMIC FIGHTER (MODEL 1 OR 3) . . . 14 55 



COMPUTER SIMULATIONS COMPANY 

□ BATTLE OF BULGE-BASTGONES .... 1795 

□ D-DAY INVASION OF FRANCE 17 95 

n DARK KINGDOM 1 1 75 

□ DOG RACE, COLOR ONLY [C] 5 95 

n ELECTRIC ALARM 4 95 

D EMPIRE STRIKES BACK 13 55 

□ GREAT D1CTATOB 7 25 

D JEDI KNIGHT 1 1 75 

a LUNAR ENCOUNTER 11 75 

D MERCENARY 8 95 

□ MICBO ARCADE 13 55 

□ SHARK. COLOR ONLY [C] 5 95 

D SLOT MACHINE 7 25 

D BATTLE OF BULGE-ST. VITH 13 55 

D STAR CRUISERS 13.55 

n TYPE WRITERS 1795 

n U-BOAT. COLOR ONLY [C] 5 95 

D ORION WAR, COLOR ONLY [C] 5 95 

D POLARIS, COLOR ONLY (C] 5 95 

INSTANT SOFTWARE 

□ AIR FLIGHT SIMULATION 7.25 

n AIRMAIL PILOT 8 95 

□ ALL STARS [D] 31 55 

□ ASTEROIDS |D] 17 95 

□ ASTEROIDS 13 55 

□ BASIC PROGRAMMING ASSISTANT .. 13 55 
a BALL TURRET GUNNER 8.95 

□ BATTLEGROUND 8 95 

D CHECK MANAGEMENT [D] 36 55 

D CHESSMATE-BO 17 95 

D THE COMMUNICATOR 8 95 

a COSMIC PATROL 13.55 

□ COSMIC PATROL |D] 17 95 

□ DAREDEVIL 8 95 

□ DISASSEMBLER 8 95 

□ DISK EDITOR [D] 36.55 

D DISK SCOPE |D] 17 95 

n DLDIS |D] 1795 

D DEVICE DRIVERS 17 95 

D ENHANCED BASIC 22 50 

n ELEC REPRT GEN 8 95 

Q FLIGHT PATH 8 95 

n FLYING CIRCUS |D] 36 55 



INSTANT SOFTWARE 

D GEOGRAPHY [D] 45 00 

n I TEST 8 95 

□ INVADERS 8 95 

□ INVESTORS PARADISE 8 95 

□ IRV 22 50 

D IRV [D] 27 55 

D JET FIGHTER PILOT 13 55 

n MIND WARP 8.95 

D MONEY MADNESS 8 95 

a NIGHT FLIGHT 8 95 

□ ONE-D MAILING LIST [D] 22.50 

□ OTHELLO 895 

□ PROGRAMMER S CONVERTER 8 95 

□ OSL MANAGER [D] 17.95 

□ SANTA PARAVIA FIUMACCIO 8 95 

□ SKIRMISH-80 8 95 

D TERMINAL-BO 22 50 

D TLDIS 1355 

D UTILITY I 7 25 

□ UTILITY II 7 25 

a WINNERS DELIGHT 8 95 

D WORDSLINGER 26 00 

PERSONAL SOFTWARE 

n CCA .MGMT-TRS-eO 65 00 

QUALITY SOFTWARE 

a DEBUG ^3 55 

n FASTGAMMON 17 95 

D LOWBALL POKER 10 45 

D BANKSHOT 8 95 

n POKER PETE 1045 

D RUMMY MASTER 1045 

D 3D TIC TACTOE 13 55 

n OS LIGHT PEN 17 95 

D SKETCH 80 13 55 

STRATEGIC SIMULATIONS 

□ COMPUTER BISMARCK [D] 51.50 

O COMPUTER BISMARCK 42 00 

SUB-LOGIC 

O T80-FS1 FLIGHT SIMULATOR 22 00 

D 3D GRAPHICS 26 50 

BOTTOM SHELF 

n ANALYSIS PAD [D| 90 00 

D BASIC TOOLKIT 17 80 

□ BUSINESS MAIL [D] 100 00 

□ CHECKBOOK II [D] 44 50 

□ CHECK REGISTER |D] 67 00 

□ DATA MANAGER [D] 67 00 

□ HEAD CLEANER [D] 17 00 

D INFO SYSTEM |D] 44 50 

D LIBRARY 100 44 50 

n SYSTEM DOCTOR [D] 35 50 

n SYSTEM DOCTOR 26 00 

MICROSOFT SOFTWARE 

n ADVENTURE [D" 25 50 

□ ASSEMBLY DEVELOPMEN' [D] .... 8000 
G BASIC COMPILER |DJ 175 00 

□ EDITOR/ASSEMBLER 25 00 

D FORTRAN COMPILER r'D| 80 00 

n LEVEL III BASIC ' 44 00 

n MuMATH [D] 6400 

D OLYMPIC DECATALON [CASS OR DISK] . . 20 00 

D TYPING TUTOR 13 55 



If you don't see it listed, write...we probably have it in stock! 



Ship Ihe above piogiams as checked 1o 
Mr .'Mrs 



Number of Programs Ordered . . . , 

Amount of order 

H.y residents add Sales Tax ... 

Add shipping anywhere m the U.S _?^55_ 



Total amount enclosed 

Chaiqemy D Master Chaige D Visa 



Signature 



K memoiy Card No 



Expires 



Mall to: 



DIGIBYTE SYSTEMS CORP. 



TRS-80 is a registered trademafk of TANDY CORP 

\ Prices subject to change without notice 

\_ 



31 East 31st Street, New York, N.Y. 10016 
(212) 889-8975 .222 



^/ 



NEW PRODUCTS 



Edited by Chris Crocker 



Terminal Program 
Provides Local Functions 

Omniterm is an intelligent terminal pro- 
gram that lets the TRS-80 perform all nec- 
essary translation when connected to 
other computers. The program provides 
local functions, such as the ability to re- 
view text that has scrolled off the screen 
and single-key automatic sign-on. 

Omniterm runs on a 32K TRS-80 m\h 
one disk drive and RS232-C interface. The 
program costs $95. For more information 
contact Lindbergh Systems, 49 Beech- 
mont St., Worcester, MA 01609. 

Reader Service ^^3A^ 



Sliips Combat in Space 

Space Ace 21 is a space combat simu- 
lator in which two opponents design their 
own space fighters. The craft start at a 
distance and then maneuver and attack. 
The program requires a 16K Model I or III 
and Level 11 BASIC, and costs $19.95. 

In Parsector V, you and your opponent 
must navigate ships through space and 
capture parsectors — units of space 
owned by an intelligent entity. The pro- 
gram requires 16K Level II on Model I or III 
and costs $20.95. 

For more information contact Synergis- 
tic Solar Inc., P.O. Box 560595, Miami, FL 
33156. 



HP:" ' ■■':''*-"^i^i»^^ip-HJ!jf"-*'-:*;: * '-'iSm 




Space Ace 21 



Program Formats Text 

TEX Version 2.0 is an updated edition of 
the TEX Text Formatting Program. A TEX 
input file contains text interspersed with 
commands. From this, the program out- 
puts a paginated document file whose for- 
mat is determined by the user's com- 
mands. TEX 2.0 can generate an i ndex and 
table of contents, produce super and sub- 
scripts, accept insertions, and chain 
source files. 

TEX 2.0 is compatible with all versions 
of CP/M. A text editing program is re- 
quired to produce the input file. No prices 
were released. For more information, con- 
tact Digital Research, P.O. Box 579, 801 
Lighthouse Ave., Pacific Grove, CA 93950. 

Reader Service ..-331 

Gospel Quiz 

Questions and Answers from the 
Gospel of Luke provides four groups of 
ten questions. Each answer elicits a corre- 
sponding explanation. 

A printed reference Is included, listing 
thescripturalsourceof each question, an- 
swer and explanation, A cassette for 16K 
Level II TRS-80 costs $5 from Next In Line, 
Inc., P.O. Box 10295, Tampa, FL 33609. 

Reader Service ^332 



Leadersliip 
Analysis Software 

The Leadership Analysis Program is an 
automated analysis that reveals charac- 
ter traits, including areas of potential 
leadership and areas of potential conflict. 
The program administers a battery of 
exercises, performs the analysis, and 
prints a personalized report with graphs. 

The Leadership Analysis Program re- 
quires a 48K Model 1 with one disk drive 
and costs $995 from Citation Group, 13 
Langhorne Rd., Chalfont, PA 18914. 

Reader Service ^336 




Percom Drives for Model III 

Drives 

Install In Model III 

Mini-disk storage systems for the 
Model III from Percom may be ordered 
with either 40 or 80 track drives. Two 
Model 111 drives mount inside the com- 
puter; drives three and four connect exter- 
nally. 

The first internal drive system costs 
$749.95 in the 40 track version and $91 4.95 
in the 80 track version. The second inter- 
nal drive costs $315 for 40 tracks and 
$474.95 for 80 tracks. For more informa- 
tion contact Percom Data Co., 211 N. Kir- 
by, Garland, TX 75042. 

Reader Service *-'162 



Analog and 

Digital Port Interfaces 

The Design Solution Model AN-538 
analog port interface provides both 
analog to digital and digital to analog con- 
verters. The unit also houses a mini-digital 
port interface with latched eight-bit data 
output to the digital to analog converter 
and eight decoded device control lines. 

The Design Solution Model AN-511 
digital port interface provides eight bits of 
input and output data to the TRS-80, eight 
device control lines and an eight bit data 
bus. Using the IN and OUT commands, in- 
formation can be transferred to and from 



The New Pfoducts section is intended to inform our readers of new products on the markel. All information in the section is taken from product releases sent by manufacturers. 
Because of the volume of product releases, we cannot attest to the quality of the products listed. 



70 • 80 Microcomputing. April 1981 



NEW PRODUCTS 





1 





Design Solution Analog Port Interface 

the TRS-80. 

Each model costs $79.95 from the De- 
sign Solution Facility, P.O. Box 1225, 
Fayetteville, AR 72701. 

Reader Service .^340 



Inventory Records, Tapes 

Audiophile Library System (ALS) inven- 
tories collections of records or tapes. Se- 
lections are stored by record number, tape 
number, title of selection, composer, ar- 
tist(s), conductor, orchestra and source, 

ALS operates on Models I and Ml with 
TRSDOS and at least one disk drive. The 
system costs $20.95 from GB Assoc, P.O. 
Box 3322, Granada Hills, CA 91344. 

Reader Service *^342 



COBOL 
Information Bulletin 

The American National Standards In- 
stitute (ANSI) has a committee evaluating 
COBOL. COBOL Information Bulletin 
(GIB) 20 is available from the institute to 
explain the latest standard considera- 
tions. 

CIB 18, 19 and 20 are all being sold by 
ANSI, a nonprofit organization. CIB 20 
costs $7; 18 and 19 cost $6 each. Checks 
should be made payable to X3 Secretariat, 
and mailed to CBEMA, 1828 L Street, 
N.W., Suite 1200, Washington, DC 20036 
along vi/ith a stamped, self-addressed en- 
velope. 



Program Charts Stocks 

Stockchart-I is a stock charting pro- 
gram for the Model I Level II with 16K. The 
program enables generation of a stock 



price chart using the high, low and close 
stock prices. Stockchart-I also has a rou- 
tine which will signify price trend reversal. 

The cassette version costs $30 and the 
disk version costs $50 from Micro-Invest- 
ment Software, 9621 Bowie Way, Stock- 
ton, CA 95209. 

Reader Service i^170 



Package Plots Graphs 

Plot-80 is a software plotting package 
for both dot matrix and daisy wheel print- 
ers. Plot-80 is for use with the TRS-80 
Model I with 48K, one disk drive, and one 
of several graphics printers. The system is 
geared towards the plotting of graphs and 
histograms with numbered and labeled 
axes. 

Plot-80 is available on a formatted disk 
(specify track format). Single drive owners 
must supply a disk v\/ith operating system 
or add $15 to the package cost for a 
TRSDOS disk. The program operates with 
Base-2, PaperTiger(with graphics option), 
Gencom, Qume, Xerox, Diablo and NEC 
Spinwriter. Printer and interface must be 
specified when ordering. The program 
costs $99.95 from Microcomputer Special- 
ists, P.O. Box 11295, Elkins Park, PA 
19117. 

Reader Service ^^171 



Color Computer News 

The Color Computer News is a publica- 
tion for users of the Radio Shack Color 
Computer. The newsletter will feature 
news, software tips, and will provide a 
forum for Color Computer users. Publica- 
tion will be bi-monthly until the volume of 
information requires more frequent re- 
lease. 

The subscription rate is $9 per year or 
$2 per issue, from REMarkable Software, 
P.O. Box 1192, Muskegon, Ml 49443. 

Reader Service v 1 73 

Word Processor 
Has 19 Commands 

Word-M3 is a text processing program 
for the Model III that accepts lines of text 
with lines of format control information in- 
cluded. The program formats text into a 
document. There are 19 commands. 

Word-M3 operates on TRSDOS for the 
Model III and costs $49. For more infor- 
mation contact Micro Architect, Inc., 96 
Dothan St., Arlington, MA 02174. 

Reader Service ^348 



Software for 
Special Needs 



A series of microcomputer educational 
programs from Interpretive Education are 
designed for special needs audiences. In- 
cluded in the series of programs are: 
Poison Proof Your Home, Income Meets 
Expenses, You Can Bank On It, Home 
Safe Home, Money Management Assess- 
ment Series and Job Readiness Assess- 
ment and Development. 

The programs are available on cassette 
for TRS-80 Model I, Level II with 16K. The 
packages contain from four to eight cas- 
settes and range in price from $125 to 
$340 per program. For more information, 
contact Interpretive Education, Dept. NR, 
2306 Winters Dr., Kalamazoo, Ml 49002. 

Reader Service .^343 



1:.;* :. 





special Needs Software 



Utility Speeds 
BASIC Programs 



Faster is a software speed-up utility for 
TRS-80 Model I Level II and Disk BASIC 
programs. It analyzes programs, and then 
displays or prints information enabling 
the user to change programs to reduce 
execution time. 

Faster is available from Prosoft, Box 
839, N. Hollywood, CA 91603. 

Reader Service ^166 

Space Game, 
Role-playing Adventure 

Hellf ire Warrior is a fantasy role-playing 
sequel to Temple of Apshai in which the 
player rescues a maid from a four-level 
dungeon. Star Warrior is a program in 
which the player must fight a planetary 
force of storm troopers and nine military 
vehicles. 

Star Warrior and Hellfire Warrior are 



80 Microcomputing, April 1981 • 71 



available on cassette for 16K Level II, and 
on disk for 32K. Star Warrior is also avail- 
able on disk for 16K Level II. The programs 
cost $39.95 each from Automated Simula- 
tions, P.O. Box 4247, Mountain View, CA 
94040. 

Reader Service ^^330 



Color Computer Software 

CBUG Monitor Tape is a software pack- 
age for exploring the Color Computer at 
the assembly language level. The package 
allows you to examine or change memory 
using a formatted hex display, save areas 
of memory to cassette in binary, and send 
or receive RS232 at up to 9600 baud. 

The monitor has 19 commands in all, 
and is relocatable. The monitor costs 
$29.95. CBUG Monitor ROM is an identical 
program supplied in ROM that costs 
$39.95. 

The 80C Disassembler runs on the Col- 
or Computer and allows you to generate a 
source listing of the BASIC interpreter 
ROM. The 80C Disassembler requires 16K 
and costs $49.95. For more information 
contact The Micro Works, P.O. Box 1110, 
Del Mar, CA 92014. 

Reader Service ^350 



CBASIC Runs 
Under TRSDOS 



CBASIC 2.27 provides users with the 
same features as CP/M, but operates 
under TRSDOS for the TRS-80 Model II. 
The system includes files supporting un- 
limited length records and full format con- 
trol of printed reports. 

CBASIC will be available on a TRSDOS 
disk with a text editor for $250. For further 
information contact Compiler Systems, 
Inc., P.O. Box 145, Sierra Madre,CA91024. 

Reader Service ^167 

Port-addressed Clock 

The 80 Clock is a real-time hardware 
clock with battery back-up. The clock con- 
nects to the expansion or screen printer 
port without restricting use of that port. 
The clock gives the day of the month, day 
of week, the month, and time to thou- 
sandths of a second. 

The 80 Clock costs $70, and with option- 
al output, $80. For more information con- 
tact P and A Electronics, 921 Montclaire, 
Olathe, KS 66061. 

Reader Service i^347 




MFJ Multi-outlet ac Power Strips 

Multi-outlet 
ac Power Strips 

Multi-outlet ac Power Strips from MFJ 
eliminate interaction caused by power- 
line coupling between floppies, printers, 
processors and other peripherals. The 
power line strips also eliminate power-line 
spikes that cause memory loss, errors, 
and erratic operation. 

The MFJ-1107 has eight sockets. Three 
pairs of sockets isolate the computer and 
peripherals from each other and from the 
power line, each pair with double pi rfi 
filters. The MFJ-1106 with varistor voltage 
spike protection is like the MFJ-1107, ex- 
cept that it has 12 sockets and one rfi filter 
for all sockets. The MFJ-1105 is like the 
1106 except without rfi protection. 

The MFJ-1105 costs $43.95, the 
MFJ-1 106 costs $53.95, and the 1 107 costs 
$73.95. For more information contact MFJ 
Enterprises, P.O. Box 494, Mississippi 
State, MS 39762. 

Reader Sen/ice .^349 



Educational 
Game Programs 

Galactic Guardian and Guillotine are 
additional activities to supplement the In- 
dividual Study Center from TYC Software. 
Galactic Guardian presents questions 
and answers in a space game format. The 
student is asked to save the galaxy from 
invading spacemen by correctly respond- 
ing to questions on the Subject Data 
Tape. 

Guillotine is a variation of the game 



hangman. The student's job is to save the 
man on the screen by correctly answering 
the questions presented. 

Both programs are on a single cassette, 
and can only be used with the Individual 
Study Center's Subject Data Tapes. The 
programs are for 16K TRS-80. For more in- 
formation contact TYC Software, 40 
Stuyvesant Manor, Geneseo, NY 14454. 

Reader Service t^163 



Business 

Systems Produce Reports 

Mailbase 80 from Bourrut Consulting 
Corp. is a mailing system that permits en- 
try in any sequence. The program pro- 
duces such reports as Entry Report, En- 
tries Added to Master Report, and a New 
Key Report. The program costs $229. 

Oilman, also from Bourrut Consulting, 
handles functions and produces reports 
for the oil industry. It can work off degree 
days, will calls and/or dated accounts. Oil- 
man costs $5500. 

The programs operate on the Tandy 1 1 or 
Model II and are available from Bourrut 
Consulting Corp., 21 Friendly Rd., Smith- 
town, NY 11787. 

Reader Service f>346 



Printer Features 
Six Character Sizes 

The model DIP-85 Data Impact Printer 
features 7 x 7 or 14 x 7 dot matrix, six dif- 
ferent character sizes and 100 character 
per second print speed. The printer has 
variable tine density and continuous form 
length controls, and will print in upper and 
lowercase. 

The DIP-85 will accept parallel or RS- 
232-C communications. For more informa- 
tion, contact DIP, Inc., 745 Atlantic Ave., 
Boston, MA 02111. 

Reader Service ^^335 




DIP-85 Data Impact Printer 



72 • 80 Microcomputing, April 1981 



Print Lowercase 
Without Modification 

Lazy Writer is a word processing pro- 
gram tfiat permits uppercase and lower- 
case output to the printer (if printer ac- 
cepts lowercase) without computer modi- 
fication. One command will capitalize the 
first letter of all sentences and the pro- 
noun I. 

The package is available for TRS-80 
Model I with 32K and at least one disk 
drive. Lazy Writer costs $125 and is avail- 
able from Soft Sector Marketing, Inc., 
6250 Middlebelt, Garden City, Ml 48135. 

Reader Service ^^165 



Operating System 
Offers Keyed File Access 

The Oasis version 5.5 operating system 
is a multi-user time sharing system for 
Z-80 microcomputers. The operating sys- 
tem features keyed file access and media 
independent back-up, and lets up to 15 
users share a single printer with its 
spooler. 

The new version includes BASIC with 
reentrant run-time module, compiler and 
interpreter, EXEC Interactive job control 
language, text editors, relocating macro 
assembler, debugger, linkage editor and 
diagnostic conversion programs. 

Oasis 5.5 costs $500 for single-user and 
$850 for multi-user options. For more in- 
formation contact Phase One Systems, 
7700 Edgewater Dr., Suite 830, Oakland, 
C A 94621. 

Reader Service t^344 



Scientific Subroutines 

The Scientific Subroutine Library (SSL) 
is a collection of 72 subroutines for scien- 
tific, statistical, and engineering applica- 
tions. The package includes routines to 
do multiple and polynomial regressions, 
Fourier transforms, solutions to differen- 
tial equations by the fourth order Runge- 
Kutta method, matrix inversion, and solu- 
tions to Eigenvalue problems. 

The programs come on a single disk in 
the form of relocatable object code, and 
can be used with several of Microsoft's 
high-level languages and assemblers. The 
package costs $99.95. For Information 
contact American Computer Develop- 
ment, Inc., 1735 Briarcrest Dr., Suite 200, 
Bryan, TX 77801. 

Reader Service ^160 




5" Data Separator 



Disk Error Protection 

The Five-inch Data Separator helps 
eliminate disk errors, including track lock- 
ed out and disk I/O errors. The data 
separator uses a phase locked loop cir- 
cuit. The circuit adjusts itself to match the 
data from the disk drive, according to 
Parasitic Engineering. 

The Five-inch Data Separator plugs into 
the expansion interface, and costs $250. 
For more information contact Parasitic 
Engineering Inc., 1101 Ninth Ave., Oak- 
land, CA 94606. 

Reader Service ^^169 



Directory Lists 
Pre-college Software 

School Microware is a directory of edu- 
cational software for the Apple, Pet and 
TRS-80. The directory describes programs 
for use In teaching and learning most pre- 
college subjects at all grade levels. 

School Microvt/are is available for $20 
per year (September full directory and 
three updates) from Dresden Assoc, P.O. 
Box 246, Dresden, ME 04342. Add $5 per 
year for foreign subscriptions. 

Reader Service .^334 



Voice Entry Terminal 

The Scott VET/2 is a voice entry termi- 
nal for the TRS-80 Model I that connects to 
the screen printer I/O port. The VET/2 
recognizes words or phrases by compar- 
ing the pattern and features of the words 
entered in analog form with the digitized 



vocabulary in storage. 

The terminal requires an expansion in- 
terface, 16K of additional memory and a 
disk drive. No prices were released. VET/2 
Is available from Scott Instruments, 815 
North Elm, Denton, TX 76201. 

Reader Service ^168 



Power Line Protection 

The Splke-Spiker Mtni-I features two 
grounded outlets and plugs directly into a 
120 volt wall outlet. The Minl-I provides 
protection from most power line tran- 
sients. The Spike-Spiker Mini-ll is also a 
two grounded outlet wall-mounted unit 
that provides rf hash filtering of conduct- 
ed interference, in addition to protecting 
against power line surge. 

No prices were released. For more infor- 
mation, contact Kalglo Electronics Co., 
Inc., Colony Drive Industrial Park, 6584 
Ruch Rd., East Allen Twp., Bethlehem, PA 
18017. 

Reader Service ^^338 



IVIodel I 

BASIC Enhancement 

NEWBASIC adds new commands and 
utilities to TRS-80 Model I Level II or Disk 
BASIC. Utilities included are BASIC key- 
word entry, blinking block cursor, auto key 
repeat, and enabling of lowercase display. 
Also included are new graphics com- 
mands, ability to input from or output to 
the RS232-C interface, a video to printer 
echo, and GOTO and GOSUB to expres- 
sions or labels. 

The Disk BASIC version of NEWBASIC 
costs $29.95, while the Level II cassette 
version costs $19.95. Both are available 
from Modular Software Assoc, 3533 Pros- 
pect Ave., Glendale, CA 91214. 

Reader Service ^-333 



Utility Catalogs Disks 

DISCAT is a disk cataloging and index- 
ing utility. The utility keeps track of pro- 
grams in a categorized library. A 48K sys- 
tem can provide indexes of nine cate- 
gories, each containing 1900 entries, ac- 
cording to Racet Computes. 

DISCAT operates with TRSDOS, NEW- 
DOS + , and NEWDOS 80. The program is 
available from Racet Computes, 1330 N. 
Glassell, Suite M, Orange, CA 92667. 

Reader Service ^^161 



60 Microcomputmg, April 1981 • 73 



Rushing Toward 
Courseware 




by Pamela Petrakos 
80 Staff 



Computerized instruction is taking its 
seat in the American ciassroom. And 
it's bringing its own sort of course materi- 
ais— magnetic. 

At the same time large pubiishing com- 
panies are talking aim on an unfamiliar tar- 
get in hopes of maintaining a market for 
its bread and butter mainstay, the text- 
book. Traditional publishers are anxiously 
testing their new wares from spelling and 
sound packages to management pack- 
ages that will do the teacher's homework. 

But computerized instruction stands on 
very uncertain ground. Publishers and 
educators alike know an educational revo- 
lution is here, but can only speculate as to 
how large an impact it will have in the tra- 
ditional classroom. 

Marketing statistics also convey the 
same kind of uncertainty. An increasing 
number of schools across the country are 
experimenting with computerized instruc- 
tion but is there a high-volume market for 
educational software specialists? 

Tandy Bargain 

When Tandy Corporation recently 
struck its bargain with publishing giant 
Random House to distribute both soft- 
ware and Tandy hardware to school sys- 
tems nationwide, 80 Microcomputing 
tracked down a number of other publish- 
ing executives to assess their commit- 
ment or even awareness of the magnetic 
publishing market. What were their dollar 



projections for the computerized instruc- 
tion market; not only software, but accom- 
panying texts and documentation? 

80 found a surprising level of activity 
among most book publishers, but few veri- 
fiable statistics about the depth of this 
new market. No one seems to know how 
much the educational software market 
will grow. Studies have been done, but, on 
the whole, the market is ill-defined. Fig- 
ures of projected courseware sales and 
speculations as to the number of micros 
that are expected to be in the schools vary 
widely. 

Publishers' commitments varied from a 
"wait and see" attitude, to one company 
that has created an electronic publishing 
division. Yet another company, Boston's 
Houghton Mifflin, has invested in an elec- 
tronic subsidiary, Time Share Corpora- 
tion. Originally charged with creating 
classroom courseware for Houghton, TSC 
has just recently introduced the first mi- 
crocomputer specifically designed for the 
classroom. What has motivated these tra- 
ditional publishers to become involved in 
what appears to be a huge market, but at 
the same time, such an illusive one? 

Partially because they are already in the 
education business and are committed to 
being a part of its growth. Robert Bowen, 
groupvicepresident of the school division 
of McGraw-Hill said, "As a publisher, we 
see the responsibility and need to service 
the technology that is out there." 

Bowen said he has heard predictions 
that by 1985 a million microcomputers will 
be in our schools; similarly courseware 
sales are projected at $100 to $150 million 
by 1985. However, Bowen said, he has a 
hard time accepting those particular fig- 
ures. 

"A $150 million market would mean that 
the courseware market would be roughly 
equivalent to what we are spending now 



for basic math programs. That is a very 
sizable market; I really think that by 1985 a 
more realistic estimate would be in about 
the $30 million range," he said. 

Varied Statistics 

Classroom Computer News, a period- 
ical dedicated to computers in educa- 
tion, in their January/February issue cites 
an educational technology consultant 
Harvey Brudner, who says that "Schools 
now spend three and a half percent of 
their learning materials budget for com- 
puters and accompanying software." He 
predicts a "400 percent growth over the 
next five years, bringing computer-related 
sales to schools to $300 million or 14 per- 
cent of the total learning materials 
budget." 

Yet, another report done in 1980 at the 
Center for Information Processing at the 
California State University in Fresno says, 
"Some form of computerized learning pro- 
grams are presently utilized in 54 percent 
of the school districts in the United States 
and are projected to increase to 74 per- 
cent utilization in five years, at which time 
they will be the leading application of 
computers in education." 

Creative Strategies International, a 
marketing firm, said in a report on micro- 
computers in education in October 1980, 
that "The educational microcomputer 
market will grow substantially by 1985, 
with an overall compound annual growth 
rate in excess of 30 percent per year. 
Some sectors will grow more rapidly than 
others. By 1985 retail value of educational 
microcomputer sales will approach $350 
million per year, up several hundred per- 
cent from its current level. The potential 
market for microcomputers is estimated 
at more than 1.4 million units, with market 
saturation presently low." 

Continue to page 79 



74 • 60 Microcomputing, April 1981 



PMC-80 

Model / 



MISSILE ATTACK. By the Cornsoft 
Group. New for the PMC-SO. This 
program is o machine language 
imitation of the arcade gome called 
Missile Command. This real-time ma- 
chine language gome (with sound 
effects) pits your twin silos of ABM's 
against a barrage of enemy missiles 
trying to destroy your cities. As your 
skill increases so does the difficulty of 
this ever popuiar arcade game! 
Watch the skies and may your aim 
be true. TRS or PMC-80, cassette, 1 6K. 

$14.95 

TRS, disk, 32K, $20.95. 



TAPECOPY1.®1981 S,S,M„ Inc. New 
for the PMC-80, This program is to 
solve the problem that has caused 
problems for oil PMC-80 owners. 
Problem: A machine language pro- 
gram will not ioad in the cassette 
player provided in the machine and 
you can't load a machine language 
program on the second cassette 
port. This is a problem no more!: 
This program wiil load a machine 
language program from the second 
cassette player and saves it in the 
buiit-in cassette player. Loads and 
saves most all TRS-80 readable tapes 
that load at 500 baud (the standard 
speed). PMC-80 only cassette $14.95. 



CONQUEST. ®1981 by Lake Front 
Software. This program is based on 
the popular board gome called 
'Risk'. (The names hove been chang- 
ed to protect the innocent,) This 
gome is for one or more people. It is 
a game that demands attack strate- 
gy and, if yours is the best, you will be 
the lord and Master' of the planet, 
MOD I. Ill or PMC-80, Requires 16K 
memor/, cassette $14.95. 



FLIPPY. Ver. 1.3. ®1981 by J. Limke- 
mann. This is a machine language 
program that plays "the best game 
of Othello on the TRS-80 that I have 
seen, and 1 play a lot of Othella", 
(Victor Andrews) MOD I or III, Requires 
16K memory $14.95. 



Just because i can sell 
something is not a 
reason for a product to 
appear in my ad; I must 
believe in it myself. 

The following pages 
contain new items that i 
believe in. I am not after 
only one sale; I want 
return business, and that 
means I must give you 
quality products every 
time. 

I believe I sell only 
quality products. If you 
have a problem, send 
your comments 
addressed to me. We 
support every product 
we sell, 



Victor Andrews 




ANIMATED HANGMAN. Color, ®1 981 
SS,M„ Inc. Thisoutstanding new pro- 
gram will thrill you for hours. He moves, 
groansand makes sounds, 16K. 
$12.95 

DISASSEMBLER. Color. ®1981 S,S,M., 
Inc, This program displays hex on left 
side of screen and ASCII on right side 
of screen. For screen or printer, 16K. 
$14.95. 




TRS SUPER INVADERS. ®198Q S S M, 
Inc, This is the same os Super Voders 
except it is for only one player at a 
time, MOD I only with mono sound, 
cassette, $19.95. MOD I with stereo 
sound, disk only $24.95. 



HYRES. ®1981 by D. LewandowskI, 
This is a patch program for the pro- 
grams called: Invaders Plus and TRS 
Super Invaders; so they can be run 
on the Programma Graphix-80 board. 
MOD I, cassette programs only. $9.95. 




TAPECOPY2.NewfortheTRSMODIII, 
This program will load most any TRS- 
80, 500 baud system tope (stan- 
dard MOD I speed) and load it into 
memory and save it at 1500 baud 
on the MOD III, No knowledge of 
machine language needed. Now it 
gives you a way to backup programs 
that load at the slower speed and 
makes cassette loading into your 
new MOD III a much faster and more 
reliable process, MOD III only, cas- 
sette $19.95 

SUPER VADERS. (with sound) ^1981 
S.S,M., Inc. This is the MOD III version 
of the popular program called TRS 
Super Invaders. One of the finest 
space invader type games written 
for the TRS-80 machine. Monsters 
march down the screen and fire as 
they approach the bottom of the 
screen. 1 or 2 players. 10 levels of 
play. Can you stop them? MOD III 
only. Requires 16K free memory, 
(please state cassette or disk,) $19.95. 



Model jh/ 

BOOK I 



MOD III ROM COMMENTED. For the 

programmer that needs those an- 
swers about the MOD III ROM , , . 
Now! This is a complete list of loca- 
tions In MOD III ROM and comments 
on each. All 14K of the ROM. There is 
no other book out that gives you the 
detail that this book has. Don't miss 
it. In order to respect Tandy's copy- 
right the actual disassembled code 
is not printed, but the book is in a 3 
ring binder format so you can put 
your own listing in between the 
pages for easy reading. Only $22.50. 



^See List of Advertisers on page 306 



80 Microcomputing, April 1981 • 75 



POSTMAN DATA HANDLER. By Alger 
Software, ®1980 S.S.M,, Inc. A machine 
language mailing list program that 
will do the following: 650 labels on a 
35 track disk drive, 760 labels ona40 
track disk drive, 1534 labels on an 80 
track disk drive, 10 fields (2 user 
defined), fast sorts (500 records in 30 
seconds), fully usable on one (1) 
drive system (capacities shown are 
for a single drive system), most any 
label stock that is one up can be 
used (you save no money buying 
labels that are more than one up 
anyway), print one label at a time or 
a sequence of labels, purge dupli- 
cates with or without user assistance, 
9digitzipcode, superfastseorchon 
any field -3 second average, easy 
screen editing. 



Now Postman Dota Handler has 
been upgraded with many new fea- 
tures. Nowthis very popular mailing 
package is not just the best way for 
most people and small businesses 
to do their mailing lists, but now we 
giveyouawaytouncramp, convert, 
and formletter your moiling list. You 
need this package if one of the 
following is true: If your mailing pack- 
age is memory dependent, This 
means that you must have more 
memor/ to handle more names in 
your machine; If you need a way to 
get rid of duplicate names in your 
mailing list; If you wont to sort on 
more than just name or zip, (our 
package can sort on any or oil 10 
fields at once,);lf you are waiting 
more than one minute for your sort 
to finish, (our package is in all ma- 
chine language so it runs very fast); If 
your present program will not handle 
the 9 digit zip code; If your program 
doesn't have full screen editing. This 
package is a machine language 
program, this is the reason for the 
super fast speed of all functionsi 



This is a random access disk based 
program and any name can be 
called to read, write, print or update 
in3 seconds or less. Nowalong with it 
you getutilitiesthat permit you to do 
the following: CONVERT 1; takes all 
the files from your old mailing list 
and converts them to our system, 
(Why should you change to our 
system if we made the change 
hard?) CONVERT 2; convert from our 
package back to ASCII files if you 
want to do something with them 
(like send them to another con> 
puter over the phone), MOD I (corrv 
ing soon for the MOD III). This program 
pjnson ail quality/ operating systems. 
Requires min. 1 disk drive and 32K 
memory only$125.00 



POSTWRITER. ®1981 S.S.M. Inc. Now 
there is, at extra cost, a formletter 
package that permits inserting any 
of the 10 fields of information into 
any part of the letter, (yes even in the 
body of the letter), and rightand left 
justify the letter This program is made 
to be used with only the Postman 
program and one of the following 
word processing packages; Lazy 
WriterorElectricPencil. ... $49.95. 



SPECIAL- If you purchase both Post- 
man and Lazy Writer at the some 
time, at list price, (or if you already 
own one of the packages above 
and now want to purchase the 
other), we will at no extra cost include 
the Postwriter package FREE. There 
are 2 ways to purchase this package. 
The first way is to soy "I want the best 
package on the morket so send me 
the full system at one time". This 
includes the Postman Data Handler, 
Convert 1 and Convert 2. The pack- 
age works on all quality operating 
systems based on the Tandy disk for- 
mat (TRSDOS, VTOS. NEWDOS, NEW- 
DOS-80 etc.) $250.00. This price is 
only good till June 1, 1981. Save 
$49.95. If purchased separately . . . 
$299.95 

or. 

MINI POSTMAN. Sample Package. 
For you people who hove a small 
moiling list (max 26 names) and/or 
you can't believe that Postman is 
the best package and we must be 
overstating how this program runs; 
try our sample package called Mini 
Postman. It comes as a full up and 
running program and shows you 
how good our package really is. This 
package con be upgraded to the 
full package within 30 days of pur- 
chase by calling and saying "I want 
the full package", and paying the 
difference between the mini and 
the full package. Note: Mini Postman 
does not include the convert utilities. 
If not everything you expect, return 
sample disk for full refund (less ship- 
ping). You can't lose $25.00. 



CHAIN MAKER. By Steve Skindell. 
"^1981, This program mokes writing 
chain files on NEWDOS-80 a breeze. 
This is not only a program that just 
creates chain files but it also is an 
editor of the file, A file can be re- 
moved from the disk and edited 
and saved back to the disk quick 
and easy. Outstanding program and 
a must for every NEWDOS-80 owner. 
Comes with complete easy to read 
manual, Puchaser must own NEW- 
DOS-80 $14.95. 



THE CREATOR. ®1 980 CB.S., Inc. The 
Creator is a new type of program for 
the microcomputer operator - yes 
operator! Easy enough for the person 
just getting into the market. Use and 
create a program that is very sophis- 
ticated that programmers will com- 
ment highly about. The program will 
create error free basic programm- 
ing code. Not almost ready to run 
but ready to run, when you are 
finished. Yes, gives birth to a program. 
Just answer simple questions and 
have a simple background in the 
disk system of yourcomputer(if you 
read your basic manual when you 
have questions you will have no 
problems). This program is not a data 
basel 

Now in the package comes the 
report generator that is in the same 
concept as the Creator, It is called 
Reporter. This program creates re- 
port output for the Creator for either 
screen or printer This is the most 
outstanding programming pack- 
age available from anywhere. Now 
you can create inventory systems, 
payables and receivables, check 
register and expense register, and 
much morel The system require- 
mentsore one of the following: MOD 
1 32K disk, MOD II 64K disk, Apple II 
32K disk, (please state system when 
ordering). These 2 programs are on 
one diskette and are available com- 
plete for only $295.00. 



GRAPHX By Steve Skindell ®1981. 
This is a program that is for the 
person who does reports or requires 
some sort of plotted output to show 
gains or losses, or any type of output 
that needs graphs. This program puts 
to the screen or to a printer the 
plotted points in bar graph format 
and plots the mean, average of 
plotted input. This is a very important 
program for accountants. CPA's, or 
the average businessman to eval- 
uate, at a moments glance, where 
he is, was, or maybe where he is 
going. The files save to disk and can 
be recalled at any time to be re- 
examined, modified, or just reprinted. 
An extra feature is: if you have the 
MicroiineSO printer, byOkidata, your 
output is in true graphics. Information 
is supplied for the user so he can 
modify this program for a special 
printer. Comes complete and ready 
to run. Requires MOD I or MOD III 48K 
disk. Printer optional (132 col,) only 
$49.95. 



SPECIAL - Receive this program for 
only $25.00 if you purchase on Oki- 
data Microline 80 or 82 this month 
from us. 



76 • 80 Microcomputing, April 1981 



An 
innovative 

word 

processing 

system 

for 

TRS-80* 

IVIODI 




©1980 

by 
David 
Welsh 



It is time to put your 

word processing program 

away and use a 

Word Processing System 

'Lazy Writei is the product ot ABC Sales 

LAZY WRITER Takes on Scripsit® by Radio Shacit® and Electric PenciP® 

Has all the things that other word processing programs should have Easy to use, written all in machine code. / It permits the inserting and deleting 
bycharocters, words, sentences, and paragraphs/ Page scrolling up and down /Search ahead of the cursor or behind the cursor for any chciacter/ 
The cursor can be moved up, down, left and right / You can seek top of file and bottom of file / Block move of text, block delete of text/ Search and 
replace or search delete / Unlimited insert (to the limit of your machines memoty) / Permits use with lower case / 

Has things that other programs should have, but don't. Upper and lower case output to your printer(if your printer accepts lower case) without 
having your computer modified. ON UPPER CASE ONLY MACHINES: This program marks the capital letters so you can see which lettersareCAPITALSand 
wtiich are not / Will change ail upper characters text to lower cose or all lower case to upper, A SINGLE COMMAND/ Will capitalize the first letter of all 
sentences and all proper noun i's, WITH A SNGLE COMMAND / LOADS ANY ELECTPIC PENCIL/ FILE, ASCII SAVED FILES, EDTASM FILES or BASIC PROGRAMS 
SAVED ASCII /Permits installing special control characters in your text for your printers special features, I ike double wide or condensed print/ Definable 
screen length and definable print length to 255 characters wide / Screen editing that is not final till your command. This means that you con edit your 
file on the screenand if you don't like how it readsyou can cancel ond leave it the way it was/ You can append files(whichmeansthatyou can putone 
file to the end of another file) / No lost characters at the end of the line, even for the fastest typist / A directory of all your files is available to the user 
without leaving the program /Saving progroms to disk easy enough for ttienorvcomputer user /To save memory, notalltheprogram modules ore in 
memory at one time but are called from the disk as needed / You can set tab positions like on a typewriter / 1 CUSTOM COMMAND KEYS for the 
experienced userthere is a command file that permits manyspecial functions that are all user defined (not enough space for betterexplanation in ad, 
send for complete overview) / Program has HELP file that is a short review of the commands that ore available / 

Standard Printer Module. This printer module is provided for the user as o standard feature, Optional special printer routines for custom printer will be 
available in the near future. In this original release, it has the following printer drivers and will support the following printing devices RS232, TT;S232 and 
PARALLEL printer ports. You hove the following format commands Justifies Text, Centers Text, Centers Title, Line Spacing, Line Length from 3-255 
characters and Set Margins / Also send ony ASCII 
code to any printer from the text / Save formatted 
text to the disk for spooling later / Information for 
customer to load his own special printer driver / 
Printing can be stopped and started by the user at ' 

any time and then restarted where you left off /You 
can print entire file or just print to bottom of the page/ j 

Communication Package. RS232 COMMUNICA- 
TION TiRMINAL PROGRAM permits you to communi- 
cate with other computers. Transfer files from one 
machine to another Permits dumping memory o- 
cross the phone lines. Receive files from other TRS- 
80'sand "Shoke Hands" with lorger computers. This is 
the complete system called LAZY WRITER There is no 
package written for the TRS-80' that is as compre- 
hensive, This pockage is available for the 
TRS-80' MOD I, 32K or larger v^ith at least 
a single disk drive. List price is from 

M_ $125.00 '^^ 

Dealer Inquiries Invited ^<ipiiK: 



■OFTSKCTOnMAnKHTINO, 

INCORPORATED 

6250 Middlebelt • Garden City, Ml 48135 

(313)425-4020 

C.O.D - Certified Check M.O or Cash only Sorry, no COD ov& 
3150.00! Most orders shipped next day All orders must have shipping 
included. Please add 2% or S2.60, which ever is higher for shipping. 
Michigon residents, pleose add 4% tox. Add extra SI 50 for CO.D. 
Personal checks toke 3 weeks to clear Send SI .CO for catalog - get 
S200 credit on next order. 




Complete 

support for 

Spinwriter, Diablo, 

Qume & 737 Centronics 

Printers, to use all of the 

features these printers often 

Hanging Indents 

Newsletters for users of this system 

to keep them informed of any questions, 

problems and special products made for 

use with this system. 

Modify this package for TRS MOD 

Program to do form letters. 



r'See List of Advertisers on page 306 



80 Microcomputing, April 1981 • 77 



SUPER UTILITY. ® 1980 by Kim Watt of 
Breeze Computing, Inc. Sold on pro- 
tected media only. Main program 

list: Zap Utillt/; display sector (disk, 
file), display memory, compare disi< 
sectors, copy disk sectors, verify disi< 
sectors, zero disk sectors, string search, 
sector search, single or double den- 
sity diskettes (if your machine works 
normally with double densit/), Purge 
Uti!itY;kiil selected files, get disk direc- 
tory, zero unused directory entries, 
zero unused granules, remove system 
files, kill by category, change name, 
date, possword, auto command, 
chongefile parameters, remove pas- 
swords. Disk Format Utiiity; standard 
format, format without erase, special 
format, read address marks. Disk 
Copy Utility; standard copy with for- 
mat, standard copy without format, 
speciai copy(to back up many pro- 
tected disks) - purchaser use -oniy 
for his own personai disks. Tape Copy 
Utiiity this program is to make backup 
of anyTRS-80 tape, no matter how it 
is recorded (note again this program 
is for the use of the original purchas- 
er for his own programs oniy). Disk 
Repair Utiiity; repair gat table, repair 
hit table, repair boot, read protect 
directory track, recover kiiled files, 
check directory. IVIemory Utiiity; move 
memory, exchange memory, corrv 
pare memory, zero memory, test 
memor/, input byte from pott out- 
put byte to pott memory to disk, disk 
to memory. MOD I. protected disk 
only $49.95. 



NEW 



QUICK FIX ®1981 by Kim Watt of 
Breeze Computing, Inc. The sister 
program to Super Utility "the Grand 
Master" of utility programs, does 
Master" of utility programs, and has 
the ability to do all the things that 
hove mode Super Utility great, ex- 
cept it does not have the following 
features; it doesntt hove the Special 
Copy that bocks up most TRS-80 
readable protected diskettes, it does 
not have Tape Copy feature that 
copies any TRS-80 MOD I readable 
topes, the Zap program does not go 
to double density diskettes, it does 
not have the Special Format feature. 

Main Program List: Quick Zap; dis^ 
play sector (disk, file), display mem- 
ory, compare disk sectors, copy disk 
sectors, verify disk sectors, zero disk 
sectors, string search, sector search, 
examine address marks, Quick Purge; 
kill selected files, get disk directory, 
zero unused directory entries, zero 




unused granules, remove unused 
system files, kill by categor/, change 
name, date, password, auto com- 
mand, change file parameters, re- 
move passwords. Quick Format; stan- 
dard format, format without erase. 
Quick Backup; standard copy with 
format, standard copy without for- 
mat. Quick Repair; repoirgattabie, 
repair hit tobie, repair boot, read 
protect directory track, recover killed 
flies, check directory, Quick Memstuffi 
move memory, exchange memory, 
compare memory, zero memory, test 
memory, input byte from port, out- 
put byte to pott memory to disk, disk 
to memory. The one extra feature it 
has is: you con put Quick Fix on ali 
your diskettes, MOD I. On nonprotect- 
ed diskette only $34.95. 



OTHER THINGS from Kim Watt 
of Breeze Computing, Inc.: 



MAKE 80. ®1 980 AM Electronics. Writ- 
ten by Kim Watt, This program is for 
peoplewho hove 80 track diskdrives 
and do not wish to keep that old 40 
track drive just to load their 80 track 
system. Moke 80 is loaded into your 
machine when it is placed in your 
drive in on 80 track drive and then 
the reset button is pressed, it loads 
automatically and asks for 35 or 40 
track diskette. When you insert your 
diskette in the drive the program 
reformats the diskette so your 80 
track disk system can read all of the 
information from the diskette without 
having to hove a 40 track drive. This 
program works on standard NEW- 
DOS, TRSDOS. NEWDOS-80 diskettes. 
Does not work on any disk that has 
any funny sectors (VTOS) or with the 
LOBO interface, 80 track disk only, 
$14.95. 



SPACE COLONY, by Kim Watt. Space 
Colony is a space invaders type 
gome for TRS 80 MOD I and with 
Programma Graphix 80 board. One 
ievei of ploy single player, with sound, 
MODi, 16K $14.95. 



CAPTURE/SYMON. By Breeze Corrv 
puting. Inc. Capture is a 2 person 
game of Blockade for the MOD I, 
With sound this game comes alive 
with fast action. MOD 1, 1 6K. Cassette 
S12,95, Disk $17.95. 



HARDWARE 
SPECIAI 



Ttiis Montti Only. 

Microllne 80 Printer only $499.00 
Microline82 Printer , only $699.00 
Tractor Feed $125.00 

Both printers have the ability to do 
single sheet letterhead, run roli pa- 
per, 9y2 fan fold paper and has an 
optional tractor feed for running 
mailing iabels. (Compared to the 
MX-80 that can't run singie sheets or 
roll paper.) This makes these 2 printers 
an outstanding buy. But if you want 
an MX-80 or MX- 70 call for a price. 



OTHER SMALL ITEMS OF INTEREST 

Reset Buttons $3.99 

Disk Drive Labels(0, 1,2,3) with stick 
on bocks, set of 4 $3.99 





SOFT SECTOn MARKETINQ, 

INCORPOHATED 

6250 MIddlebelt, 

Garden City, Ml 48135 

1 (313)425-4020 

Dealer inquiries invited. 

C.O.D. - certified chieck. M.O. or cash only. 
Sorry, no C.O.D. over $150.00! Most orders 
shipped next day. Ali orders must hove 
shipping included, Pieose add 2% or S2,50, 
whichever is higher for shipping. Michigan 
residents, please odd 4% tax. Add e!<tra 
SI ,50 for C.O.D. Personai checks take 3 
weel<s to cieor All hardware must be pre- 
paid. No hardware shipped collect. 

■TRS-80 is a product of Radio Shock, division of 
the Tandy Corporation, 



78 • 80 Microcomputing, April 1961 



The figures show educational comput- 
ing materials to be a more than substan- 
tial market. However, success in this mar- 
ket is not guaranteed. Other factors 
hamper an all-out investment among pub- 
lishers. 

One factor that makes the market so 
unstable is that both publishers and edu- 
cators are unsure as to where the funding 
will come from for technological materi- 
als. Lloyd Prentice, publisher and editor of 
Classroom Computer News, said that the 
education market is a huge market that 
has become decentralized because of se- 
vere economic pressure. Prentice said 
that it is hard to determine what this 
means; wil! it reduce the buying tendency 
or increase it? No one is sure, and many 
publishers that were surveyed expressed 
the same concern. Bowen said, "When 
you look at the technology, there's some 
exciting things and great potential. . .but 
there is a money problem in education. 
With enrollments down, inflation, the cost 
of energy and all the other economic fac- 
tors effecting school budgets, it becomes 
hard to perceive where all this money is 
going to come from for the materials. I 
think this is the great reservation we ail 
feel right now." 

Bowen also questioned whether educa- 
tors would be able to justify the expense 
of the materials. "In business where a new 
technology can improve productivity, ob- 
viously then, it can be justified as an addi- 
tional expenditure, however, this is not the 
case in education." 

Perfection Is Essential 

Creating good educational software 
also has its problems. Perfection isessen- 
tial for traditional publishers because, 
first, long-standing reputations are at 
stake. Secondly, how and what we teach 
our children will be somewhat changed by 
computerized instruction. Publishers can- 
not afford to have a program crash, espe- 
cially after months of expensive research 
spent creating the program. 

A company spokesperson for CBS said, 
"Any time your program doesn't work, 
then every publication you have will be 
called into question." Most educators will 
not accept anything less than high quality 
programs. Publishers know this, conse- 
quently, the objective of creating high 
quality programs for the classroom auto- 
matically becomes more difficult. 

Such quality software will have a direct 
relation to market growth, according to 
Charles Phillips, senior vice president in 
charge of special markets for Tandy Corp. 
"The market will grow in proportion to the 
quality of instructional material available. 
That's why publishers are spending a lot 
of time and money on it." 



Bowen said McGraw-Hill has been in- 
vestigating the area for 18 months. Three 
types of programs concern them: man- 
agement, computer literacy and comput- 
ter assisted instruction. 

McGraw-Hill will aim its packages to- 
ward the elementary through two-year col- 
lege market, including technical instruc- 
tions. They plan to start test-marketing 
their courseware at those levels sometime 
this year. 

Most of the packages will not be specif- 
ically designed for use on a single micro- 
computer. Again Bowen stressed McGraw- 
Hill's commitment to producing a variety 
of software to meet the needs of different 
schools. 

"Right now we know that there are actu- 
ally more micros at the secondary and 
post secondary level than there are at the 
elementary level. That doesn't mean that 
two years from now that will be the case; 
consequently, we will look to see what the 
interest is on a variety of levels," said 
Bowen. 

McGraw-Hill has developed four proto- 
types and presented them to focus groups 
—educators, community leaders and 
school administrators — in five regions of 
the country. 

The first is a management system 
which demonstrates how the micro and 
related components can be used by teach- 
ers and administrators. It records a stu- 
dent's progress, diagnoses particular 
problems a student may be having and 
provides teachers with a rundown of a stu- 
dent's level of competency in the cur- 
riculum. 

Another prototype develops learning 
concepts and includes an audio compo- 
nent giving a student verbal feedback 
from the computer. The third is a drill and 
practice package, and the fourth is a sim- 
ulated application in which the student 
has to apply a skill or concept that he has 
learned. 

The focus groups were asked about the 
packages' appropriateness, and their 
need for them; would they be interested in 
purchasing such packages, if they were 
on the market? Were the programs a good 
value? 

Currently, McGraw-Hill is working with 
outside contractors who are creating and 
producing their educational software, but 
have not eliminated the possibility of de- 
veloping it in house. 

A spokesperson for CBS Educational 
and Professional Publishing Division said 
that they, too, are preparing for the advent 
of computerized instruction. However, 
they have finalized no plans as of yet for 
two reasons. First, said our source, there 
are only a few microcomputers on the 
market that have the durability to be used 



in a school environment. And secondly, 
the schools are not computer literate ex- 
cept for one state. (Minnesota has had a 
state run computer consortium for over a 
decade.) 

The spokesperson said, "Other than 
that, most states and most school dis- 
tricts are only computer literate in the 
sense that they bought a microcomputer 
and it's sitting somewhere in the school 
system." 

CBS will primarily focus on the elemen- 
tary school level because they feel it is the 
greatest market base. Their programs 
concentrate mainly on reading skills. 

CBS has been researching the area 
since 1979 and has developed prototypes 
that are designed for use on the TRS-80. 
They include a spelling program, spelling 
test and vocabulary builder, a grammar 
program and text editing program. In or- 
der to test these prototypes, CBS provides 
a TRS-80 for a classroom over a period of 
eight to 15 weeks. Later, they test children 
to determine if they are learning effective- 
ly with the aid of a computer. This method 
of testing is expensive and time consum- 
ing; however, one major concern of CBS, 
said the spokesperson, is whether the use 
of a computer really does help a child to 
learn. 

"There is such a rush for products now 
that the quality and what is good for the 
children has not been explored," he said. 

"It doesn't take very long to develop a 
good program," he continued, "the ques- 
tion is: Is there a market for it? We're not 
sure how long it's going to take. Secondly, 
the program has to be validated so it 
doesn't crash. . .these publishers can't 
just publish programs and hope they work 

99 percent of the time— they must work 

100 percent of the time. We know from 
past experience, you can't afford to pub- 
lish bad products." 

Courseware Catalog 

Random House is extremely interested 
in the education market. So interested, 
that they just released a microcomputer 
courseware catalog that includes 28 pro- 
grams. 

The programs (K through 12th level) 
cover the subjects of mathematics, read- 
ing, language arts and management— all 
of which will be available by the end of the 
year. 

According to George Rosato, vice presi- 
dent and general manager of the school 
division, the products were created in- 
house with Random House funds to their 
specifications. At present, they are avail- 
able for the TRS-80 (Models I and II) and 
the Apple II. "We are prepared to adapt 
them to other microcomputers as the 
market indicates, but presently we think 



80 Microcomputing, April 1981 • 79 



these two brands have the necessary 
capabilities," he said. 

Rosato said that he had been studying 
the education market for two and haif 
years. He decided, after visiting a number 
of manufacturers, that the TRS-80 had the 
most features and functions. The next 
step w/as to enter into discussions with 
Tandy and come to an agreement on dis- 
tribution. 

Science Research Associates (SRA), a 
wholiy owned subsidiary of IBM, is also 
getting into the educational software mar- 
ket, emphasizing computer literacy pro- 
grams. 

SRA had designed courseware in three 
areas thus far: math, reading and comput- 
er literacy. 

Their math program is broken down for 
grades one through three, four through 
eight, and a mathematics drill program for 
grades one through six. This fatter pro- 
gram automatically measures a student's 
current performance and moves him 
ahead or backward as appropriate. 

Fact Track is an SRA timed drill applica- 
tion of addition, subtraction, multiplica- 
tion and division for grades one and 
above, which is supposed to build speed 
and accuracy in the four areas. They also 
offer a set of six arithmetic games for one 
or two elementary school players. 

SRA's reading courseware in an in- 
struction and practice program in the ma- 
jor phonic elements for grades one 
through three. 

Their computer literacy package is a 
program to introduce students in grades 
six through twelve to basic computer con- 
cepts. 

SRA also offers a package entitled the 
Computer Discovery Program on three 
learning levels: elementary, high school, 
and the college adult education level. 

The student workbooks accompanying 
two disks are written on two levels, one at 
the sixth grade level and the other at the 
ninth grade level. The workbooks are bro- 
ken down into four chapters. Chapter one 
describes important turning points in the 
history of the field of computer science; 
chapter two. Analysis and Programming, 
introduces you to programming techni- 
ques; chapter three. Computer Concepts, 
discusses computer hardware and soft- 
ware along with familarizing students 
with binary numbers; and chapter four, Im- 
pacts and Applications, discusses the so- 
cial and economic impacts of the comput- 
er. 

SRA's educational courseware, as of 
this date, is available only under a license 
agreement. Customers must pay a licens- 
ing fee and abide by SRA's contract stipu- 
lations. They use a license agreement 
rather than direct sales because "it pro- 



vides extra assurance of material secur- 
ity," said Glen Phillips, product develop- 
ment administrator. The license fee is 
equivalent to the price of the software, 
which may be kept as long as agreement 
is abided by. 

Theircourseware is designed for use on 
the Apple II or the Atari computer. Com- 
puter Retailing reported in December 1980 
that an agreement between SRA and Atari 
enables SRA to market Atari's line of mi- 
crocomputers to the domestic education- 
al market. SRA, in exchange, writes 
courseware for Atari to sell through its 
regular distribution channels. 

Although SRA has a technical staff that 
has been creating the software In house, 
Phillips said one of the major problems is 
finding authors to write good educational 
software. 

Phillips also expressed his uncertainty 
of the education market. "No one has any 
kind of idea as to how many dollars are go- 
ing to be spent on software. There is no 
statistical information on this subject 
simply because commercial publishers, 
like ourselves, have not been selling soft- 
ware long enough for there to be any kind 
of statistical analysis. It's a very high 
risk." 

Scott, Foresman and Co., anothertradi- 
tional textbook publisher, set up an elec- 
tronic publishing division last November. 
Thus far, they have introduced a course- 
ware series in reading skills for grades 
one through three (a!i of which will be 
available before Sept. 1981} and a mathe- 
matics courseware series for grades one 
through eight which will be available by 
the end of April. 

They have also developed a school 
management program made up of 14 
packages that handle administrative 
duties, scheduled for release this sum- 
mer. 

The packages are designed to run on 
the Texas Instruments 99 microcomputer 
(Tl 99). Foresman has a nonexclusive 
agreement with Tl; the programs can be 
purchased separately or as a package 
with the Tl 99. 

Dale La Frenz, manager of the electron- 
ic publishing division, said that they are 
using their own technical people includ- 
ing subject matter experts and instruc- 
tional design people to develop their soft- 
ware. Also, they, like other publishers, re- 
ceive a large amount of unsolicited mate- 
rial from people interested in publishing 
for the education market. 

The Dolphin 

Houghton Mifflin has made the most 
bold advance into educational course- 
ware. They have swallowed Time Share 
Corp. (TSC), a software publisher. Stride, 



developed in 1979 by TSC, includes a math 
program for grades one to eight and a read- 
ing program for grades four to six. The pro- 
grams are designed to be used either as 
drill and reinforcement exercises or as 
remediation exercises by the teacher. 
Stride also provides a management rou- 
tine that classifies a student's progress. 

Houghton has also recently come out 
with an algebra program for grades eight 
to 10, an individualized computation skills 
program for grades seven to 12 and three 
books; one an introductory book, one on 
programming and a computer resource 
book for algebra students. 

Originally, Stride was designed for 
TSC's own hardware system, the TSC 
200/300. Though the software for Stride 
was recently adapted for use on their first 
microcomputer, the Dolphin, it is still 
available for the TSC 200/300. 

Robert Yo, Sr. Vice President of TSC, 
said that the Dolphin, introduced last Jan- 
uary was specifically designed for class- 
room use. Among its features are provis- 
ions for eight terminals and a memory of 
20 million characters. In essence, it has 
the power of a minicomputer but is small 
and compact. Yo said that any software 
that Houghton creates in the future will be 
adaptable to the Dolphin. 

Houghton Mifflin also distributes a 
hardware-software system called The An- 
swer, an instructional support system for 
teachers. TSC developed the software for 
The Answer and the hardware was pur- 
chased from Basic Four. The Answer is 
capable of a number of duties; it scores 
tests, diagnoses skill weaknesses for an 
individual student, shows class progress, 
indicates how much a class has learned 
toward each objective of a test, and also 
handles basic clerical duties. 

TSC also produces a package for use in 
guidance offices which lists higher educa- 
tion institutions and career opportunities 
under a number of categories. Originally 
designed for the large mainframes, TSC 
has recently adapted it for use on their 
micro. 

Addison Wesley, another well-known 
textbook publisher, also has an interest in 
the software market. They have a number 
of math packages that are planned for 
marketing next fall. They include: high 
school algebra and analysis, and junior 
high school and upper elementary arith- 
metic. Originally written in Apple BASIC, 
they will also be available for the TRS-80 
and Commodore PET. 

Basically, Addison Wesley is still re- 
searching the area, and was unwilling to 
comment specifically on what direction 
they will take. Carl Hesler, general 
managerof the business and professional 
division (a part of the higher education 



80 • 80 Microcomputing, April 1981 



jimMiiMli 



division) said, "because we've been in the 
computer science area since the nnid-60s 
we know that the market is there and is 
reasonably large. More of our activity is 
centered around asking various questions 
about the direction of the market." 

Hayden Book Co. is perhaps the most 
involvedof all of the publishers contacted. 
They have been serving the general com- 
puter market for the past ten years. Con- 
sequently, the people at Hayden are feel- 
ing secure. 

Currently they only market two soft- 
ware packages that are aimed at the ele- 
mentary and secondary school level- 
Crossbow, which familiarizes children 
with fractions, and Programming in Apple 
Integer BASIC. 

Hayden's market objective is to publish 
software for the computer hobbyist. How- 
ever, they do plan to direct more of their 
material to the educational market, said 
Karen Neison, chief editor of the comput- 
er science division. For example, a book 
called / Speak BASIC is directed to the 
high school level and wilt be used initially 
with the TRS-80 and then the Apple. 

Nelson expressed many of the same 
sentiments as other publishers about the 
education market. It is difficult to get 
good education programs, Nelson said 
"People either know how to teach or they 
know how to program; it's very difficult to 
get the right combination. Many of the 
people who are trying to write educational 
softwarearenot really making use of what 
the machines can do. Many of the pro- 
grams we see. . . look like book pages on 
the screen and in many cases they aren't 
much more than that." 

Some Groundless Fears 

Perhaps an unspoken concern of many 
educators is the fear of being replaced by 
a computer. And there has been much 
comment directed towards the teacher 
who has a micro in his classroom and 
doesn't know how to use it, or feels threat- 
ened by it. 

Of the publishers surveyed, most see 
the micro as a tool to help the teacher. 
Firstly, computers can perform clerical 
duties that consume a large percentage of 
a teacher's time. And secondly, the com- 
puter's daily reports on students' perfor- 
mance can leave more time for individual 
teacher-student interaction. 

Bowen of f^flcGraw-Hill doesn't think 
that the textbook will ever be replaced. 
He sees the microcomputer as a tool 
rather than something that will supplant 
traditional education methods. "For in- 
stance," said Bowen, "we know that text- 
books work very well for a large body 
of students. We also know that some stu- 
dents need additional assistance or need 



more challenge. This technology can be 
used to better identify those students and 
gear teachers toward more individualized 
instruction." 

The spokesperson for CBS was quick to 
stress that the computer can't teach 
something that the student doesn't al- 
ready know; it can only reinforce. He went 
on to say that there hasn't been much 
change in classroom techniques since the 
1800s. "People keep forgetting that the 
chief goal in going to school is learning 
how to get along with people and to learn 



something about the world around you— 
hopefully reading, how to count and 
something about being a good citizen. Of 
course the rest is important, but has never 
been ranked as do or die." 

Rosato of Random House thinks that 
the micro will become as common as the 
typewriter. However, "much of its signifi- 
cance," said Rosato, "depends on good 
publishing, that is, designing good pro- 
grams and marketing them effectively. It 
depends on what we will allow education- 
al software to do." ■ 





THESE SAMS BOOKS WILL HELP YOU USE ALL THE TRS-60 FEATURES YOU 
PAID FOR 

TRS-BO INTERFACING Books 1 & 2, By Jonathan A Titus Book 1 introduces the signals 
□voiloble within Ihe TRS-80 and how to use them to control external devices. Book 2 
explores mo'e advanced interlacing techniques thot will allow you to do real things that you 
didn't even know yout TUS-SO could do. BOOK 1 No. 21633, S8 95. BOOK 2 No. 21739. S10.95. 
TWO-VOI UME SET — Books 1 & 2 No. 21765, S18.50 
MostlvBASIC:AppllcalionsfotyoutTRS.80, By Howard Berehbon No 21788 S11.95. Contains ove' 
15 actual prograr-is (or home, entectainment, business, (rnancial and educational use on the TRS-8D. 
Z.80 MICROCOMPUTER HANDBOOK, By William Boiden, Jr. No 21600 S8 95. The more you tnow obout 
the Z,BO micTOpiocessor— the heart of the Tl?S-80 the more you can get out 
of your computer Her© is everything you should know about the hardware. 
software and microcomputers built orouna the Z-E" 

Z-80 MICROPROCESSOR PROGRAMMING & INTERFACING Bookt 14 2, 
Elizabeth A Nichols. Joseph C Nichols, and f eter R. Rony Book 1 explores Z-f 
software and rnachine language programming. Book 2 addresses interlacing 
digital ciicuits v^.lh the Z-80 CPU, PIR and CTC chips BOOK 1 No 21609 $11.95, 
BOOK 2 No. 21610 S14 95, TWO-VOLUME SET — Books 1 & 2 No 21611 $24.95 



Soms 
Books 



►^366 



r.loil >o Howard W Sams & Co., Inc., ■i:!Ofl West 62nd Street PO Boi 7092, Indionopolis. IN 46206. (317) 298-5400 

Quantity 



TRS-80 Inlsrtacing- Book 1 

TRS.BO Interfacing— Book 2 

TWO-VOLUME SET— IRS-80 Interlacing Books 1 ft 2 
Mostly BASIC Applications lor your TRS-BO 
Z.80 Microcomputer Handbook 

Z-80 Microprocessor Programming & Interlacing, Book 1 
Z-80 Microprocessor Programming 4 Interlacing Book 2 
TWO-VOLUME SET— Z-80 Microprocessor Programming & 
Interfacing Books 1 & 2 



J Payment Enclosed LJ Check '.' Ivloney Order 

; ] VISA 1 Mastercard Interbank No 

Account No _ — — 

Name (pnnt) — — — 



. . .No. 21633 
...No. 21739 
...No, 21765 
...No. 21788 
, . -No. 21500 
. No. 21609 
. . .No. 21610 



S 8 95 
S10 95 
$18.50 
$11.95 
S 8.95 
S1195 
$14 95 



No. 21611 S24.95 

Amount oi order 

Add local soles tax where applicable 

Shipping & handling costs 

Totol amount ol order 
_ (minimum credit cord purchase $10] 
^ Expiration Date ,. 



-Signature. 



Address 
Cify 



Zip. 



Prices subject to change without notice All books ovuilable Irom Soms Distributors. Bookstores, ond Computer Stores Otier gooc 
in U S A orlylnConoda contact LenO'ook Industries Lid Scaiboiouglt. Mill IHb Oniar'O Canado Olfer expires 6 30 a> 

flD07E 



i^See List ol Advertisers on page 306 



80 Microcomputing, April 1981 • 81 



Now NRI takes you inside the 

world's most popular microcomputer 

to train you at h^me as the 

new breed of computer specialist! 



NRI teams up with Radio Shack 
to teach you how to use, 
program and service 
microcomputers . . . make you 
the complete technician. 
It's no longer enough to be just a 
programmer or a technician. With micro- 
computers moving into the fabric of our 
lives (over 200,000 of the TRS-80™ alone 
have been sold), interdisciplinary skills 
are demanded. And NRI can prepare 
you with the first course of its kind, 
covering the complete world of the 
microcomputer 

Learn At Home 
in Your Spare Time 

With NRI training, the program- 
mer gains practical knowledge of hard- 
ware, enabling him to design simpler, more 
effective programs. And, with advanced 
programming skills, the technician can 
test and debug systems quickly and easily 

Only NRI gives you both kinds of 
training with the convenience of home 
study No classroom pressures, no night 
school, no gasoline wasted. You learn at 
your convenience, at your own pace. Yet 
you're always backed by the NRI staff and 



'Dining includes TRS-80 computer, transistorized 
volt-ohm meter, digital frequency counter, 
and the NRI Discovery Lab with hundreds of tests 
and experiments. 

(TRS-80 Is a trademark of the Kadio Shack division of Tandy Corp.) 





your instructor, answering questions, giving 
you guidance, and helping you over die 
tough spots. 

Explore the TRS-80 
Inside and Out 

NRI training is hands-on training, 
with practical experimenis and demon- 
strations as the very foundation of your 
knowledge. You don't just program your 
computer, you introduce and correct faults 
...watch how circuits interact... interface 
with other systems . . . gain a real insight 
into its nature. 

You also build test instruments and 
the NRI Discovery Lab, 



Send for Free Catalog. . , 
No Salesman Will CaU 

Get all the details on this exciting 
course in NRI's free, 100-page catalog. It 
shows all equipment, lesson outlines, and 
facts on other electronics courses such as 
Complete Communications with CB, TV and 
Audio, Digital Electronics, and more. Send 
today no salesman will ever bother you. 
Keep up with the latest technology as you 
leam on the world's most popular computer 
If coupon has been used, write to NRI 
Schools, 3939 Wisconsin Ave., Washington, 
D.C. 20016. 



performing over 60 
separate experiments 
in the process. You 
leam how your 
trouble-shooting 
tools work, and gain 
greater understand- 
ing of the informa- 
tion they give you. 
Both microcomputer 
and equipment come 
as part of your train- 
ing for you to use 
and keep. 






"nTscZT '^^^^-'^- 

McGraw-Hill Continuing 

Edication Center 
59.S9 Wsconsin Avenue 
Washington, D.C. 20016 
NO SALESMAN WILL CAU 
Please check for one free catalog only. 

Q Computer Electronics Including 
Microcomputers 

□ T\'/Audio/ Video Splems Servicing 

□ Complete Communications Electronics 
with CB • FCC Ucenses • Aircraft, 
Mobile, Marine Electronics 

Q Cli Specialists Course 




D Digital Electronics • Electronic 
Tfechnology • Basic Electronics 
D Small Engine Repair 

□ Electrical Appliance Servicing 
D Automotive Mechanics 

□ Auto Air Conditioning 

□ Air Conditioning, Refrigeration, & 
Heating including Solar Tfechnology 



(Please Prim) 



i\gi 



Slreel 



Ciw/Slale./Zip 

Accredited by the Accreditini; Commission of the National Home Sludy Council 



179-041 



82 • 80 Microcomputing, April 1981 









•'^y^^:^. 



Apparatlnc. 



"TOTAL COMMITMENT TO QUALITY, 
SATISFACTION AND SERVICE" 




Apparat, Inc. is a dedicated group of professionals 
who manufacture, distribute and support many dif- 
ferent hardware and software products for micro- 
computers. Selling Apparat manufactured products 
and brand name merchandise for many years, Ap- 
parat has grown at a dynamic pace, to become one 
of the leaders in the industry. 



From its inception,Apparathasemphasized Quality, 
Satisfaction, Service and Dependability, plus price 
consciousness, maintaining a reputation respected 

industry wide. 

Our continuing goal is to provide high quality pro- 
ducts, technical support, equipment service and a 
total commitment to serving you, the microcomput- 
er user; all at the best value possible for your money. 

We would like to thank each and every customer for 
making Apparat a leader in the industry and for 
allowing us to serve you. 




MOST ORDERS SHIPPED UPS SURFACE - FREE 
All orders shipped within 2 business days - 
We will notify you If out of stock 



Use our free Order Desk number 1-800-525-7674 {except Co, Ak, Hi) 



TABLE OF CONTENTS 



TRS-80 Model M, III, Color, Pocket, PMC80 Computers 4-5 

NEWDOS/80 6 

Dual 80 Track Mini-Floppy Drive 7 

Disk Drives and Accessories 8-9 

Printers 10-11 

Apple HardVi'are/Software, Printer Interfaces, Monitors 12-13 

Blue Book Series - New TRS-80/Apple Hardvi/are and Softw/are Products from APPARAT 14-15 

MICROPERIPHERAL CORP. Communication Hardware/Software 19 

Multi-User Network Systems for the TRS-80/Apple 20 

NAS TRS-80 Model II Integrated Business Software 21 

PICKLES & TROUT CP/M 22 

BUSINESS MICRO PRODUCTS Filetran 23 

TRS-80 CP/M Software 24 

SOFTWARE AFFAIR TRS-80 Orchestra 80 25 

Micro Club 26 

Apex 26 

Apple Business Software 27 

Apple CP/M 27 

TRS-SO Software/Utilities 28 

Micro Accounting System 29 

Reference Books 29 

Supplies: Diskettes, Head Cleaners, Flip Sorts, Paper, Ribons, Thimbles,Memory Kits.Power Filters 30 

Terms and Conditions, Trademarks, Order Forms 31 

TRS-80 New Hardware/Software Products 32 



APPARAT SERVICE 
CENTER* 



Since the opening of our Denver Retail Store in late 
summer of 1 980, APPARAT's highly trained, qual- 
ified service personnel have quickly developed and 
maintained a reputation for fast, thorough service 
without sacrificing quality. Our Service department 
takes pride in having equipment repaired, tested and 
back on its way to you within 48 hours of receipt, at 
reasonable rates for parts and labor, with customer 
satisfaction guaranteed. A partial list of equipment 
which APPARAT's service staff specializes in repair- 
ing contains such names as: 



• APPLE 


• NEC SPINWRITER 


• ANADEX 


• OKI DATA 


• CENTRONICS 


• PERCOM 


• COMMODORE PET 


• PERSCI 


• DIABLO 


• PERTEC 


• EPSON 


• SHUGART 


• GENERAL ELECT 


• SIEMENS 


• HAZELTINE 


• SOROC 


• HEATHKIT 


• TANDON 


• LEAR SIEGLER 


• TEAC 


• MICROPOLIS 


• TEXAS INSTRUMENTS 


• MICROTERM 


• TRS-80 


• MPI 


• WANGCO 



i^ '■ "" ^?- !K|- i'm 






suf''s='i;ij;.-' 












IMPORTANT: Prior to shipping, call APPARAT to get a 
Return Authorization Number, which greatly expedites 
your order. Be sure to display prominently. 

*Whether you purchased equipment from Apparat or 
elsewhere, let us solve your repair problems with fast, 
efficient, guaranteed sen/ice. 



Apparat Customer Service 1-303-741-1 77i 



The TRS-80® Model III is Radio Shack's exciting 
new personal and business computer, replacing its 
highly successful Model I. 

This fully expandable completely self-contained 
desk-top unit starts with a 4K Level I system and 
expands with your needs and with plenty of room for 
more memory. 

RS-232 communications interface (forLevel I) plus 
1 500 baud tape input under the Model III BASIC are 
some of the many features. Most Model I applica- 
tion software will run directly on the Model III under 
NEWDOS/80. 
Level I or Model III BASIC in ROM includes: 

• 4-48K memory 

• 1500 baud Model III BASIC only and 500 baud 
cassette interface 

• Parallel Printer Port 

• RS-232 allows up to 4 mini disk drives providing 
up to 700K new bytes of storage each 

• Z80, 1.8 MHz Processor and 

• 64X16 Screen 



v* 



Br"-'* 

il.- 






f'.'!!:i't''' ' -' 
'" ■ ■■ -'. it 











COLOR BASIC. Disk storage and other additions 
are available. The Color Computer features: 

• Color BASIC or Extended Color BASIC in ROM 

• 4K to 16K memory 

• 1500 baud cassette interface 

• RS-232 serial port 

• Joysticks, printers, disk expansion 

• 6809E microprocessor and 

• 32X16 screen 

Cat#1-004 $375.00 

TRS-80® Model II, Radio Shack's top-of-the-line 

small business computer, includes an 8" floppy 
disk, and twice the operating speed of Model I. 
Inexpensive business related software and ac- 
counting functions, plus SCRIPSIT® lets you put 
Model 1 1 to work immediately. ASSEMBLER, COBOL, 
FORTRAN, and BASIC compilers allow in-house 
programming. Can operate under CP/M and MP/M 
as a slave or single/multi-station master. Features 
include: 

• 32K or 64K memory 

• 1 to 4, 8" Disk Drives {500K each, 600K each with 
CP/M) 

• Parallel Printer Port 

• Two RS-232C Serial Ports 

• Processor - Z80A; 4MHz and 

• 80X24 Screen 

Cat* 1 -002 $351 0.00 



!•;'■" 




■::.-.. -Jit* 






s.-- 



UMC-wMtafnn. 



'',!-■■■ 
■M-mrlT— * ■■'"" 





■■y-\L «i! ■■ 

■■'*--^ .- ..Si ■..;:•.■. 



4K Model III, Level I 

Cat* 1 -308 $665.00 

16K Model III, BASIC 

Cat* 1 -1 74 $949.00 

48K Model III with two 40 track disk drives 
Cat* 1 -1 55 $2370.00 

The TRS-80® Color Computer offers vivid color 

graphics for exciting visual displays covering a wide 
range of applications from personal finance to fast- 
moving action games via instant-load program pacs. 

Attaches easily to any color TV. Programming is in 
COLOR BASIC or the very powerful EXTENDED 



Radio Shack announces a battery-operated fully 
programmable personal computer that fits in the 
palm of your hand! The Pocket Computer loads 
programs from cassettes, or by using a modified, 
feature-packed BASIC allows you to write your own, 
keeping memory intact with the power off. An in- 
valuable tool for today's professional and business 
persons, the Pocket Computer features: 

• BASIC Language in ROM 

• 1.9K Continuous Memory 

• Cassette storage with expansion interface 

• Two Chip Set - Processor and 

• 24 Character LCD Display 

Cat* 1 -006 $225.00 



Use our free Order Desk number 1-800-525-7674 (except Co, Ak, Hi) 



PMC-80 MICROCOMPUTER 

An alternative to the TRS-80 Model I, Level II 
Computer. The PMC-80 Computer uses the 12K 
BASIC ROM from Microsoft which means it can run 
any BASIC program for the Model I from Radio 
Shack as well as programs from other software 
suppliers for the Model I. 

The PMC-80 comes with 16K RAM and a built-in 
cassette player. Its expansion bus is fully compat- 
able with the peripherals available for the Model I 
such as the Expansion Interface which allows for 
RAM memory up to 48K, disk controller, disk drives, 
RS-232 and printer interfaces. 

The PMC-80 will run Apparat's NEWDOS/80 and 
other Model I operating systems. This new version 
of the PMC-80 now incorporates a complete set of 
arrow keys (left, right, up, down) and a clear key. 
Making the keyboard completely compatible with 
the Model I. 

FEATURES 

• Software compatible: Level II BASIC and SYS- 
TEM tapes. 

• Hardware compatible: with PMC 40-pin Interface 
Adapter 

• Video output for both TV monitor and TV set (ch. 3) 

• Unitized construction-just plug intopower outlet 
and TV, 

• Integrated cassette recorder has automatic vol- 
ume control. 

• Complete operating, instruction and programm- 
ing manuals. 

PMC-80 

Cat* 1 -034 $625.00 

Lower Case Model 

Cat# 1 -035 $75.00 

Printer output 

Cat* 1-044 $95.00 

S-1 00 Bus Expander with disk, printer & RS-232 
interfaces 

Cat* 1-045 $399.00 

Fast load cassette Interface to 8000 baud 

Cat* 1-046 $1 49.00 

• RS-232 and IEEE SWITCHING and MONITOR- 
ING UNIT by Giltronix, Inc. Interface three to 
five devices to a single computer or terminal. 
Units maybe cascaded allowing interfacing of 
more than five devices. Optional monitoring of 
the basic handshaking signals is available. 

GRS-8 (Switch 8 common lines) 

Cat* 1-614 $1 39.00 

GRS-24 {Switch 24 lines) 

Cat* 1-615 $1 79.00 




MODEL !: HARDWARE 

• Model I Expansion Interface with 32K memory, 
increase your memory and add interfaces for 
printers and disk drives. 

Cat* 1 -008 $449.00 

• RS-232 Interface, for use with modems and serial 
printers. 

Cat* 1 -035 $99.00 

• Lower Case Modification, generates word pro- 
cessor type characters. 

Cat* 1-036 $59.00 

• Level I to Level II ROM, upgrades the BASIC in 
ROM to the powerful Level II BASIC. 

Cat* 1 -037 $1 50.00 

• Numeric Keypad, adds calculator style keys for 
fast entry of numeric data. 

Cat* 1-038 $79.00 

• Model I Carrying Case, protect your computer 
while transporting it. 

Cat* 1 -039 $75.00 



MODEL I OR MODEL III: SOFTWARE 

• VISICALC 

Cat* 2-081 $99.95 

• PROFILE 

Cat* 2-1 29 $79.95 

• MICROFILES 

Cat* 2-1 30 $99.95 

• VERSAFILE 

Cat* 2-131 $29.95 

• SCRIPSIT 

Cat* 2-066 $99.95 



MODEL II: SOFTWARE 
PROFILE II 

Cat* 2-132 $1 79.00 

VERSAFILE 

Cat* 2-1 33 $69.00 

' SCRIPSIT II 

Cat* 2-1 34 $299.00 



Apparat Customer Service 1-303-741-1778 



introduces 



FortheSO's— 
an enhanced I 
for your TR** 
Model 1. 



!'-,' K'Z EJ** 




NOW AVAILABLE FOR MODEL III 



Apparat, Inc., announces the most powerful Disk 
Operating System for the TRS-80®. It has been 
designed for the sophisticated user and profes- 
sional programmer who demands the ultimate in 
disk operating systems. 

NEWDOS/80 is upward compatible with NEW- 
DOS 2.1 and is supplied on Diskette, complete 
with enhanced NEWDOS + utility programs and 
documentation. Some of the NEWDOS/80 fea- 
tures are: 

• New BASIC commands that support files with 
variable record lengths up to 4095 Bytes long. 
Mix or match disk drives. Supports any track 
count from 1 8 to 96. Uses 35, 40 or 80 track 5" 
mini disk drives or 8" disk drives, or any combi- 
nation. 

• A security boot-up for BASIC or machine code 
application programs. User never sees "DOS 
READY" or">READY" and is unable to "BREAK", 
clear screen, or issue any direct BASIC state- 
ment including "LIST". 

• New editing commands that allow program lines 
to be deleted from one location and moved to 
another or to allow duplication of a program line 
with the deletion of the original. 

• Enhanced and improved RENUMBER that al- 
lows relocation of subroutines. 

• Powerful chanining commands. 

• Print Spooler, 

• DFG function; simultaneous striking of the D, F 
andG keys will allow the userto enter a mini-DOS 
to perform some DOS commands without dis- 



turbing the resident program (e.g. DIR while in 
Scrips it.) 

• Includes machine language Superzap/80 and 
Apparat 2.1 utilities. New Disassembler 

• Enter debug any time by pressing 1 23 keys. Also 
allows disk I/O. 

• Diskette "Purge" command, 

• Specifiable system options (limited sysgen type 
commands), 

• Increased directory capacity. 

•Copy by file commands, 
MODEL I 

NEWDOS/80 with all of the NEWDOS + utility 
programs, many of which have been enhanced, is 
priced at just $149.00 and is available at most 
TRS-80 dealers. 

Cat# 2-010 $149.00 

MODEL ril 

•The features of Model I on the Model III. 

• Offers double density for twice the storage cap- 
acity of the Modell, NEWDOS/80 allows any mix 
of single or dual sided 40 or 80 track drives, 

• Most BASIC and many assembly language pro- 
grams written for ttie Model I will run without 
modification on the Model III, Includes a copy 
utility to convert Model I single density to Mode! 
Ill double density, 

Ca1# 2-001 SI 49,00 

NEWDOS/80 relies on the TRSDOS and Disk 
Basic Reference Manual published by Radio 
Shack. NEWDOS/80 documentation supports its 
enhancements and upgrades only. 



-":ii!i:-iKf.:%i 



' I' h 59:?: Iff, Ta j .j : u u ■;■ ai fc :i ^ i. 

.:. % '^^r i^- m ^^. ^ ^ a m f^ ^^^^w 

I r -!s ■ err ., 'Es' ? ?E^ *i! i^ 





%,'^ l^'>^^ 



latiiks^UUT. 



Is'.Tr.iT . 



.. : :;K^.^^7ri-::t■■.;H:i=i3f^-r^|:^<;■''=3::^^^^ ■=**^«<li«: ™§^*b^7!!;ri:::|'^ 








r/i 



1 :t-^--.-... 



\ 










ewdc)s/80 expands Ihe capability of 
ingie density drives, so you'll have 
greater applications for your TRS-80 
model i.® 

Drives plug directly into an expan- 
sion interface with no modification 
required so you can now have over 
1 megabyte of storage on-line with 
standard mini-floppy diskettes. Each 
drive has 316 free grans, for a total 
of 948, on a maximum of three 80 
track drives, which can be added to 
a TRS-80. 

Upgrading to double density is 
possible by running under most dou- 
ble density controllers, {e.g. Fercom's 
Doubler). 
These drives can "read" standard 55 
or 40 track diskettes with special soft- 
ware that skips every other track. 
Drives come 
complete with 
case, power sup- 
ply, interface cable 
and documentation 
including patches 
to riewdos/80. The drive mechanism is priced 
at only $699 (Cat. Flo. 1-705, specify I or 111), 
now, at 579 bytes per buck, it just might be the 
answer to your storage problems. 





Apparatlnc. 

4401 So. T^marac F^rkway, Denver. CO 80237 (303)741-1778 



Now available for model III, 728K bytes of storage. 



DISK DRIVES 



The TANDON TM 100 b'k INCH FLOPPY DISK 
DRIVE is the drive mechanism used by Radio 
Shack in the TRS-80 model I and III computers. 
The patented double sided read/write head is the 
acknowledged industry standard, being used in 
more mini-floppy drives than any recording head. 
The TM 1 00 has field-proven dependability with 
over 200,000 drives performing with unparalleled 
read/write reliability and data integrity. Apparat is 
pleased to offer these drives with power supply 
and chassis, fully checked out on the TRS-80 
Models I and III. 

MODEL I DISK DRIVES 
with power supply and chassis: 

40 TRACK 

Tandon single sided 

Cat* 1 -702 $339.00 

Shugart single sided 

Cat* 1-701 $339.00 

Tandon double sided 

Cat* 1 -703 $499.00 

80 TRACK 

Tandon single sided 

Cat* 1 -704 $549.00 

Tandon double sided 

Cat* 1 -705 $699.00 

Two drive standard cable 

Cat* 1-714 $29.95 



Four drive standard cable 

Cat* 1-715 $39.95 

Extender Cable 

Cat* 1 -744 $1 6.95 

MODEL III DISK DRIVES 
with external power supply, chassis and controller: 

40 TRACK 

Tandon single sided 

Cat* 1 -732 $699.00 

Shugart single sided 

Cat* 1 -733 $699.00 

Tandon double sided 

Cat* 1 -734 $759.00 

80 TRACK 

Tandon single sided 

Cat* 1 -735 $849.00 

Tandon double sided 

Cat* 1 -736 $949.00 

Drive is mounted in a dual drive cabinet. Includes 
drive cable. 

Optional four drive cabinet with power supply 
Cat* 1 -730 Additional $59.00 




■^i-^P'' ""^^ 




I 'i 
u 




Use our free Order Desk number 1-800-525-7674 (except Co, Ak, Hi) 



DISK DRIVES 



Additional drives without chassis or power supply: 
Tandon single sided 40 Track 

Cat# 1 -737 $259.00 

Shugart single 40 Track 

Cat* 1-738 $259.00 

Tandon dual 40 Track 

Cat* 1 -739 $379.00 

Tandon single 80 Track 

Cat* 1 -740 $399.00 

Tandon dual 80 Track 

Cat* 1 -741 $499.00 

Internal disk drive kit. Includes chassis, controller, 
mounting hardware and cables. 

Cat* 1 -731 $449.00 

(Does not include disk drives. Select drives of 
your choice from those above.) 




S^t^^'jl^^/ll^'wVH^RniL -^iv^^ 



• SINGLE DRIVE EXPANSION/TRIPLECABINET- 
The Model M's attractive Shugart SA801 drive 
housed in a triple drive cabinet. (May also be 
used in a Model I 8" floppy disk) Self-contained 
powersupplyand cabling accommodates expan- 
sion to full complement of drives. 

Cat* 1 -725 $1 095.00 

• DOUBLE DRIVE EXPANSION/TRIPLE CABINET 
Same as above with two Shugart eight inch 
drives. 

Cat* 1 -726 $1 545.00 

• TRIPLE DRIVE EXPANSION/TRIPLE CABINET- 
Same as above with three Shugart eight inch 
drives. 

Cat* 1 -727 $1 995.00 

• ADDITIONAL DRIVES for the EXPANSION/ 
TRIPLE CABINET. Power supply, cabling, case 
not included. 

Cat* 1 -728 $479.00 

WINCHESTER DISK DRIVES 

• HARD DISK EXPANSION SYSTEM - CAMEO 10 
megabyte fixed/removable hard disk expansion 
system forthe Model II. Includes hard disk, hard- 
ware interfacing, cabinet, and modifications for 
TRSDOS 

Cat* 1 -729 $6800.00 




!^ ■.:■■. ......... ^... ■ -Ktf^ A 

fe-g; ■ '.■■-*?? 7... . ■f.-.TSy-. ■■ ■■■•77r?^^4aH 










■" •!■ 



•J'-i 



Watch for our 5V4 Winchester Disk System with 
Controller, available in Spring/Summer 1 981 . Op- 
tional tape or floppy disk back-up. 



Apparat Customer Service 1-303-741-1778 



EPSON 



PRINTERS 

(Free Cable with every Printer ■ Specify Computer Type) 



MX-80 

• The EPSON MX-80 is not only one of the least 
expensive of the parallel printers available from 
APPARAT, it is one of the most powerful! Com- 
pare the MX-80's features with other printers 
around and you won't find another printer that 
offers so much for so little! The MX-80 has a 50 
million character life print head and can be replaced 
by the user for less than $30.00. It prints 96 
ASCII, 64 TRS-80 graphic, and 8 international 
characters in a crisp 9X9 matrix which provides 
lower case descenders. The user can software 
select 40, 80, 66, or 132 column character sizes 
and the printer puts them on paper at a fast 80 
CPS bidirectlonally with logic seeking! The MX- 
80's built in tractor feed mechanism will adjust 
from mailing label size up to 10" wide paper. All of 
that plus front panel line and form feed control 
and a built in self-test mode. A new option soon to 
be available is an upgrade allowing high resolu- 
tion dot matrix graphics!! Hard to believe that a 



printer that offers so much for so little is available! 
It is at APPARAT for only: 

Cat# 1 -403 $645.00 

MX-70 

• If the low price of the MX-80 is still over your 
budget, try the new MX-70. Many of the same 
features of the MX-80 such as 64 TRS-80 graph- 
ics blocks and dot matrix graphics are still offered 
but it prints a 5X7 matrix character at 80 CPS 
unidirectionally. EPSON removed the front panel 
line and form feed switches and lowered the 
price even more!! Available from APPARAT for 
only: 

Cat#l-416 $449.00 

• Watch for the announcement of a new "full size" 
printer from EPSON in the late spring. It will have 
all the features of the MX-80 but will accept up to 
15" wide paper!! Price expected to be under: 

$1000.00 



ANADEX 

DP-9500/DP-9501 

• The DP-9500 and DP-9501 printers offer 1 32/1 58/ 
176 and 132/165/198/220 column printing, re- 
spectively, featuring the full standard ASCII 96 
character set as well as high-resolution graphics. 
The 650 million character life print head zips 
across the paperat a rate up to 200 CPS and the 
printer offers a standard 600 character FIFO 
buffer with an additional 2K plug in buffer option 
available. The three ASCII compatible interfaces 
(parallel, RS-232-C, and 20 ma current loop) are 
standard providing fully software controllable 
features such as: 1 .)6 or 8 lines per inch vertical 
spacing; 2.)Form length and width; 3.)Skip-over- 
perforation; 4.)Auto line feed (on/off); 5.)\/ertical 
and horizontal tabs; 6.)Underlining; 7.)Character 
size; and much much more. Tractor feed is ad- 
justable from 1 .75 to 1 5.6 inches. Featuring front 
panel control of line and form feed, top-of-form 

. setting, and a self-test feature that prints out a 
complete statis of all selectable functions. All of 
this and more, available from APPARAT for only: 
DP 9500 

Cat#1-400 $1399.00 

DP 9501 

Cat# 1 -401 $1 399.00 





Use our free Order Desk number 1-800-525-7674 (except Co, Ak, Hi) 



NEC SPINWRITER 

• For the person looking for a high quality word 
processing printer, APPARAT offers the perfect 
solution - the NEC Spinwriter! The Spinwriter is 
available as a serial (Model 5510) or parallel 
{Model 5530) printer that prints at up to 55 CPS. 
The Spinwriter's unique light-weight printing "thimble" 
is made of fiberglass reinforced plastic consist- 
ing of 64 cylindrically arranged fingers. There are 
over 30 easily changeable thimbles available as 
well as an all black multi-strike film ribbon. If you 
are looking forthe best in word processing print- 
ers, look no further. Available at APPARAT for 
only: 

Cat* 1 -405 $2549.00 









'^^^^^M. 




CENTRONICS 

737-1 

• Why not get the "Line Printer IV" at an APPARAT 
price? The 737-1 's 7X9 dot matrix produces a 
quality print at a much lower price that approach- 
es the quality provided by an impact printer. This 
parallel printer offers up to 80 CPS with four 
charactersizes including underlining and bidirec- 
tional line feed control. The 737 offers friction 
feed or QV2" pin feed paper handling. The right 
margin justification mode allows near typeset 
quality at a low cost. See the FLEXTEXT ad for a 
sample print example. This highly popular printer 
is available from APPARAT for only: 

Cat* 1 -402 $839.00 



OKI DATA 

MICROLINE 80 

• Okidata's MICROLINE 80 offers a quality 9X7 
dot matrix head that is warranted for 200 million 
characters. It prints the full ASCII 96 character 
set and the full TRS-80 64 character graphics set 
at 80 CPS. The MICROLINE 80 offers software 
controllable features such as 6 or 8 lines per inch 
as well as four character sizes. Paper can be 
either friction fed or pin fed and an optional 
tractor feed is available. It comes standard with a 
parallel port but an optional serial RS232 inter- 
face is available. The Microline 80 is available for 
only: 

Cat* 1 -404 $525.00 

Tractor feed option 

Cat* 1-408 $130.00 

MICROLINE Model 82 adds bidirectional print- 
ing capabilities to the Model 80 

Cat* 1-417 $699.00 

MICROLINE Model 83 has 1 20 CPS bidirectional 
printing, 15 inch wide carriage and includes 
tractor feed. 

Cat#1 -41 8 $1 049.00 



^'^w^m 





Apparat Customer Service 1-303-741-1 778 



APPLE ADD-ON HARDWARE/SOFTWARE 



APPARAT 40X2DISK DRIVE 



The APPARAT 40X2 DISK DRIVE is uniquely 
designed to deliver more than twice the storage 
capacity (205K) of a standard Apple disk drive 
while remaining compatible with the Apple II. At 
the hardware level by simply plugging into the 
standard Apple disl< controller card . At the soft- 
ware level any Apple software will operate the 
Apparat40X2 in exactlythesamemanner .Atthe 
media level any disk written on an Apple drive 
can be read by the Apparat 40X2 and vice-versa . 
Therefore, DOS, PASCAL, FORTRAN, Z80 soft- 
card, Visi-calc, etc., are applicable instantane- 
ously. The Apparat 40X2 has Its own integral 
power supply, reducing power drain and heat 
buildup -- two factors which seriously affect Apple's 



performance. It has a double headed drive with 
40 tracks per diskette side, the first 35 tracks 
corresponding to Apple's standard tracks. In ord- 
er to use these extra tracks and the other side of 
the disk, special firmware is required, developed 
byApparat, for use with Apple DOS 3.3. Firmware 
for use with DOS 3.2 and PASCAL is optional. 

Cat#: 1 -724 $675.00 

Also available: 

40 track single sided (1 02K) 

Cat* 1 '742 $499.00 

80 track double sided (41 OK) 

Cat# 1 -743 $839.00 



LANGUAGE SYSTEM 
This package includes the Language Card, which 
allows apple users to take immediate advantage 
of the powerful Pascal Language as well as the 
Integer and Applesoft BASIC interpreters. The 
Language Card's 16K bytes of RAM memory 
electrically replaces the ROM firmware built into 
each Apple. Upon start-up, the RAM memory is 
automatically loaded from disk with the user's 
choice of language, then electrically protected 
from change. Includes diskettes containing a 
language selection "Hello" program, Pascal, Ap- 
plesoft BASIC, and all reference manuals. 

Cat* 1 -203 $495.00 

APPLESOFT FIRMWARE CARD 

The Applesoft Firmware Card provides access 
to the library of programs written in the ex- 
tended BASIC language. It contains hardware 
and software controls to allow it to electrically 
replace the existing Integer BASIC firmware in 
Apple II computers. 
Cat* 1 -205 $200.00 



PROGRAMMERS AID #1 
Apple developed this set of ROM-based program 
routines to make it even easierforyou to program 
in integer BASIC. The Programmer's Aid *1 in- 
cludes Renumbering, Merging, Tape Verification, 
Memory Test, Musical Note Generation, and High- 
Resolution Graphics routines. An added bonus is 
the ability to relocate 6502 machine-language 
programs. This ROM is available for the original 
Apple II only. Apple II Plus owners must purchase 
the new Integer BASIC Firmware Card which 
includes the Programmer's Aid *1. 

Cat* 1 -277 $50.00 

DOS 3.3 TOOL KIT 

Includes the Applesoft Tool Kit and the Assem- 
bler/Editor to help utilize the full capabilities of 
the Apple II. This Kit is intended for the Exper- 
ienced DOS 3.3 user {will not work on DOS 3.2). 
Also has the Hi-Res Character Generater, the 
Relocating Loader, and three demonstration pro- 
grams. 

Cat* 2-41 1 $75.00 



INTEGER BASIC FIRMWARE CARD 
This card provides access to a library of pro- 
grams written in the Integer BASIC language. It 
contains hardware and software controls to 
allow it to electrically replace the existing 
Applesoft BASIC firmware in Apple II Plus 
computers. 
Cat* 1 -204 $200.00 



CENTRONICS PARALLEL INTERFACE 

• The Centronics Parallel Interface Card includes 

cable and connector. Will interface with almost 

any printer that uses the Centronics parallel 

interface. 

Cat* 1 -207 $225.00 



Use our free Order Desk number 1 -800-525-7674 (except Co, Ak, Hi) 



PARALLEL PRINTER INTERFACE 

Designed to be used with printers that have 
parallel interfaces, it can also be used as a gen- 
eral 8-bit parallel output port. Selection from 40 
to 255 column output and simultaneous output 
to printer and screen. 

Cat# 1 -206 $1 80.00 



COMMUNICATIONS INTERFACE 
Allows the Apple to be connected to a modem for 
use as a terminal in either full or half-duplex 
modes at either 11 or 300 baud. A perfect mate 
for the Novation CAT modem, the Com Card 
allows you to transfer programs over the phone. 

Cat# 1 -224 $225.00 



RS232 SERIAL INTERFACE 
Designed specifically for high-speed printers, 
though it can also be used for half-duplex com- 
munications at rates from 75 to 1 9,200 baud. It 
can automatically add a line feed to a carriage 
return or a carriage return delay to aid in inter- 
facing almost any printer with serial interface. 
Input for the Apple II can betaken either from an 
external device, or from the Apple's keyboard, or 
from both simultaneously. 

Cat* 1 -223 $39.95 



WIREWRAP PROTOTYPING INTERFACE 

CARD 
• Construct your own custom-designed interface 
circuits to plug into the Apple H bus. 

Cat# 1-225 $39.95 



MICROSOFT SOFTCARD 

• Add the capabilities of running Z80 Micropro- 
cesssor programs on your Apple. Includes CP/M 
2.2 and Microsoft BASIC 5.0 which meets the 
ANSI qualifications for BASIC. CP/M is the most 
widely supported operating system available for 
personal computers. With the addition of the 
softcard, CP/M application programs can easily 
be run on the Apple. 

Cat# 1-217 $349.00 

VERSAWRITER DRAWING TABLET 

• VersaWriter is an inexpensive alternative to the 
Apple Graphics Tablet that allows for creation of 
full-color, high resolution graphic images. Im- 
ages may be stored on disk, rotated, shrunk, 
enlarged, or even imbedded in programs. In- 
cludes two diskettes containing plotting and ap- 
plications software. Requires at least 32K. 

Cat# 1 -226 $252.00 

LEEDEX MONITORS 

• Three different 12" B/W monitors and a Color 
monitor that are designed for professionals and 
priced for the hobbvst. These highly reliable 
monitors feature a 1 2 MHz bandwidth for an 80 
X 24 line display capability. The solid state cir- 
cuitry assures a sharp, stable, and trouble free 
picture. 

VIDEO 100: Sturdy, lightweight plastic cabinet 

Cat* 1 -609 $1 69.00 

VIDEO 100-6: Same as the 100 but Green 
Phosphor 

Cat# 1-610 $1 89.00 

VIDEO 100-80: Rugged metal cabinet with mount- 
ing capability for a floppy disk drive and space 
for an 11" X 14" PC board for custom designed 
electronics. 

Cat# 1-611 $199.00 

COLOR MONITOR: 13" High Resolution Solid 
State monitor 

Cat* 1-612 $399.00 



MICROSOFT RAM CARD 

Add 16KRAM to you Apple 1 1 with the addition of 
this card. Used in conjunction with the Microsoft 
Softcard, this card allows usage of 56K CP/M. 
Also allows loading of Integer BASIC from stand- 
ard DOS 3.3 System Master, just as if there was a 
Language Card. 

Cat* 1-218 $1 95.00 



SUP R MOD II 

The Sup R Mod il TV Interface plugs directly into 
your Apple II or Apple II Plus and allows you to 
use a standard color or B/W TV for your display. 
Operating on UHF channel 33, the package 
includes a coaxial cable and antenna transform- 
er to insure safe isolation with a standard home 
TV set. Requires assembly 

Cat* 1 -208 $29.95 



Apparat Customer Service 1-303-741-1778 



BLUEBOOK SERIES 



QUALITY 

That elusive essence of professionalism which takes 
years to acquire has been captured once again by 
APPARAT's quest for excellence in an innovative 
series called BLUEBOOK. Reasonably priced hard- 
ware and softvi/are packages including advanced 

word processing, intelligent software packages and 
professional accounting systems {to illustrate just 
the tip of the iceberg) proudly stand beside NEWDOS/ 
80 and APEX as powerful tools for TRS-80, APPLE, 
CP/M and MP/M systems. APPARAT is QUALITY. 
And we're proving it everyday with products pre- 
sented in the BLUEBOOK series. 



' TRS-80 BUS EXTENDER provides six slots sup- 
porting cards up to 3X5 inches. Can be connec- 
ted to the TRS-80 Models I and III, enabling 
optional hardware additions. Connectors, 5 and 
12 volt power supply, and an attractive metal 
case are provided. Specify Model I or III for 
appropriate cables. (NOTE: Most APPARAT hard- 
ware add ens for the TRS-80 can be plugged into 
the Bus Extender). 
TRS-80 

Cat# 1 -025 $1 69.00 

DATA SEPARATOR eliminates disk data errors 
which can occur on the TRS-80 Model I, espe- 
cially in the densely packed inner tracks. One 
reason for these errors is the inability of an 
internal circuit in the FD 1771 disk controller chip 
to function properly under some circumstances. 
APPARAT'S DATA SEPARATOR simply plugs into 
the expansion interface and solves the problem. 
No modifications are required to your Model I 
hardware or software. 
TRS-80 

Cat* 1-027 $29.95 

PROM BLASTER programs 25XX and 27XX parts 
in the 1 to 4K range as well as single (5V) and 
multi-voltage types by using a 16 pin jumper 
which configures the programmer to the ap- 
propriate PROM type. A zero insertion force 
socket is provided for the PROM. Utility routines 
are provided for each PROM type to read, write 
and verify from/to any range of memory. Only a 
portion of a PROM may be written enabling 
programming even if it is not blank. 
TRS-80 

Cat# 1 -022 $1 49.00 

Apple 

Cat* 1-220 $149.00 




' CLOCK CALENDAR/APPOINTMENT SCHEDULE 
provides clock/calendar functions of hr/min/sec 
in a 12hrformat(AMorPM)andmo/day/yr/dayof 
week, with (and here's the difference!) user's 
choice of two output modes, program requesting 
time/date, or time/date can be DMAed and au- 
tomatically displayed. ALSO Includes capability 
of setting approximately 100 time/dates which 
cause an interrupt upon matching time/date of 
theclock/calendar. A BASIC program can main- 
tain an appointment schedule for one or more 
people, or alert persons to perform certain tasks. 
TRS-80 

Cat* 1-021 $1 69.00 

Apple 

Cat* 1-219 $1 69,00 

REALTIME EXPERIMENTOR MULTI-PROCESSOR 
contains a National COPS 402 processor with 20 
I/O lines, serial I/O, counter, 2716 PROM with 
2048 bytes for program instructions and 1064 
nibles (4 bits) of RAM. Included is a cross assem- 
bler and sample program source showing utility 
routines which handle I/O, memory, and other 
features. The COPS 402 may be read from or 
writtento, may interrupt, or DMA (on Apple) to any 
place in the memory of the processor. May be 
used for any real time or process control require- 
ments by incorporating a clock/timer routine. 
TRS-80 

Cat* 1 -023 $1 59.00 

Apple 

Cat* 1-221 $159.00 



Use our free Order Desk number 1-800-525-7674 (except Co, Ak, Hi) 



• SPEECH I/O HARDWARE MODULES which al- 
low speech (using a phoneme generator), Morse 
code, or alphanumeric data to be entered, digit- 
ized, stored, and reproduced will soon be avail- 
able with applications for games, business, com- 
munications and many other activities. Support 
software is included with many application soft- 
ware packages available. Watch for announce- 
ments concerning applications and availability 
(for TRS-80 and Apple). Custom programming of 
voice output for commercial use will be offered. 

• APPARAT'S SCIENTIFIC ARITHMETIC PROCES- 
SOR (ASAP) provides faster processing of scien- 
tific functions when volume of calculations (num- 
ber crunching) is beyond the computer's capaci- 
ty during an acceptable time period. Handles 
interger or floating point numbers to 9y2 digits of 
accuracy. Available are the following scientific 
functions: sin, cosin, tangent, logs, square root 
and many more. 

Software designed to interface ASAP functions 
into BASIC or assembly language programs are 
provided. 
TRS-80 

Cat# 1 -024 $399.00 

Apple 

Cat* 1 -222 $349.00 

• INTEGRATED SALES & INVENTORY: A total Man- 
ufacturer's Inventory Control System. Easy to 
use modular construction allows interfacing with 
Invoicing and Accounts Receivable. Manages 
inventory, sales and receivables with ease. Com- 
fortably handles inventory as products comprised 
of components contained in the inventory. The 
system consists of the following modules which 
may be purchased separately: 

Invoicing and Sales Subsystem 
Model I/Ill 

Cat* 2-1 88 $1 75.00 

Model II 

Cat* 2-119 $250.00 

Apple Model II 

Cat* 2-427 $1 75.00 

Manufacturing Inventory Control Subsystem 
Model I/Ill 

Cat* 2-1 20 $1 75.00 

Model II 

Cat* 2-121 $250.00 

Apple Model II 

Cat* 2-428 $1 75.00 

Accounts Receivable with Labeling Subsystem 
Model I/Ill 

Cat* 2-1 22 $200.00 



Model II 

Cat* 2-1 23 $300.00 

Apple Model II 

Cat* 2-429 $200.00 

Integrated Sales and Inventory System 
Model I/Ill 

Cat* 2-1 24 $500.00 

Model II 

Cat* 2-1 25 $700.00 

Apple Model II 

Cat* 2-430 $500.00 



PASCAL LEDGER is a collection of programs 
that allows the user to have a complete comput- 
erized General Ledger system. It performs most 
of the tasks usually associated with computerized 
versions of the Genera! Ledger system including: 
Up to 250 User Definable Accounts - Financial 
Reporting - Transaction Entry - Automatic Post- 
ing - Password Protection - Customization of 
Printer and Screen Characteristics for Turn-Key 
operation. 

Included in the PASCAL LEDGER are the two 
system diskettes and complete documentation 
that shows step-by-step useage of the Pascal 
Ledger including Normal Daily Cycle, End-of- 
Week Cycle, End-of-Month Cycle, End-of-Quarter 
Cycle, End-of-Year Cycle. This General Ledger 
system is completely menu driven and does not 
require ANY computer programming knowledge. 
Comes already personalized with the user's com- 
pany name installed on the system disks. 

Cat* 2-431 for Apple II $149.00 



C-WRITE is a CPA Client Write-Up System de- 
signed for use by professional accountants. Not a 
"warmed over" in house accounting system; this 
is a full accountants system designed for client 
batch entry. CP/M 8" standard disk. 

Cat* 2-821 $799.00 



• "BIONIC BASIC" selectively implants modules 
directly into your Basic, significantly increasing 
its power and usefulness. You may choose any of 
the following implants or use all, as you see fit. 

BASIC STARTER PACKAGE, FEATURES 

A flashing and/or repeating cursor, with user- 
definable repeat rate & cursor character, and 
ability to switch the cursor and repeat on and off. 

Move information from one area of memory to 
another, such as from screen to protected memory. 



Apparat Customer Service 1-303-741-1778 



Chain programs - Run or load a new program with 
previous program variables intact. 

Labels and numeric instructions with GOTO or 
GOSUB statements. 

Change strings from upper to lower case and 
vice-versa. 



Alter the "RESTORE" command allowing specific 
line reading instead of the program's first data 
statement. 

Two other BIONIC BASIC packages are also avail- 
able: 
"Editing Features" package aliowsyou to: Search 
program text for a specific string or Basic key- 
word, move blocks of lines within a program, and 
compress resident programs by deleting unwanted 
spaces and remarks. 

"Array Features" package allows you to: Re- 
dimension arrays, search an array for a specific 
entry, and sort any one-dimensional array, nu- 
meric or string, in ascending or descending order. 
{This sort is fast - one hundred items in less than a 
second!) 

But the best feature of BIONIC BASIC is its modul- 
arity. You need only install those modules you want 
to Install. If you find you do not need a particular 
module you can "pull" It at any time. 

BIONIC BASIC starter package 

Cat# 2-1 00 For TRS-80 Model I $49.95 

Editing Package 

Cat # 2-1 01 $19.95 

Array Package 

Cat# 2-1 02 $ 1 9.95 

Special Offer - all three packages only 

Cat # 2-1 03 $74.95 



STOCKANALYSIS is a user oriented set of programs 
for analyzing the following: 

• The potential new and probable risk ratio of 
specific stocks 

• The overbought/oversold condition of specific 
stocks. 

• The overbought/oversold condition of the market 
in general. 

• The running averages for specific stocks or for 
the Dow Jones Averages. 

These routines will help you select stocks which 
meet your investment objectives. 

Cat# 2-1 27 For TRS-80 $49.95 



TRS-80 VOCAL SYNTHESIZER generates sounds 
from data files for the TRS-80 Synthesizer. Three 
output modes are available: Morse code, Spelled 
(both operate character by character), or Spoken 
(pronounces English orforeign language). Amaz- 
ing results, considering the limitations of spelling 
versus pronunciation. (NOTE: Will also work with 
the Apparat synthesizer to be announced early 
summer.) 

Cat* 1-026 $49.00 

NEWTRIEVE replaces your BASIC sequential 
search with a machine language program. NEW- 
TRIEVE is designed to be installed in any BASIC 
program that requires sequential searching of 
random access files for a particular string. NEW- 
TRIEVE can search through 25,000 characters 
from the disk file to locate the string in question 
and identify the disk file record in which it is 
located in less than a second. Includes all docu- 
mentation and sample programs. Also includes a 
utility program which simplifies installing NEW- 
TRIEVE into your BASIC programs. 

Cat* 2-090 For TRS-80 $49.95 

SMARTTERMINAL 80, an advanced, flexible,and 
unique program to make your TRS-80 an intelli- 
gent terminal for communicating with another 
TRS-80, FORUM 80V, THE SOURCE"", MICRO- 
NET", or any sophisticated mainframe system 
available to you. 

Manuscripts, documents, etc., may be prepared 
for off-line transmission on-line in blockform orin 
prompted line-by-line form. 

SMART TERMINAL 80 will transmit and receive 
BASIC programs and Editor-Assembler files. It 
transmits not one but two auto log-on messages 
and incorporates a lower case driver which may 
be toggled on or off. It will open or close your 
buffer automatically or manually for storage of 
incoming data or for transmission generation, 
detect key-bounce, and you may format your 
screen for the line length YOU desire without 
regard for the line length tranmited by the other 
system. 

SMARTTERMINAL 80 can store more than 30K 
bytes of data in your memory depending on your 
system size. You may redefine keys in order to 
send special codes required by some systems 
such as the square brackets required by MICR- 
ONET. Everything coming in or going out may 
be sent to your printer when you command it. 
Communications protocol and parameters are at 
your fingertips and may be selected at will, in- 
cluding full or half duplex. 



Use our free Order Desk number 1-800-525-7674 (except Co, Ak, Hi) 



SMART TERMINAL 80 stands alone as a unique 
communications package and when combined 
with THE APPARAT CONNECTION will end your 
communication problems. 

Cat# 2-1 04 $79.00 

• FLEXTEXT II supports the NEC 551 0/5520 Serial 
and the NEC 5530 Parallel Spinwriters while im- 
plementing all of the SCRIPSIT II special printing 
features, such as: space, word, and character 
justification, boldface, superscript, subscript, multi- 
column printing, single and double underlining, 
overstrike, strike-through, and SWAP. Also, FLEX- 
TEXT II allows alternate character sets (such as 
Italics) available on some Spinwrlter print thimbles, 
and switching between 1 and 1 2 pitch spacing 
during printing. FLEXTEXT II is self contained, 
requiring no modification to SCRIPSIT II while it 
performs the initialization of the TRSDOS paral- 
lel or serial {also configuring the Model 1 1, Channel 
B, RS232-C) printer drivers. Available for the 
Model II and Spinwriter. 

Cat# 2-1 06 $29.00 

The TRS-80 Pocket Computer has been described 
as a solution looking for an application. Apparat 
announces the first in a series of application pack- 
ages for the TRS-80 Pocket Computer - its Pocket - 
80® series. 

The first offering in the Pocket-80 series is a games 
package. Games are not only fun, they are an intro- 
duction to what a computer - any computer- can do. 
The Pocket-80 Games Package will include; 

• Guess -Guess the secret number. Not a sophisti- 
cated game by any means, Guess is included 
mainly to show how to simulate random numbers 
on the Pocket Computer. 

• Hamurabi - The classic game where you rule the 
kingdom of Sumeria. This program, which will fit 
snugly into a 4K TRS-80 Model I, Level I, shows 
just how much you can get into a pocket computer! 

• Safecracker- Another "Guess the Number" type 
game, this one has a twist; your mission is to open 
a safe, which could contain anything from the 
secret plans you came for to officer O'Malley of 
the FBI! 

• Pig - A dice game that's fun, but watch out! The 
pocket computer is hard to beat! 

• Psych - This one is also hard to beat; the Pocket 
Computer begins by randomly choosing "heads" 
or "tails", but as it goes along it begins making its 
decisions based on what you have guessed before. 

Cat# 2-1 07 $1 4.95 



• CMDX PROCESSOR functions as an extension 
to the TRS-80 Model I and III 1 6K computers. 
Although it is usable on disk systems, it is 
especially designed for cassette only units.CMD 
(X) adds 1 commands to Level II or BASIC III 
systems; string search, hexdecimal conversions, 
memory & variable displays, renumber, alter 
RAM, etc. 

Cat# 2-128 $24.95 

THE EXTENDER by Scott Knaster.With Apparat's 
new Apple software package. The Extender, you 
can use the full powerof PRINT USING from Apple- 
soft, determine the amount of free space remaining 
on a diskette from within your programs, generate 
automatic line numbers, and much more. 

The Extender provides 1 5 powerful statements and 
functions to make Applesoft programming easier. 
These commands add to your capability in business 
applications, graphics, debugging, disk manage- 
ment, and advanced programming. 

Here isa brief description of some of the commands 
provided by The Extender: 

• PRINT USNG - Easily formats output in columns, 
with automatic rounding, floating dollar sign, as- 
terisk fill, preceding or trailing sign, and more 
features than any other similar system. 

• AUT - Provides computer-generated automatic 
line numbers. 

• DEC and HEX - Provide built-in conversion be- 
tween hex and decimal. These functions can be 
used with POKE, PEEK, and CALL statements for 
easy programming. 

• DISKFR - Instantly computes the amount of disk 
space free on any standard DOS 3.2.1 or 3.3 
diskette. 

• EDIT-Allowseasierediting of Applesoft program 
lines by providing full-width listings. Eliminates 
typing POKE 33,33 to eliminate spaces. 

The Extender works with your Applesoft programs 
by using the '&' command. Just boot with the Ex- 
tender disk, the run, edit, or change your programs 
as usual, with all the power of these 15 additions at 
your fingertips. 

The Extender comes on a 3.2.1 diskette and is fully 
compatible with both DOS versions 3.2.1 and 3.3. 
The Extender requires an Apple II or Apple II Plus 
with at least 32K, Applesoft in ROM or Language 
System, and a minimum of one disk drive. 

Complete documentation Is included with exam- 
ples of usage for clarity and ease of implementa- 
tion. 

Cat# 2-41 $49.00 



Apparat Customer Service 1-303-741-1778 



the: 7-37- LIISCE I^^KIKt-rEI^ A.ISIP SC reiF^SI'T ^'^ 

Do you own a TRS-80^" Model I computer and the SCRIPSIT^^ Word Processing 
System"' Do you own a Radio Shack LP IV (Centronics 737-1) line printer'"' Are you 
frustrated because you are unable to uiilize the diverse capabilities of your 7x7-1 
line printer with BCRIPSIT^""' 

If your answer is "yes" to all of the above, APPARAT has a nearly perfect solution. 
APPARAT introduces FLEXTEXT, a product that brings SCRIPSIT^*^ and the 737-; 
printer together. 

FLEXTEXT is a software appendage to SCRIPBIT^" that supports tiie use of all 
SCRIPSIT provided print formats while exercising many expanded features of the 
737-1 printer. Together, SCRIPSIT^" and FLEXTEXT make possible the dymamic 
selection of! 

^ The proportional character set in normial and g? :x: "t es- n ci & cJ 

modes. 

i^ The coMpressed character set in norfial artd eK-tendeci ttO'Jes* 

^ Right justified formatting using the proportional or cottpressed 
character sets (normal or i^ 3c i: e- n d ^ d modes). 

* Underlining in any of the SCRIPSIT— selectable formats, and 
FLEXTEXT selectable character sets. 

* Your choice of superscripts ^^ ^^^^^^^_^^ m any supported character 
set, '' 

* The intermixing and comibming of the expanded 737-1 features 
anywhere within a document, 

ttt 
This SCRIPSIT and 737- i line printer merging is possible now through APPARAT. 

FLEXTEXT can be purchased fori 

Note; You must own SCRIPSIT^" to use FLEXTEXT. FLEXTEXT is a stand-alone 
program activated by a modified SCRIPSIT^" "PRINT" command (the modification is 
programmatically performed - no accident prone manual "zapping" is required). No 
SCRIPSIT " documentation is provided, 

FLEXTEXT use requires at least 1 disk drive and a TR5 DOS type operating system 
(preferably NENDOS/80 with its MINI DOS feature, allowing DIR and other DOS 
commands while the resident SCRIPSIT file remains undisturbed)* 

This advertisement was produced using SCRIPSIT^'^ and FLEXTEXT, driving a 
Centronics 737-1 line printer* 



A registered trademark of The Tandy Corporation, 



Use our free Order Desk number 1-800-525-7674 {except Co, Ak, Hi) 



MICROPERIPHERAL CORPORATION 

SERVING YOUR COMMUNICATION NEEDS 



THE CONNECTION 
A series of direct connect modems with auto an- 
swer, receive and/or dial capabilities 

• The Apparat Connection (Microconnection) el- 
iminates need for an expansion interface and/or 
an RS232 board by decoding the TRS-80 bus and 
creating an RS232 port. Provides serial printer 
output. Requires software written for Z80 port 
208, and an adapter cable for the Model III. 
Cat# 1 -028 $249.00 



CONNECTION SOFTWARE SUPPORT 

MANUAL TERMINAL PROG RAMS(Specify Mod- 
el I or III, with or without RS232, or Color) 



• KEYCOM permits communications between your 
TRS-80 and virtually any other computer. Con- 
verts Level I, 4K, and Level II, 48K. 

Cat# 2-112 $19.95 



• RS232 CONNECTION replaces obsolete acous- 
tic coupled modems on any system having an 
RS232 serial I/O port. Requires RS232 cable. 

Cat# 1 -029 $1 99.95 

• COLOR CONNECTION converts Radio Shack 
Color Computer into a communications terminal 
providing serial printer output. Additional mem- 
ory or extended BASIC not required. Cables 
provided. 

Cat* 1 -030 $1 99.00 

• AUTO CONNECTION (option) permits CONNEC- 
TIONS (except Color) to answer the telephone 
and/or dial numbers automatically. Dialer de- 
monstration program provided. 

Cat* 1-031 $79.95 

• EUROPEAN CONNECTION (option) modifies a- 
bove units for European Standards. 

Cat* 1 -032 $29.00 

• MODEL III ADAPTER cableconverts Model III 50 
pin bus to 40 pins, used by Model I peripherals. 

Cat* 1 -033 $29.00 



RS232 CABLE, fourfoot ribbon cable terminates 
with 25 pin male DB25 plugs. 

Cat* 1 -720 $24.00 



Microperipheral Corp. offers one of the most com- 
plete lines of communication hardware and soft- 
ware available in the microcomputer industry. 

Besides the above Connections, other models are 
available for the Apple, Atari and other micro com- 
puters. 



AUTOCOM is a user modified or expanded BAS- 
IC program with autodial routine (N/A for Color 
Computer). 

Cat* 2-113 $1 4.95 



TYPER routes LIST and LPRINT commands to 
serial printer connection for APPARAT/MICRO- 
CONNECTION or Color Computer. 

Cat* 2-114 $1 9.95 



SMART TERMINAL 80 is a flexible, unique pro- 
gram making your TRS-80 an intelligent terminal 
for communicating with any sophisticated main- 
frame system. Messages, manuscripts, documents, 
etc., may be prepared off-line for transmission, 
on-line in block form, or in prompted line-by-line 
form. Some of the many features are: Transmit 
and receive BASIC programs and Editor-Assembler 
files, transmit two auto log-on messages, auto- 
matic or manual storage of incoming data or 
transmission, auto repeat key, the ability to format 
line length you desire disregarding the transmitted 
line length, storage of more than 30K bytes of 
data inyour memory (depending on system size), 
redefinable keys in order to send special codes, 
printer accessability to incoming and outgoing 
data, and communications protocol and parame- 
ters, including full or half duplex, at your finger- 
tips. The SMART TERMINAL80 is a stand alone 
communications package, or can be combined 
with THE APPARAT CONNECTION for all your 
communication needs. 

Cat* 2-1 04 $79.00 



Apparat Customer Service 1-303-741-1778 



COMPUTING POWER 



MULTI- USER NETWORKING FOR THE TRS-80 AND APPLE 

**A COMPLETE, YET ECONOMICAL SYSTEM** 

($6,999 for a system having 1 .2 megabytes of disk storage and four 64K user stations) 

IF YOU NEED ANYOFTHE FOLLOWING, OUR MULTI-USER NETWORKING SYSTEM IS FOR YOU 

* MORE THAN ONE COMPUTER 

* COMMON ACCESS TO THE SAME DATA FILES 

* PROGRAM DEVELOPMENT WHILE PERFORMING ONGOING APPLICATIONS 
*ACCESS TO DIVERSIFIED APPLICATION SOFTWARE PACKAGES 

* MINIMUM COST FOR MAXIMUM PERFORMANCE AND CAPACITY 



FEATURES 

SOFTWARE 
MP/M" with OP NET" provides mult-user net- 
work system control. 

Each user station operates CP/M (Note: a Model 
I or III TRS-80 may also operate in a standalone 
mode under NEWDOS, TRSDOS™ or any comp- 
arable operating system.) 

Since MP/M and CP/M are the most widely used 
network and single user operating systems, re- 
spectively, an extensive selection of commercial 
quality application software packages are avail- 
able. 

HARDWARE 
The network control station is a 4 megahertz 280 
based system. Using MP/M, the controllershares 
disk and printer resources (the most costly ele- 
ments of a microcomputer) among all users pro- 
viding immediate access to common data files. 
Exceptionally useful in an interactive environ- 
ment such as order entry or inventory control. 
Disk storage capacity may be easily increased at 
any time, meeting a wide range of budgetary and 
information requirements, to the following limits: 
••Mini-Floppy Disks. Up to four 5V^ inch mini- 
floppy drives. Double density mode operations 
with a 3.2 megabyte maximum capacity. Avail- 
able in 40 track, single sided (200K per drive), 
40 track, double sided or 80 track single sided 
(400K), or 80 track double sided (800K) 
••Floppy Disk. Up to four 8 inch floppy drives, 
Double density mode operations with a 5 meg- 
abyte capacity. 



••Winchester disks. Up to four SVa inch mini- 
Winchester disk drives with a 40 megabyte 
maximum capacity. Also available with tape 
backup option. 
The network control station can control one or 
more printers operating either Centronics par- 
allel or RS 232 serial (optional). The printer spool- 
ing program, with MP/M, efficiently shares the 
printer(s) among several users via a priority scheme. 
The network control station can simultaneously 
manage up to eight user stations. Each user 
station connects to the control station on its own 
parallel port, eliminating contention problems 
found in most polled network systems. 
User stations may be any Z80 based computer 
capable of running CP/M. The TRS-80 models I, 
II, and III, and Apple computers can be easily and 
inexpensively configured to run CP/M (allowing 
disk and/or printer peripherals for local use), or 
MP/M (for shared peripheral use by all users). 
CP/M User Station featuring 24 lines of 80 char- 
acters, attributes (inverse, blink, etc.), 64K RAM, 
full keyboard with numeric pad and function keys 
in an attractive, detached keyboard case out 
performs and under prices the Apple and TRS-80 
computers. Attachable to any video monitor cap- 
able of 12 megahertz bandwidth, or may be 
purchased with a high quality 9, 1 2 or 15 inch 
video monitor. 



PRICES 
Network Control System from $1, 499 (200K disk) 
to $24,900 (43 megabyte disk) 
CP/M User Station $899 (monitor not included) 



Use our free Order Desk number 1-800-525-7674 (except Co, Ak, Hi) 



NAS 



COMMERCIAL GRADE SOFTWARE 
FORTRS-80 MODEL II™ 

RUNS ON 2 MEG FLOPPY 

OR OUR 10 MEG HARD DISK SYSTEM 

RUNS UNDER TRSDOS™ UTILIZING 

INTERACTIVE PACKAGES 

25 MAN YEARS OF FIELD TESTING 

READY FOR YOU NOW 

ORDER ENTRY with SALES ANALSIS/SINGLE level bill of MATERIALS 

INVENTORY 

ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE with interfacing word processing 

ACCOUNTS PAYABLE 

GENERAL LEDGER full year detail 

PACKAGE PRICES FOR FLOPPY $850.00 EACH 

OR OUR HARD DISK $950.00 EACH 

ALL SYSTEMS INCLUDE EXTENSIVESITUATION ORIENTED USER MANUALS 

WITH NAS CUT AN INVOICE THEN AUTOMATICALLY UPDATE 



•SALES ANALYSIS 
CUSTOMER ITEM 

•GENERAL LEDGER 
SALES ACCOUNTS 
INVENTORY ACCOUNTS 
RECEIVABLES ACCOUNTS 
COST OF GOODS ACCOUNTS 



• INVENTORY QUANTITIES 

RAW MATERIALS EXPOSION 
FINISHED GOODS 

•ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE 

BALANCE FORWARD 
OPEN ITEM 



WHAT IS ON THE HORIZON? 

HARK! A VOICE 

YES FROM NAS SOFTWARE PACKAGES 

FIRST TALKING TO YOU 

LATER TALKING WITH YOU 

EARLY 2nd QUARTER '81 SCHEDULED RELEASE 

ALSO NAS WILL BE CONVERTING TO CP/M MID '81 

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CALL 

APPARAT 1-800-525-7674 OR RS-WARE LTD. 

NATIONAL DISTRIBUTORS OF NAS. 314/739-2030 

Distributor Inquires Welcomed-Suite 202C 

3550 McKelvey Road • St. Louis, MO 63044 



Apparat Customer Service 1-303-741-1778 



PICKLES & TROUT 

P.O. BOX 1206, GOLETA, CA 93116, (805) 967-9563 

FOR THE TRS-80 Model II 
CCB-II 



TheCCB-li provides the foMowing functions for 
a TRS-80 Mode! II: 



A CLOCK 

hour, minutes, second 

A CALENDAR 

day, day of week, month, 
year 

AN AUDIO ALARM 



* -'■■:( *- 







INFORMATIONS: The CCB-II mounts in the TRS- 
80 Model II and provides a machine readable clock/- 
calendarand an audio alarm. The clock and calendar 
are powered by a long-life lithium pacemaker battery 
which will give about 8 years of continous operation. 

The CCB-II is fully supported by P&T CP/M 2 - The 
system date and time are synchronized to the CCB- 
II each time the system is reset and the audio alarm 
can be sounded by sending an ASCII BEL charac- 
ter (control-G) to the console. For TRSDOS users, 
software is available which sets the system date 
and time by the CCB-II when the system is reset. 

The CCB-II can be accessed directly from any 
language that allows direct port input and output. 
The user's manual for the CCB-II includes sample 
programs written in Microsoft Basic, CBASIC, Pas- 
cal/M, TRSDOS Basic, and assembler for directly 
accessing the CCB-II. 

PRICES: 

CCB-II 

Cat* 1-042 $1 75.00 

TRSDOS software diskette 

Cat* 2-126 $5.00 

PLEASE NOTE: The installation of the CCB-li re- 
quires opening the Model II, which may void Its 
warranty. We suggest that you wait until the warr- 
anty has expired before installing the CCB-II. 

P&T CP/M 2 

P&T CP/M 2 is an adaptation of the popular CP/M 
operating system for the TRS-80 Model II. P&T 
CP/M 2 has been carefully designed to utilize the 
hardware facilities of the TRS-80 Model II to max- 
imum advantage. In addition to improved system 
performance, P&T CP/M 2 opens the door to using 
hundreds of currently available software packages 
that have been written for CP/M. 

Distributed By: 

Use our free Order Desk number 1- 



DISK STORAGE: P&T CP/M 2 supports standard 
single sided floppy drives (596K bytes of usable 
storage at double density), double sided expansion 
drives (1 .2M bytes per disk), and the Cameo Elec- 
tronics hard disk controller (10 - BOM bytes). 

CRT CONTROL: The following built-in functions 
make console interaction easy: erase to end of 

line/screen, insert/delete line, cursor addressing, 
reverse video, split screen mode, read cursor loca- 
tion, and many more. The display capabilities are 
accessed by control codes, escape sequences, or 
simple system calls. 

SERIAL I/O: The serial ports are tied into the norm- 
al CP/M I/O structure or can be accessed directly 
by programs with special I/O requirements. ETX/- 
ACK, XON/XOFF, and clear-to-send handshaking 
are fully supported. A special utility routine is pro- 
vided to display the current status of the serial ports 
and allow the various parameters to be changed at 
will. 

PARALLEL I/O: Options are provided for the Cen- 
tronics port so that a printer with automatic line feed 
can be used with CP/M programs. 

USEFUL SYSTEM FUNCTIONS: Also included are 
type-ahead buffer for keyboard input, automatic 
program execution, system time-of-day clock, sys- 
tem date, and access to the CCB-II. 

UTILITIES: The Standard CP/M utility programs are 
augmented by 14 utility programs that have been 
written specifically for the Model II. 

DOCUMENTATION: P&T CP/M 2 comes with the 
standard Digital Research manuals plus the P&T 
CP/M 2 User's Manual which contains over 150 
pages of information about CP/M and the additions 
and special utilities supplied by Pickles & Trout. 

PRICES for P&T CP/M 2: 

Single sided floppy version 

Cat* 2-805 $1 85.00 

Double sided floppy version 

Cat* 2-822 $220.00 

Cameo Hard disk controller version 

Cat* 2-809 $250.00 

Manuals only (for evaluation) 

$35.00 

DEALER INQUIRES ARE WELCOME TIJCHF^ 

Apparat, Inc. t^ — ^^ 

>^ — 'r'l' 

800-525-7674 {except Co, Ak, Hi) ^ ^^^ ^ 




HIGH SPEED TRANSFER 
Filetran is the fast, effective, easy to use file 
translation system that allows you to generate 
CP/M or TRSDOS compatible files. Filetran op- 
erates on a single computer system and trasfers 
files bi-directionally between CP/M and TRSDOS 
operating systems using high speed disk-to-disk 
transfer techniques. 

POWERFUL AUTOMATED FEATURES 

• Filetran does much more than just transfer files. 
The lines function automatically finds and dis- 
plays the program lines that contain incompati- 
bilities between Level II BASIC nad Microsoft's 
MBASIC 5.2 Making conversion to the more 
powerful MBASIC fast and easy. The lines func- 
tion also allows the scan of any text file for all 
occurrences of any selected string. This provides 
the powerful capability of identifying any string 
sequence cross reference. The disk and MEM 
functions provide high-speed machine code disk 
sector and memory page displays in parallel 
HEX/ASCII format virtually at memory speed. The 
dir and files functions allow examination of both 
CP/M and TRSDOS directories without time- 
wasting system reload and the attendant disk 
switching operations, and for standard CP/M 
systems. A terminal configuration program is 
supplied which automatically configures filetran 
for use with the console terminal. 

FEATURES 

THE SOFTWARE PROFESSIONAL'S CHOICE 

Selected sector disk displays 

• Memory Displays 

• Software Conversion Cost Analysis 

• Program Conversion Aids 

MANY POWERFUL APPLICATIONS 
BASIC, FORTRAN, COBOL source language trans- 
fers to the operating system of your choice: 

• Expand the Marketplace for Your Software to 
Include the "Other" Operating System 

• If you're in the printing or typesetting business, 
expand your marketplace to include word-files 
made by the "other" operating system. 

THE WORD PROCESSOR 
USERS SOLUTION 

Use the Word Processing (WP) software of your 
choice and Filetran to meet your Client's needs: 

• If you're doing "overflow" work then you can 
remain compatible with your client's system with- 
out additional equipment. 

• If you're moving to new equipment, then Filetran 
your existing data to the new system. 



• Take advantage of new WP developments without 
large transiton costs! 

• With Filetran you are able to pick the WP system 
that meets your needs and your pocketbook 
without limiting your potential customer base. 

SPECIFICATIONS 

• Single or bi-directional byte for byte file trans- 
fers of word processing files, high order language 
program files, assembly language source files, 
and data files. 

• Transfers CP/M files to TRSDOS. 

• Transfers TRSDOS files to CP/M. 

• High speed machine code for disk & memory 
displays using video RAM capabilities. 

• Special purpose disk I/O for TRSDOS MOD I 
directory compatibility. 

• Terminal configuration feature for non-TRS80 
terminals. 

• Versions available for most CP/M based ma- 
chines. 

• Special versions available for TRS-80 MOD I & 
MOD II. 

DISK ASSUMPTIONS 
Assumptions are used primarily for warning. 

• Filetran assumes standard TRSDOS formats for 
both TRS-80 Model I & Model II. 

• For Model I, A & B are standard 5Va". 35 track, 1 
or 18 sectors 128 or 256 bytes/sector. 

• Drives C & D are standard 8", 77 track, 26 sector, 
1 28 bytes/sector 

• Custom disk configurations available on request 

• Compatible with Omikron and Parasitic engin- 
eering hardware for mixed drive, standard CP/M 
systems. 

REQUIREMENTS 
CP/M operating system is mandatory (version 2.2 is 
recommended for systems other than TRS-80 Mod- 
el I). 

• Filetran is a machine language CP/M "COM" file. 

• File transfers require dual disk. 

• The system requires 48K of RAM (minimum). 

Verson 1.2 - Model I to CP/M only: 

Cat* 2-823 $99.00 

Version 1.4 - Model I both directions 

Cat# 2-824 $1 49.00 

Version 1.5 - Model II to CP/M only: 

Cat* 2-825 $99.00 

^. ffiffAf^o^ 609 S. LivermoreAve. 
_Dl/0fflK0d Livermore, CA. 94550 
|L=|0=0 ("^^^J 449-4412 

PRODUCTS Distributed By; Apparat 



Apparat Customer Service 1-303-741-1778 



MICROSOFT 



CPAids 



BASIC-80 is probably the most extensive imple- 
mentation of BASIC for CP/M. Release 5.0 sup- 
ports new functions such as 40 character var- 
iable names, protected files, dynamic string space 
allocation, WHILE/WEND statements, chain and 
common, and variable length random file records. 
(CAT # 2-81 0) $350.00 



BASIC COMPI LER, following the same syntax as 
the BASIC-80 INTERPRETER, allows writing of 
programs in interpretive BASIC for later compiling, 
and relocatable file mixing with FORTRAN-80, 
COBOL-80, and MACRO-80. Includes MACRO- 
80 Macro Assembler, CREF-80 Cross Reference 
Utility, and a BASIC library manager. 

(CAT # 2-81 1) $395.00 



NOTE: CPAids requires a small royalty fee for the 
use of Microsoft Compiled Code in their programs. 

MASTER TAX PROGRAM includes schedules A, 
B, C, D, E, F, G, R/RP, SE, TC, AND ES, plus forms 
2106, 2119, 2210, 3468, 3903, 2441, 4625, 
4726, 4792, 4797, 5695, and 6521 , and features 
batch processing, input sheets and proforma. 

{CAT # 2-817) $995.00 

STANDARD TAX PROGRAM includes schedules 
B,C,D,E,F,G,R/RP, SE, TC and ES, plus forms 
2106 and 2441. 

(CAT # 2-818) $495.00 

Apparat can supply nearly any CP/M software. If 
you don't see what you want, please call. 



MICROPRO INTERNATIONAL 



COBOL-80 is a high speed COBOL compiler 
compatible with other Microsoft compilers, fea- 
turing MACRO-80, ANSI standard COBOL with 
STRING, UNSTRING,COMPUTE, SEARCH, PER- 
FORM, ACCEPT/DISPLAY, and more. 

(CAT # 2-81 2) $750.00 



FORTRAN-80, a full ANSI FORTRAN X3.9-1 966 
FORTRAN, except COMPLEX data type, is com- 
patible with other Microsoft Compilers. Includes 
MACRO-80. 

(CAT# 2-813) $500.00 



• MACRO-80, an 8080 and Z80 Macro Assembler, 
including CREF-80 Cross Reference Facility and 
LINK-80 Linking Loader, is compatible with Micro- 
soft Compilers. 

{CAT # 2-81 4) $200.00 



muL!SP-80 is an Artificial Intellegence Develop- 
ment System, including muSTAR utility package 
and sample programs. 

(CAT # 2-81 5) $200.00 



WORD STAR is one of the most versatile word pro- 
cessors on the market today. Superscript, sub- 
script, underline, boldface, strikeout and much 
more! Completely menu driven, simple to learn 
command set. Supports most video devices and 
printers automatically, with easy to use patch 
facilities for any others. 

(CAT* 2-801) $495.00 



• MAILMERGE,an add-on utility package for Word 
Star, allows insertion of variables from data files 
into form letters and mailing lists. Insertion from 
files into other text with rejustification. Requires 
Word Star. 

(CAT# 2-802) $1 50.00 



DATASTAR is a completely menu driven database 
manager provides for quick and easy data entry, 
retrieval, and updating. Files fully compatable with 
Word Star. 

(CAT# 2-807) $350.00 



muMATH/muSIMP. This symbolic math package 
computes to 61 1 digits with an exact solution of 
algebraic equations. Includes muSIMP symbolic 
and semi-numerical processing language. 

(CAT # 2-81 6) $250.00 



SUPERSORT is a sophisticated high-speed data 
sorting utility. Multikey,compatablewith Microsoft 
Relocatable files. 

(CAT# 2-800) $250.00 



Use our free Order Desk number 1-800-525-7674 (except Co, Ak, Hi) 



PLAY IT AGAIN . . . MAESTRO? 
WITH TRS-80 ORCHESTRA-80 



With no musical knowledge at all, you can now 
enjoy the sweet strains which soothes savage 
beasts on any 1 6K TRS-80 microcomputer. OR- 
CHESTRA-80 is a music synthesis system writ- 
ten by Jon Bokelman, manufactured by SOFT- 
WARE AFFAIR, and distributed by APPARAT. 

SOFTWARE includes: 

• •DIGITAL SYNTHESIZER producing up to 
four simultaneous voices in a six octave range 
allows a trumpet, oboe, clarinet and organ to 
perform four part harmony. Or, alterations could 
modify any of the voices to imitate other instru- 
ments. 

• • MUSIC LANGUAGE COMPILER lets you en- 
ter your favorite written music in any key or time 
signature with a simple and easy to use system 
language. Whole notes to sixty-fourth notes, sin- 
gle, double or triple dotted, triplets, single or 
double accidentals, staccato, pizzicato, repeats, 
second endings, retard and modulation are all 
possible. 

• • FULL SCREEN EDITOR with blinking cursor 
provides easy entering of insert/delete char- 
acters, insert/delete lines, global character search, 
and automatic error detection/display. 



• • FILE MANAGER stores and retrieves named 
programfileson tape or disk. Sequential ordering 
for automatic loading and playing lets you jump 
up to the conductor's stand. 

• • INITIALIZATION allows you to alter voices, 
selecting the standard four voice synthesizer, or 
a special high resolution, three voice version, or 
choose standard (1.77 MHz) or enhanced (2.66 
MHz) clock rate. 

■ HARDWARE for ORCHESTRA-80 is a 1 7^x2 inch 
PC board containing the electronics necessary 
to convert the computer output into a high fidelity 
audio signal. Simply plug into the expansion 
interface connector, then connect your "orches- 
tra" into the aux/tape/tuner input of any audio 
amplifier, and voila, music. No external power 
supply required. 

' INCLUDED is tape and disk versions on cassette, 
completely assembled PC board, detailed in- 
struction manual, and sample music programs. 



Available from APPARAT 

(CAT* 1-020) 

MANUFACTURED BY: 
SOFTWARE AFFAIR 
SUNNYVALE, CA 



$79.95 



l^r^?^W' ■■■-"■'■ ■■■"■■■■ _:■.:,..;:;.:: 












JlL^I"-""'-"^'"' 



;-,^^,yr!;j- 



"•[Mnffltiwi''' 



VN" 



V'-W^ 





'<J 



^pfi!l!B 



ORCH8C 



I i' 



f!-^'JTt::.:1..ij!T|gj^ 






>« 



# 



\ 



iK*i:iii-:?i^ 







,iiu-« ■■■■i^-:-: 







^^ 






Apparat Customer Service 1-303-741-1 778 



MICRO CLUB MEMBERSHIPS 

"How would you like to be one of the first to obtain new applications for your 

TRS-80® or Apple® 
and SAVE MONEY??? 



A vast array of software, especially games, exists for 
your microcomputer, but software alone can only 
partially fulfill the power and usefulness of your 
computer. 

You probably own a disk and a printer— hardware 
which also enhances the usefulness of your com- 
puter. Other than these common peripherals, rela- 
tively little hardware exists in comparison to soft- 
ware, and most of the hardware available is prohib- 
itively expensive. 

The MICRO CLUB has been established to meet 
this need for a variety of inexpensive hardware 
devices— tools which will help you get more satis- 
faction from your computer. 

Each month the MICRO CLUB will announce one or 
more new hardware products complete with com- 
plementary software and comprehensive documen- 
tation. Some products to be offered in coming 
months include a DATE/TIMER event timer, an 
energy efficiency MEASURING INSTRUMENT, and 



a PROM BLASTER. Best of all MICRO CLUB mem- 
bers will usually pay less than $1 00.00 for products 
which will eventually retail for $1 50.00 or more. 

Membership in the MICRO CLUB costs $10.00 for 
1 2 issues of our new products newsletter describ- 
ing our product of the month as well as other 
hardware and software specials available exclu- 
sively to MICRO CLUB members. Even the mem- 
bership is fully refundable i.e.: you will receive a 
$10.00 discount on your first selection. Although 
there's no obligation to purchase any product, you 
need make onlytwo selections during the 12 month 
period to have your membership automatically ex- 
tended for another year. 

_n n n n n n n n n n n n n nn f. r-. " nn^ 



micro club 



uuljuljUUUUUUUUUUULJ ' JUU 




1 ! ! ' ■: il :i 



APEX-A NEW DISKOPERATING SYSTEM 
FOR THE APPLE 



' After two years of extensive development, AP- 
PARAT is proud to announce APEX, a complet- 
ely professional, programmable, file maintenance 
disk operating system for the APPLE II. Some of 
the multitude of disk operations are: a command 
structure similartoCP/M and mainframe operat- 
ing systems, containing 20 command words, plus 
the ability to treat external programs as transient 
commands to the operating system, simple com- 
munication channels between operating system 
and user program allowing easy interfacing, cap- 
ability of handling both 5 and 8 inch disks on the 
same system, safety features which include back- 
up files and directory, read-after-write and size 
limit checks protecting against data loss, speed 4 
times faster than CP/M, automatic default struc- 
ture eliminating tedious typing by automatically 
setting up command strings, file names and ex- 
tensions, fully functional on single and multi- 
drive systems, with utilities for single or multi- 
drive file copy, and a device handler structure for 
interfacing non standard peripherals. 
The basic APEX package includes a high speed 
{1 900 line/minute) two pass resident assembler 
which generates an alphabetized symbol and 



cross reference table, a powerful macro editor with 
1 8 commands, 1 text buffers and the capability of 
performing complex editing tasks, plus all the nec- 
essary tools for a complete assembly language 
development system. 

• The complete APEX package inludes operating 
system, assembler, editor, user manuals, and a 
complete utility set to maintain files on single or 
multi-drive systems. Supplied on 5" diskette re- 
quiring a minimum of 48K and 1 disk. 

Cat# 2-404 $99.00 

Some related software development tools available 
for the APEX system are: 

• XPLO - A block structured PASCAL-like system 
language, now with floating point 

CAT# 2-405 $79.00 

• HANDY DISK #1 containing scrolling editor, dis- 
assembler and new set of handlers and system 
utilities. 

Cat# 2-406 $39.00 

• A complete brochure detailing the APEX system 
and support software packages is available on 
request. 



Use our free Order Desk number 1-800-525-7674 (except Co, Ak, Hi) 



SOFTWARE FOR THE APPLE II 

VISICALC 

• Personal Software's Visicalc is a most exciting 
and popular business software package because 
of it s extraordinary power, and the fact that you 
can configure it without previous computer ex- 
perience. Visicalc allows you to construct a table 
of figures, define relationships between different 
rows and columns, and then modify these figures 
and relationships with simple commands. It's 
perfect for sales forecasting, engineering, real 
estate, accounting and countless other applica- 
tions. 

Cat* 2-41 6 $1 49.00 



DESKTOP PLAN 
This problem solving tool for the Apple II can be 
used for the development and analysis of bud- 
gets, cost and price analysis, sales forecasts, 
cash flow planning, capital budgeting, profit and 
loss projections, and a myriad of similar types of 
analyses. No knowledge or skills in computer 
programming are required to develop custom- 
ized business planning and analysis systems. 
Cat* 2-417 $99.95 



CCA DATA MANAGEMENT SYSTEM 
This database management system stores and 
retrieves information, sorts and deletes records, 
and prints reports. Simple to learn and use, the 
power of this system will amaze you. Multiple 
diskette capability for larger files: Up to 85,000 
characters per file. 

Cat* 2-41 8 $99.95 



APPLE CP/M SOFTWARE 
(Requires Microsoft Softcard) 

FORTRAN-80 is an enhanced version of Micro- 
soft's CP/M FORTRAN. 

Cat* 2-804) $1 95.00 

COBOL-80. For more information on Microsoft's 
standard CP/M COBOL, check the CP/M soft- 
ware section. 

Cat* 2-803) $750.00 

BASIC-80 COMPILER. Release 5.2 of Microsoft 
BASIC for the Softcard. Available spring 1 981 . 

Cat* 2-81 9) $395.00 

ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE DEVELOPMENT SYS- 
TEM. Contains macro assembler and linking load- 
er for APPLE CP/M. Available spring 1 981 . 

Cat* 2-810) $1 25.00 



WORD PROCESSING SYSTEMS 

All word processing systems that are listed here 
have the usual text editing capabilities to edit 
memos, letters, and programs, enter text, delete 
mistakes, search through the text and replace let- 
ters, words, or phrases automatically or manually. 
Only the differences and special functions of each 
will be specified. All are machine language systems. 

APPLE WRITER 

• Perhaps the easiest to use of the word pro- 
cessors this one is also the least expensive. 

Cat* 2-412 $75.00 

EASYWRITER 

• This word processor by Captain Software has 
express tabbing and the ability to set up the print 
page for each application. Also configured so 
that all control characters that affect the print are 
visible. 

Cat* 2-413 $99.00 

SUPER TEXT 

• Thought by many to be the best word processor 
for the Apple, Super Text has complete tab con- 
trol as well as a Math mode for calculations within 
a file, or to act as a direct 1 5 digit calculator. 

Cat* 2-414 $1 50.00 

r 

MAGIC WINDOW 

• This word processor has two unique features 
found nowhere else: The ability to see the text 
EXACTLY as it is going to appear on the printer 
and keypressed sound. The Magic Window moves 
across the page as the text is typed, so the entire 
80 columns are displayed as they will be printed, 
and the speaker on the Apple 'ticks' when a key is 
pressed, giving positive indication that a key has 
in fact been pressed. 

Cat* 2-41 5 $1 50.00 



Entertainment Software 

• ABM -Muse Anti-Ballistic Missies 

Cat* 3-521 Disk $24.95 

• SUPER INVADER - from Creative Computing 

Cat* 3-502 Tape $1 9.95 Apple 

• FLIGHTSIMULATOR-Earnyourwings courtesy of 
SubLogic 

Cat* 3-476 Disk $33.50 Apple 

Cat* 3-475 Tape $25.00 Apple 



Apparat Customer Service 1-303-741-1778 



TRS-80 SOFTWARE 

RACET PROFESSIONAL SOFTWARE 



IN FINITE BASIC -Expand the power of your TRS- 
80® by performing such functions as sorting, 
copying, simultaneous equations plus STRING 
and MATRIX functions. 

(CAT* 2-018) $49.95 



BUSINESS ADD-ON MODULE - Allows user to 
specify heading and footing lines for output to 
printers. Performs arithmetic functions and hash 
encoded index for file retrieval. 

(CAT# 2-020) $29.95 



• COMMAND PROCESSOR "COMPROC" - Ex- 
tends the DOS-AUTO Command to perform mul- 
tiple steps at power-up time or single user system 
command. Executes sequence commands, chang- 
es and saves script easily using facilities of 
BASIC plus many other features. 

(CAT* 2-01 1) $1 9.95 

• DOSORT simplifies time-critical tasks of sorting 
and data comparisons with a BASIC control pro- 
gram. Includes GSF which effectively interfaces 
control program with machine language routines, 
allowing versatile sort-merge, multi-volume, two 
mode and presort features. 

32K (CAT* 2-022) $34.95 

48K (CAT* 2-021) $34.95 

• GENERALIZED SUBROUTINE FACILITY (GSF) 
standardizes multiple machine language pro- 
grams for easy access by TRS-80 BASIC users. 
Eighteen machine language subroutines and sorts 
are easily expandable. Description of conven- 
tions used. 

1 6K (CAT* 2-01 2) $24.95 

32K (CAT* 2-1 09) $24.95 

48K (CAT* 2-110) $24.95 



• COPSYS duplicates valuable system tapes be- 
fore they become damaged by providing bit-for- 
bit verification and merging of independently 
assembled object tapes into one load module. 
Generated from Radio Shack Editor-Assembler 
Program. 

(CAT* 2-01 7) $1 6.95 



REMODEL automatically restructures and re- 
numbers program lines, relocates blocks of lines 
from one spot to another enhancing program 
readability and documentation for rapid creation 
and organization of programs. 

PROLOAD avoids recreating commonly used rou- 
tines by selectively storing and retrieving data 
statements allowing individual or combination 
loading of BASIC programs. Increases program- 
ming productivity by handling fixed data more 
efficiently. 

16K, 32K or 48K versions of REMODEL and 
PROLOAD on same tape. 



1 6K (CAT* 2-014) $34.95 

32K (CAT* 2-01 5) $34.95 

48K (CAT* 2-01 6) $34.95 

MICROSOFT SYSTEM SOFTWARE 

FORTRAN, popular language for science, math and 
engineering. 

(CAT* 2-050) $99.00 

ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE PACKAGE includes Macro 
Assembler, Link Loader, Text Editor, Cross Reference. 

(CAT* 2-052) $99.00 

LEVEL III BASIC 

(CAT* 2-071) $45.00 

muMATH, symbolic math, algebra, trigonometry, 
calculus. 

(CAT* 2-072) $74.00 

muMATH EXTENDED, symbolic math up to 611 
digits. Exact solution of algebraic equations. 

(CAT* 2-111) $249.00 

ADVENTURE, a popular game 

(CAT* 3-1 1 2)) $29.00 

UTILITIES SOFTWARE 

MICRO CLINIC FLOPPY DISK/MEMORY DIAG- 
NOSTIC PACKAGE by Dave Stambaugh. Test 1 to 4 
drives, single or double density and 35, 40. 77, or 80 
tracks. Provides drive speed/alignment tests, and 
much more. Memory is tested by both conventional 
write/read and M-1 worm test. 

(CAT* 2-115) $24.95 

DDT-DISK TIMER for adjusting disk drive motor 
spQgd 

(CAT* 2-029) $1 9.95 



Use our free Order Desk number 1 -800-525-7674 (except Co, Ak, Hi) 



M. A. S. GENERAL LEDGER 
General ledger is very simple to use, with up to 
200 accounts, detailed transaction files, trial 
balance reports, income statement and balance 
sheet. Outstanding features include: auto load- 
ing, batch up to 200 debit & credit entries and 
auto edit out-of-balance entries with unlimited 
daily entries. Compare periods and prepare your 
own depreciation schedules. 

Cat# 2-088 $1 59.00 

ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE 
The present system will handle up to 1 600 cus- 
tomers with auto-billing, mailing labels, and many 
reports to help improve cash flow. Fast entry of 
charges and payments with discounting allowed, 
complete management reportingwithtrue aging, 
bill-mail code, discount percent, total charges, 
payments, last payment date and amount, total 
discount and remaining balance, overdue ac- 
count listings and many more features to assist 
you, including direct entry to general ledger. 
Cat#2-087 $1 59.00 

ACCOUNTS PAYABLES 
Will handle up to 300 vendors with checkwriting, 
mailing labels, and full reporting. The same fea- 
tures as accounts receivable: fast entry of char- 
ges and payments, with discounting allowed, 
complete management reporting with true aging, 
and much more. Also, auto posting to general 
ledger. 

Cat# 2-086 $1 59.00 



CHECK REGISTER 
Complete with reconciliation form. Has every- 
thing needed to keep an efficient checking ac- 
count. Record checks written by hand, as well as 
writing checks automatically for Accounts Pay- 
able. Will handle up to 600 checks monthly. 
Record up to 200 separate checks or total de- 
posits monthly. Print a check register with all 
checks and deposits, showing check numbers, 
payee memo, amount, and code. You can correct 
checks, make deposits, void checks, stop pay- 
ment and more. Provides information as follows: 
amount of total checks, amount of total deposits, 
remaining balance, service charges and amount 
at beginning of month. Simple to use, with com- 
plete error detection and links to accounts pay- 
able. 

Cat# 2-089 $79.00 



COMPLETE SYSTEM 

This is a complete accounting system for the 
small business. Trial balance, income statement, 
balance sheet, management report and com- 
plete transaction reports assure you full control 
of your cash flow and business position. All 
modules include full editing and complete prompt- 
ing. The auto posting means all systems are fully 
integrated. Have your accounting information 
available at all times. Requires 48K and 3 disk 
drives for the Complete System. (Contains all 
modules) 

Cat* 2-116 $489.00 



Call or write for more Information including sample reports. 

BOOKS 



Learning Level I! 

Cat* 4-221 $1 5.99 

BASIC Handbook 

Cat* 4-222 $14.99 

Microprocessors from Chips to Systems by Rodney 
Zaks 

Cat* 4-119 $10.95 

Programming the 6502 By Rodney Zaks 

Cat* 4-081 $1 2.95 

Introduction to Pascal including UCSD Pascal by 
Rodney Zaks 

Cat* 4-071 $1 2.95 

Z80/8080 Assembly Language by Kathy Spraklen 
Cat* 4-131 $8.75 

Pathways through the ROM 

Cat* 4-084 $1 9.95 

TRS-80® Disk & Other Mysteries 

Cat* 4-1 39 $22.50 



Microsoft Basic Decoded & Other Mysteries 
Cat* 4-220 $29.95 

CP/M Handbook by Rodney Zaks 

Cat* 4-001 $1 3.95 

Basic Computer Games 

Cat* 4-006 $7.95 

More Basic Computer Games 

Cat* 4-007 $7.95 

Katie & The Computer (for children 3-8) 
Cat* 4-052 $6.95 

Microprocessor Interfacing Techniques 

Cat* 4-1 09 $1 7.95 

Z80 Gourmet Guide 

Cat* 4-115 $1 4.00 

6502 Gourmet Guide 

Cat* 4-116 $1 0.00 



Apparat Customer Service 1-303-741-1778 



SUPPLIES 



DISKETTES 

Diskettes are cardboard boxed unless otherwise 
noted. First price indicates box of 10, second 
price Indicates case of 100 diskettes. Note: all 
diskettes are soft sectored. 

BLANK LABEL 

SVa" single sided double density 40 track certified. 

In a plastic library case. 

Cat# 4-207 $25.95 $21 0.00 



574" single sided double density 40 track certified. 
In bulk packs of 100. 

Cat # 4-208 N.A. $1 80.00 



BASF FLOPPY DISKETTES 

5V4 single sided double density BASF label 40 
track certified. 

Cat # 4-206 $24.95 $1 90.00 



DISK HEAD CLEANER KITS 

• 3M Brand - Eliminates build up to avoid repairs. 

5Va" Cat # 4-1 66 $29.95 

8" Cat # 4-1 67 $39.95 

FLIPSORTS 

• Holds up to 50 diskettes. 

5'U" Cat # 4-174 $29.95 

8" Cat # 4-1 73 $39.95 

PLASTIC LIBRARY CASES 

• Holds up to 10 diskettes. 

5V4" Cat # 4-1 72 $3.95 

8" Cat # 4-1 71 $5.95 

PAPER 

• 9y2"X1 1" Blank white tractor feed 3500 sheets. 

Cat # 4-1 77 $32.95 

• 9y2"X11" Carton blank white 1500 sheets. 

Cat # 4-1 77 $22.95 

• 14%X 1 ^V2" Greenbar tractor feed 3500 sheets. 

Cat # 4-1 78 $42.95 



VERBATIM FLOPPY DISKETTES 

• 8" FD34-9000 single sided, single density Datalife 
critical certification. 

Cat # 4-200 $34.95 $320.00 

• 8" FD34-8000 single sided double density Data- 
life critical certification. 

Cat # 4-201 $44.95 $41 0.00 

• 5V4' MD525-01 single sided double density Data- 
life 40 Track certified. 

Cat # 4-202 $28.95 $240.00 

• 5y4MD550-01 double sided double density Data- 
life, 40 Track certified. 

Cat # 4-203 $45.95 $420.00 

• 574 MD577-01 single sided quad density Datalife 
77 Track certified. 

Cat # 4-204 $33.95 $320.00 

• 5y4MD557-01 double sided quad density Datalife 
77 Track certified. 

Cat # 4-205 $45.95 $420.00 



PAPER SHIPPED FREE! 

RIBBONS 
Complete line of Okidata, Anadex, Epson, Cen- 
tronics, NEC, and MPI ribbons. 
Call For Price! 

NEC THIMBLES 

(over 30 styles available) Call For Price! 

1 6K MEMORY EXPANSION KIT 

Easily and quickly increase the memory of your 
TRS-80 or Apple microcomputer to 32 or 48K. 
Comes with complete instructions. Our dynamic 
RAM GUARANTEED 6 months against defects. 
Cat# 1 -608 $39.95 

THE ISOLATOR POWER SOURCE 

► Eliminate erratic errors and problems caused by 
"noise" on your electric lines. Filters out inter- 
ference from air conditioners, electric motors, 
fluorescent lights, refrigerators and other electr- 
cal appliances. 
Cat# 1 -607 $49.95 



Novation D-CAT Modem 

Cat# 1-601 $1 79.95 



Novation CAT Modem 
Cat# 1-600 



$159.95 



Use our free Order Desk number 1-800-525-7674 (except Co, Ak, Hi) 



TERMS AND CONDITIONS 



Orders shipped U.P.S. surface free. (Does not apply to NEC 
Spinwriter,Anadex 9500/01, TRS-80 Model II, or 8" floppy drives 
in a triple cabinet which must ship motor freight collect) 

Orders up to 10 lbs. can be shipped U.S. Mail. Add $5.00 extra for 
postage and handling, 

Canadian orders contact for freight charges. Orders will not be 
shipped unlessfreight is prepaid or satisfactory arrangements are 
made. 

Foreign orders shipped Emery Air Freight collect unless special 
arrangements are made. 

AH customs declared for invoiced amount and marked COM- 
PUTER SOFTWARE/PRINTED MATERIALS. 

All returned merchandise must have RMA number. Please call 
for a number and mark clearly on the outside of the package. 

All returns subject to 15% restocking charge. 
PASCAL/M'- trademark of Sorcim 
TRS-80® trademark of Tandy Corporation 

Apple''' and Applesoft''' trademarks of Apple Computer . 

CP/M'" MP/M'"^ and CP/NET* trademarks of Digital Research 

Magic Wand^ trademark of Smalt Business Applications, Inc. 

Please include full street address. 



Most orders shipped in two business days or you will be notified. 

Allow 14 days for domestic personal or company checks to clear. 
(Allow 45 days for foreign checks.) 

Apparat, Inc. 

4401 S. Tamarac Parkway 

Denver, CO 80237 

CUSTOMER SERVICE: 1-303-741-1778 
TOLL-FREE ORDER LINE: 1-800-525-7674 

RETAIL HOURS: 10-6 M-W-F, 10-8 T-Th, 10-5 Sat 

Notice - Retail prices may be different than shown in this catalog. 

All prices subject to change without notice. 

Call for current competitive pricing. 



DEALER INQUIRES INVITED 



A post office box is not sufficient. 



>«C 






m >< O) 



o o w 



□ 

< 

CO 

> 



□ 
u 

O 



2K 



O 



^ E 



-D S 



a 



0) 




< 


n 










cvt 
2 




> 


o 
2 


1) 

X) 


<D 


n 






'a 


u 


U 
o 



Q- O U W O 



Apparat Customer Service 1-303-741-1778 



tmxity new products for ymirTRS-SO 
that are so hot... 



• 


A 


H 


f 

..^' 












■ IE 








P 


■' ti 


■,-.- 




^"5^ 


m 


"i 


"■"■ 


1 (■ 

2 








^' 



Apparat introduces twenty powerful and ec-onomicai 
add-ons for your TRS-80 system. Hardware and 
Software to increase your capabilities: 
So/Hioare 

SMART TERMIPiAL 80— Converts the Model I or III 
to an intelligent terminal. 
nEWTRlEVE— Rapid search and retrieval of 
memory/disk for a character string of any length. 
FLEXTEXT — Provides proportional spacing, 
compressed and extended characters, underlining 
and 50 on. Operates on the Centronics 757 printer 
in conjunction with SCRIPSIT for the Model I. 
flEXTEXT II — Provides proportional spacing, 
right justification and so forth, on the NEC 
Spinwriter 5500 series printers printing in 
conjunction with SCRIPSIT U*. 
BloniC BASIC— Add new functions to BASIC. 
Editing and array handling functions available. 
POCKET 80 GAMES— for the Pocket Computer. 
C-WRITE — Comprehensive client write-up system 
for the professional accountant. 
nEWDOS/80— for the Model III— all the features 
available on the Model I plus double density. 
VOCAL SYPiTHESlZER— Provides Morse. Spelled 
and Spoken output of data files through the 
TRS-80* Vocal Synthesizer. 




INTEGRATED SALES AMD inVEnTOKY SYSTEM 

— Provides inventory, sales and receivables 
for manufacturers. 

Hardware 

CLOCK /CALENDAR/ APPOmTMEHT 

SCHEDULER— Time, date and up to 100 

time/date appointment interrupts. 

PROM BLASTER— Programs 25XX and 27XX 1 to 

4K multi and single voltage PROM. 

MUtri- PROCESSOR EXPERIMErtTOR SYSTEM 

— Frovidesa COPS 402 processorwith I/O 
RAM. andacrossassembler for real time or 
process control requirements. 

ASAP (APfftRAT SCIEMTIFIC ARITHMETIC 

PROCESSOR) — fast processing of scientific 

functions. 

TRS-80* BUS EXTE«DER— Allows up to six 

hardware products to be plugged into Models I or 

III bus. Has self-contained power supply. 



A 


w 


— 

-D 

s 


> 


1 (^ 


£ 


^ 


B o 


^7 


5' 

rF! 




'S 


-S3 


H '-'-^ 


>' 


s: 




^ 




1^1 


£^ 



DISK SER\RATOR— Improves floppy dish 
performance required because of insufficient data 
separation on the Model I. 
SPEECH I/O MODULES— Voice and sound input 
and output for the Models I and III. 
APPARAT COnrtECTIOn— Adds auto answer and 
autodial modem capabilities to your TRS-80® 
MODEL HI FLOPPY DISK SYSTEM— Add one to 
four drives plus controller to your Model 111 with up 
to 2.8 megabytes capacity under riEWDOS/80. 
wmCHESTER DISH SYSTEM- five to forty megabyte 
storage with optional tape or floppy backup. 

Ifyou're going to upgrade your system, call us 
about our twenty new TRS-80 Products, or our 
complete 1 ine of add-ons for the TR5-80. You'll find 
our products innovative and our prices hard to 
beat. Dealer inquiries welcome, for more 
information on Apparat's new products, send $1.00 
(refundable on your first order) for our 1981 
catalog, or call us at (303) 741-1778. 

To order any product, call us toll-free (except 
Alaska, Colorado and Hawaii) at 

800-525-7674. 



Apparat Inc. 

4401 So. lamarac parkway, Denver, CO80237 (303)741-1778 



.^264 




Volume I: The most comprehensive 
book yet on the math routines in 
Level II ROM, Models I & III. In- 
cludes a fully commented listing 
from 0708H to 1607H and an in- 
credibly complete map of the ROM 
and reserved areas of RAM. 



PTHE B00K 



-80^"^ ROM 




If you ever do Assembly language program- 
ming, or you just want to know more about 
your TRS-80 ROM, "THE BOOK"s are for you. 

*TRS-80 is 3 trademark o( Tandy Corp. 

Each volume is priced at: $14.95 + $1.50 
S&H = $16.45 ($17.05 in VA) Overseas add 
$2.50 for air shipment 



I Insiders Software Consultants, Inc. ^305 
P.O. Box 2441, Dept. SUM2 
Springfield, VA 22152 

U Please send me Volume I of THE BOOK 

[J Please send me Volume II of THE BOOK 



ADDRESS _ 

CITY, STATE 



_ZIPCODE_ 



Check payable to Insiders Software Consullants. Inc. 

MASTER CHARGE MC Bank Code 

VISA Exp. Dale Catd Numbet 



I Signature 
I 



Dealer Inquiries invited 




^i 



Volume II: Everything you want to 
know about the video, keyboard, 
cassette, and printer driver 
routines. Learn how to write your 
own! Remarkably detailed listings 
illustrate well-commented source 
code. Complement Volume I. now. 



Orange micro 



"THE COMPUTER PRINTER 
SPECIALISTS" 



CENTRONICS 737 



Word Processing 
Print Quality 




• 18 X 9 dot matrix; suitable for word 
processing • Underlining • proportional 
spacing • right margin justification • serif 
typeface • 50/80 GPS • 9V2 " Pin 
Feed/Friction feed • Reverse Platen • 
80/132 columns 



CENTRONICS 737-1 (List $995) 

CENTRONICS 737-3 (List $1045) 



$765 
$815 



EPSON MX80/MX70 

Low-Phced Professional Print Quality 



• 9 X 9 dot matrix • Lower case descenders 

• 80 CPS • Bidireclional, Logic seeking • 
40, 66, 80, 132 columns per line • 64 special 
graphic characters: TRS-80 Compatible • 
Forms handling • Multi-pass printing • Ad- 
justable tractors 




EPSON MX80 {List $645) 

EPSON MX 70 Dot graphics, 5x7 matrix (List $450) 



SCall 
SCall 




IDS PAPER TIGERS 



IDS 
IDS 
IDS 



Do! Resolution Graphics, quality print 

• 7 wire printhead (445); 9 wire printhead 
(460) with lower case descenders • Over 
150 CPS • bi-directional, logic seeking 
(460) • 8 character sizes; 80-132 columns 

• Adjustable tractors • High-resolution dot 
graphics • Proportional spacing & text 
justification (460), 

445G 7 wire printhead, graphics (List $895) $ 750 

460G 9 wire printhead, graphics (List $1394) $1150 

560G 9 wire, wide carriage, graphics (List $1794) $1590 




TELEVIDEO CRT'S 

PRICES SLASHED! 



QUANTITY PRICING AVAILABLE 



TVI912C'I 
TVI 920C > 
TVI950 J 



Please Call Toll Free 
Prices are too low to 

advertise 



PRINTERS 

ANACOM 150 150CPS, widecarriage, 9x9dot (List $1350) $1150 

ANADEX9500 wide carriage, graphics (List $1650) $1350 

VISTA V300 (C. ITOH) Typewriter quality, daisy wheel (List $1895) $Call 

OKIDATA MICROLINE 80 (List $699) $ 520 

NEC 5530-5 letter quality, RO, parallel, tractors (List $2970) $2599 

MALIBU Dot graphics, 132 Col, Letter quality $ Call 

QUME 5/45 Typewriter quality (List $2905) $2559 

INTERFACE EQUIPMENT 

CCS APPLE PARALLEL Interface card and cable $ 1 50 

SSM AID BOARD Serial/Parallel Interface board (List $225) $ 175 

TRS-80 CABLES expansion Interface or direct $ Gall 



TOLL FREE (800) 854-8275 

CA, AL, H I (71 4) 630-3322 caii for free catalog 




'a 



Phone orders WELCOME; same 
day stiipment. Free use of VISA & 
MASTERCARD. Personal ctiecl(s 
require 2 weeks to clear. Manu- 
facturer's warranty included on all 
equipment. Prices subject to 



Ofonge 

micro. Inc. 

3150 E. La Raima, Suite I 
Anaheim, CA 92806 



In this first of a S-part series, the author 

discusses using disk commands in unusual ways. . . without disks. 

Advanced Graphic Techniques 
Part I 



Bob Boothe 

4651 Browndeer Lane 

Rolling Hills Estate, CA 90274 



You have probably looked 
through this article and con- 
cluded that other than one pic- 
ture, this article has nothing to 
do with graphics. You're only 
partially right. This is the first ar- 
ticle in a series of three in which 
I will explain how to make pic- 
tures, like the one shown, on a 
dot matrix printer. 

Look closely; that picture was 
not made on a plotter, but on a 
Base 2 printer with a 32K Level II 
TRS-80. Furthermore, the entire 
design took only a couple min- 
utes. 

This month, I will tell you how 
to make the disk commands do 

anything you want, such as 

drawing lines on the video or the ^^^'s" "«»'^" 
printer. In Part 2, I will explain the program 
which makes designs like this one, as well 
as ten other designs. In Part 3, 1 will rewrite 
the program to draw lines on the video and 
to manipulate representations of three 
dimensional objects. 

The Search 

Continuously I search for little tricks to 
enhance the capabilities of the TRS-80. Pro- 
gram Listing 1 is a simple routine that al- 
lows you to PEEK at any location in ROM or 
RAM. Type it in and run it. It asks for an ad- 
dress to start its PEEK. If you want to look 
where the program is stored, type 17129. 
This is the start of the program text accord- 
ing to the reference manual. (Of course, if 
you have one of the new ROM's, everything 

116 • 80 Microcomputing, April 1981 




In two minutes, printed on a Base II dot matrix printer. 

is going to be different.) 

Next, the program asks for the address 
where it should stop PEEKIng. To go to the 
end of 16K memory, type 32767. These are 
both default cases, if you simply press en- 
ter. The program will start displaying ad- 
dresses followed by the contents of each 
address, four per line. Now, press C for 
change, and it will start over again. 

If you type 16722 for the start address 
and 1 6805 for the end address. The comput- 
er should print 195, 45, 1, 195, 45, 1 through 
the entire block. Since this seemed odd to 
me, I took out my Z-80 book and looked up 
195, 45, 1, which turned out to be JP 301. 1 
then entered a machine language routine to 
jump to address 301 and got an L3 ERROR. 
This started me thinking: The only way to 



get an L3 error is to type in a disk 
command, and therefore, each 
disk command probably jumps 
to one of these addresses. If you 
don't own any disks, it jumps to 
the L3 error routine. However, 
we sly non-disk users can use 
the disk commands if we just 
change the address after the 
jump. In other words, change 
the (JP 301) to a (JP 32000), 
where we put our own routine. 

What Goes Where 

Now comes a problem: What 
command uses what address? If 
we mess this up, the SAVE rou- 
tine might LOAD, the LOAD rou- 
tine might clear the screen, and 
the KILL routine might short 
out the keyboard. This is where Program 
Listing 2 comes in. 

How can any program that short do any- 
thing? Well, all it does is start at the begin- 
ning of the ROM and print the contents of 
each address, if it is an uppercase letter. If 
an address contains a letter, the program 
prints it, otherwise it prints a space. When 
you run this program, (now would be a good 
time), it will print a couple of lines of 
garbage, and then print "MEMORY SIZE 
RADIO SHACK LEVEL I! BASIC." On the 
machine with the new ROM the message 
has been shortened. 

After it prints the message, it will contin- 
ue printing garbage for sometime, until it 
hits the table of reserved words (Table 1). 

Continued in page 126 



Three dimensional rotating graphics for printer and video. 



A Turn of 



the Screw 



t ■(, 4 * *■ *■ * 
it t .i. H t: * .H 

A ***»,**.*) 
, t + -k * *t ,k .t» 
1 ■* * ** ***** 1 

4 i f* *■> *'. *» * * 
J Jt **.'13J ».* *'- i. * * 

I. ,fc14*« t:t + .K « K :•; ^ 

t*iiM- •** *■ * 4 * * * * 

tMit** * 1. A « * i ■► * 

**;«:»**. j, *«**li*it 

<:*:(■« • * *. i .V 1 * * * 

k* l -t I * * J * * ■•■ 
t**. :!**■■{*■■'*'■■ 
***.(******■• 



t * *tfc .****: > 



i « 



U I t 

Ji 4. .« 



» *, 



* 



•.r * * .* 



.1 -i. *.**:t:t;:k;4il -► 



eofc Boothe, 4651 Browndeer Lane, R.H.E. CA 90274 



i. i. A. *■*■ i.t:i^a. * i 

i .i * * * t > * i * -* **t*'^* ■*■■ * 

« t i. *. *.t * *: i: I A. » *. *-*^*t * \ 

^ .t * ** kt. t « * ► -t: ■* * *»*■'■ * * 

* i. .1. it*:*. A ^ n. J * * • 'Wi- 1). 

l » JctAi* ,*A * J. * ■■* **,'*?* 

. t M.*,«*l* * 1 *■**.»* -^ ■***.* 

*J.i**-». *< 1 t n: *■ * »■ '■ '■ * 

* *.(, *w * * .i t » * * * * 

t*J' i. * i; * i * *■ 4 *■ ^ * 

.ttirt i .41 * * .► * * • , * ^ ,.■ 

M i. ».*.!(*** * * ■' , * * 

jc* * * * ** k ^ ► * ' •■ * 

**■ I, * *; t* W *. * * * • 

^* 1 * * ** «*t. t * ■• ' , * 

t-JA. >. * * iMA^J: ■ 



i :V 






* # 






:<• • 
.■TM 
*i* * 

i I \ 

* -f** 

* * *. 






»** 



I have always envied the high resolution graphics of other 
computers. So, I decided to see what my 80 could do. 

When I started to fool around with it, I discovered some 
amazing graphics capabilities. I began with some simple 
sine waves and then progressed from two dimensions to 
the third. After a lot of work, I finally developed a program 
that plots the beautiful surfaces you see in the pictures. 

I have included a total of seven short programs. The nice 
thing about graphics is that most programs are very short, 
although usually not simple or fast. The first few start off 
fairly easy, but as you progressthrough the programs to the final 
program (which will draw a picture of a square thread screw 
horizontally on the screen) you will call a machine language 
routine to rotate it. 

I hope that you are sitting at your TRS-80, because you 
are going to have to type In each program as we go along. If * / t* 

you don't, you will be totally confused by the end of this 
article. All right, type in the first program and experiment around 
a little. After the listings of many of these programs, i have included a few 
modifications which you should try. I will explain this first program 
thoroughly because the concepts in it will be used throughout the rest of my 
programs. * * 

With the TRS-80, all trigonometric functions use radians. Functions such as sine, 
therefore, have a period of 2 pi. Line 20 increments the angle "X" by point 0.4 for each 
line printed. This results in roughly one period on the screen at any time. If you increase the 
point 0.4 there will be more than one period on the screen. 






■k * * 
t * *, 

* -Kit* 



* 



tit * 



1.1 






*** 



t * it: 
k S: * ■* 
*. *t*. * 
I A* * * 
ttt" *, * *. J- *»W; * A 
t ± -M *i k Mi:X* in *■ * 
: tt A * M ** ** * * ' 
% .l=t * .(***■«* * 
H ♦*.**.*< 
-k K ikx * * * 

k iM-- *: S 4' * • 

* * *« *± A * 
It * ***** ** * 

t ± * »•**:»* A 
± t * ****■ a: 

* i t * *.t*t»i.it .« * I » *. * -^ * * » 
, M .. * .* *» .**!■* ** * ■* ■" * ■► * ■"** 

* * A- * !* ** it* * * * * * * *■ * **** 
t * * * * t. * * ^.* *;««:** *. *'. J.»** ». 

t * * * ,*»*****;*.*** ****** * f 
* ***** * *■ *■ * t * **■ J:***** * * 

** *** *: * * * ** i. *** **■ *■ *■■ i 
% * A \ t ;k i ******* t A * 
* * 4. * * 1. J: 4: *il. * * » * * * 

Line30findsthevalueofourfunction.YoucanalsouseCOS(X},SIN(X)/X,SlN{2*X),etc..Aslongas * * * * * i v i * * * *■ * •' 

I * i * t * 4; A- i- * * 
t t * * * * *■ * * I- 

between and 63. After line 30, it is between - 1 and + 1. To fix this, I multiplied it by 25 to make it between - 25 i * n ». * 



t* 



the value is between - 1 and + 1 , any function will work. Since I used theTAB function, Y will have to end up 



and +25, and then, I added 30 sothat it falls between +5 and +55. Next, in line 50, ITABtothecorrect column and print 
an X. Line 60 puts the program into a continuous loop. Before you read on, you should try all of the modifications that I have 



* * 



* * 

K *■ * * 

i, ;l: t ^ * .* * * 

* ,1 4. * *. *, * * 

t I .t 1 * (, iV t 

*. t. * 4 * *■ *■ 

;l * S .* .*.■' 

* *■ **- *■■ 

w .w 
**» 

.* t 





ANIMATION 



PROFESSIONAL 



GRBASIC OFFERS FULLY IWTEGRATED BASIC GRAPHIC COMMANDS FOR 
THE MODEL ( AND MODEL III! LINES! SHAPE TABLES! SCALING! ROTATIONS! 



GRBASIC extends Level II or DISK BASIC to include an 
easy-to-use graphics command set, A single BASIC com- 
mand allows the user to draw a line between any two 
pixels on the screen The longest diagonal can be drawn 
in less than 7/100 second! Coordinates can be chained to 
allow complex figures to be drawn by a single BASIC pro- 
gram line in less than a secondl 

GRBASIC aMows the definition of shapes. Once defined, 
a shape can be rotated, scaled up or down in size, drawn 
anywhere on the screen m less than a second, and can 
even be drawn totally or partially "off" the screen in 
extended space! And all with short, simple BASIC com- 
mands! Even multiple shapes are no problem! 

GRBASIC is not a string-packer or machine-language 
USR-called utility. GRBASIC is fully integrated into Level 
II and DISK BASIC. There is nothing on the market that 
offers its graphic features, except possibly the Apple II 
computer! 

Tfi,S-nOS AND TRS so ARE REGISTERCD TRADEMARKS OF TANDY CORP 
NLWDOS 30 IS A REGISTERED TRADEMARK OF APPARAT. INC 



GRBASIC will allow the professional user to produce data 
graphs and displays with unbelievable ease. The data 
graph pictured above was produced by a few simple 
BASIC statements and was drawn in under 1 second! 

3-D animation from BASIC is now a reality! The game 
pictured above, taken from a demonstration program 
included with GRBASIC, pictures an alien ship attacking 
a moon base. This demonstration is written completely in 
BASIC and is superbl 

GRBASIC is available for Level II BASIC on cassette. 
DISK versions support TRS-DOS 2.3 and NEWDOS 80 
(please specify which!}, including BASIC * recoveries and 
full DOS integration. Memory overhead is only 1.5K, Doc- 
umentation IS extensive, and includes numerous examples, 

GRBASIC cassette — $19.95 

GRBASIC diskette [TRS-DOS 2.3] —$24,95 

GRBASIC diskette [NEWDOS 80] — $24,95 



Med Systems Software ^ 

P.O.Box2674-Y Chape! Hill, NC 27514 
(919)933-1990 



GUARANTEE AND ORDERING 
INFORMATION ARE UNDER THE SLEEPING 
DRAGON ON THE NEXT PAGE. ^ 



118 • 80 Microcomputing, April1981 



Labyrinth is not easy. Waking a sleeping watch-dragon is 
the least of your troubles- Somewhere in this nightmare 
of tunnels lurks an evil minotaur. To escape, you must 
kill it. And survive. 

Only the legendary light sabre of Dnev can kill the 
minotaur. It is secreted away in stygian darkness. To get 
it, you must deal with cave bears, gnomes, pits, wraiths, 
and much more. You must avoid the minotaur at all 
costs. 

Alas! Once armed with your light sabre, the minotaur 
flees! What treasures must be found and used as bait? 
Why is the maiden so beautiful? What lies beyond the 
fog ... - 

3-D PERSPECTIVE GRAPHICS 

Labyrinth features the full screen 3-D perspective 
graphic displays that have made .Asylum and Dealhma/e 
.5000 best sellers. You can actually see what you are 
doing and where you are going! The mazes and build- 
ings are bit-coded. This allows us to store gigantic ma/es 
in small amounts of memory. These programs arc not 
just a series of stored pictures. Our mazes typically 
contain over 600 locations. Further, machine- language 
programming gives instantaneous graphics generation 
and game response! 

LABYRINTH places you in a huge maze of tunnels 
inhabited by gnomes, ghosts, witches, and an evil mino- 
taur. You must find the weapons and treasures needed 
to destroy the minotaur before he destroys you! There 
is food enough in the maze to hold out for months! 
TRS-80 Level II 16K or .Model lin6K $12.95 

ASYLUM places you on a cot in a small room Periodi- 
cally, a janitor lobs a hand-grenade through the window 
of your locked door. What you do next < ould mean 
survival and escape! it could also mean permanent 
residence in the home for Deathmaze survivors! To 
leave, you will have to deal with guards, fellow sur- 
vivors, doctors, the infamous Cra/ed Carpenter, an(f 
much, much more. Don't expect to get out any time 
soon! There are over 1200 locations! 

TRS-80 level II 16K or Model III 16K $14.95 

DEATHMAZE .5000 places you in a gigantic five-storv 
building. There is only one goal, ESCAPE ALIVE! Mon- 
sters, dogs, vampires, and other vile horrors will plague 
your every step as you struggle to survive one of the 
most challenging adventures ever written. As of Decem- 
ber 20, only two people outside the Med Systems' staff 
were known to have escaped! 

TRS-80 Level II 16K or Model III 16K S12.95 



Med Systems Software 

P.O. Box 2674-Y Chapel Hill, NC 27514 
(919)933-1990 




SATISFACTION GUARANTEED! 

Asylum, Deathmaze 5000, Labyrinth, and GRBASIC are 
guaranteed to be the most incredible graphic 
packages you can buy. If for any reason you are not satis- 
fied with these products, return your order within 14 days 
for a prompt and cheerful refund 

ORDERING INFORMATION 

Orders are processed within five working days. We pay all 
postage and handling within the U.S., Canada, and U.S. 
territories, European orders please include $3.00 for air 
post. 



□ Asylum 
n Deathmaze 5000 

□ Labyrinth 

□ Adventures on Disk 

□ GRBASIC Cassette 
D GRBASIC TRS-DOS Disk 
a GRBASIC NEWDOS 80 Disk 



Name 
Street 
City _ 



($14.95) $ 

($12.95) $ 

($12.95) $ 

(add $4,00) $ 

($19.95) $ 

($24.95) $ 

($24.95) $ 

TOTAL $ 



State 



.Zip 



Computer: 

□ TRS-80 Lll 16K 

D Mastercard 

MC or VISA # 

Expiration Date _ 



a VISA 



a Model III 16K 

□ check 



r'See List of Advertisers on page 306 



80 Microcomputing, April 1981 • 119 



"What I have done is create two sine 
curves. One is in the horizontal x direction, 
and the other is in the diagonal y direction. 



listed and a few modifications of your 
own. If your screen displays an OS ER- 
ROR, execute a CLEAR 100. 

For printing one sine wave, the TAB 
function is great, but it just doesn't work 
for several functions on the same line. 
This is the purpose of Program Listing 2. 
Type it in and try to figure out how it works 
before you read on. 

Basically, what I have done is create an 
array which represents each line in the 
printout. Line 50 fills It with spaces and 
line 100 changes the character at the com- 
puted position for each of our three 
curves. Lines 70, 80 and 90 compute the 
three positions of the symbols. Finally, 
line 110 prints the array on the screen. 
Again, modify this program until you un- 
derstand how it works. 

Short not Simple 

Program Listing 3 will allow you to 
make some neat looking plots. It is similar 
to Program Listing 2 except that it uses 
one 63 character string, and It can use 
words and phrases instead of just single 
characters. Type In the program and enter 
your first, middle and last names. A very 
good looking example is with a first string 
of 40 asterisks, a second string of 25 equal 
signs, and a third string of eight periods. 

Up to this point, you have not seen a 
slow program. Program Listing A satisfies 
this condition. Type it in and run it while 
you continue to read. It should take about 
twelve minutes to finish. 

What I have done is create two sine 
curves. One is in the horizontal X direc- 
tion, and the other is In the diagonal Y di- 
rection. I multiply the value of these two 
curves and expand It so that it fills the 
screen. The real trick is to erase the por- 
tions of the surface which are hidden by 
the large lamp. 

This is accomplished by starting at the 
base level of the plane and RESETtIng all 
of the points vertically until the correct 
height is reached. (H is the height 
variable.) Another important feature is the 
"IF Xy2= INT{X/2)" statement in line 90. 
This condition Is true only for even X val- 
ues, and it gives the surface a checkered 
appearance. 

If you are starting to get confused, re- 
member, these programs are short, not 
simple. Fortunately, you can still enjoy the 
programs and the graphics they generate 
even If you don't completely understand 
them. 



10 REM PROGRAM HO, 


1 SINE WAVE 


20 X=X+.i 




30 y=SIN(X) 




40 Y=Y*25+30 




50 PRIKTTAB(Y) "X" 




60 GOTO20 




100 ' MODIFICATIONS 




20 X=X+.2 




30 Y=SIH{X)/X 




40 Y=Y*10+45 




50 PRINTTABCY) "TRS-80" 




50 PRINTSTRING$(Y,"X") 




50 PRINTSTRING5(Y," ") 


fSTRINGS(63-Y,"X") 



Program Listing 1. Sine Wave 



10 REM PROGRAM NO. 2 MULTIPLE SINE WAVES 

20 CLEAR100 

30 DIM P$(63) 

40 0=2*3.14/3 

50 PORQ=1T063:P$(Q)=" "rNEXT 

60 X=X+.3 

70 Yl=SIN(X)*25+30 

60 Y2=SIN(X+D}*25+30 

90 Y3=SIN(X+2*D)*25+30 

100 PS(Y1)="1":P5(Y2)="2":P?(Y3}="3'' 

110 F0RQ=1T063!PRINTP$(Q) ;: NEXT: PRINT 

120 GOTO50 

130 • MODIFICATIONS 

50 F0RQ=1T063: PS (Q)=". "rNEXT 
70 Yl=SIN(X}/X*25+30 

Program Listing 2. Multiple Sine Waves 



10 REM PROGRAM NO. 3 USING WORDS 

20 CLEAR1000 

30 DIMSS(3) 

40 0=2*3.14/3 

50 F0RQ=1T03:PRINT"ENTER STRING NO . " ;Q: INPUTS? (Q) :NEXT 

60 F0RQ=1T03:L(Q}=LENCS?(Q)):NEXT 

70 A=A+.2 

80 T$=STRING$t63,32) 

90 F0RQ=1T03 

100 Y=SlN(A+D*Q)*(30-L(Q)/2)+31-L(Q)/2 

120 T$=LEFTS(T$,Y)+S$(Q)+RIGHT$(T?,63-Y-L(Q)) 

130 NEXTQ 

140 PRINTTS 

150 GOTO70 

Program Listing 3. Using Words 



Plotting Problems 

After spending a few days plotting dif- 
ferent surfaces on the video, I found two 
problems. The first problem was how to 
add more detail to the plots to make them 
look better. And secondly, if you hit 
BREAK your plot would be lost forever. 

The solution to botfi of these problems 
Is with a printer. I own a Base 2 Printer, 
and fortunately, it Is better suited for 



graphics than most printers. I have found 
that the quality of a plot is directly propor- 
tional to the number of characters which 
you can cram into a certain area. The Base 
2 Printer can not only print 132 columns 
per eight inch horizontal line, but can also 
print more than six lines per inch vertical- 
ly. Line 15 is only for this printer since it 
outputs the numbers which select 132 

Continues ro page 124 



120 • QQ Microcomputing, April 1981 



This 

printer 

costs less 

than $450. 

Beat that. . . 

if you can. 




Epson. 



This is the Epson MX-70. The lowest priced dot 
matrix printer you can buy. Now, that in itself 
should make it very attractive to a lot of people. 
But you ain't heard the half of it. 

To begin with, the MX-70 has a lot more in 
common with our now-famous MX-80 than just 
the name. Like unequalled Epson reliability. 
And technological breakthroughs like the 
world's first disposable print head. But frankly, 
the MX-80 packs a lot more power than some 
people need. So we built the 
MX-70 to be a no-frills print- 
er. At a no-frills price. 

But the MX-70 is still a great 
little printer. We give you 
80 CPS unidirectional print- 
ing. Top-of-form recognition. 
Programmable line feed and 
form lengths. Plain paper 
printing. An easy-to-read 5x7 
matrix. Self test. And an 
adjustable tractor feed. 

That's what you'd expect 




from a basic little printer. But here's something 
you wouldn't expect: the finest graphics package 
on the market today. Free. 

We call it GRAFTRAX II. And it means 480 dots 
across the page, resolution to 60 dots per inch, 
and a graphic image free of the jitter and overlap 
that plagues other printers. You get cleaner grays 
and finer point resolution. 

So now you've got a choice. You want more 
power and extra functions, you buy the MX-80. 
You want a basic little printer 
that prints, and keeps on 
printing, you buy the MX-70. 
They're both at your dealer 
now. 

But at this price, you'd bet- 
ter hurry. 

^404 

EPSON 

EPSON AMERICA, INC. 



23844 Hawthorne Boulevard ■ Torrance, California 90505 ■ (213) 378-2220 



y'See List of Advertisers on page 306 



80 Microcomputing, April 1981 • 121 



THELEAST 



YOUCANBUY. 



Vp lo 77 high-quality programs 
tor TRS-80, only SI0.95 



Income tax: two systems 

PEOPLE'sTAXMAN by SuperPIMK author Chick 
House will determine whatforms are needed and 
request allnecessarydaU, referring user lo tax 
booklet page and paragraph . It then will print your 
compleledforms, ready for signing. This is the 
program you would expect to gel when you pay 
$190 or more (but would you really gel if You 
WOULD with People's Taxman). 

Of modular design, People's Taxman asks all 
questions needed [or [orms and holds this on disk 
and Id memory, and then will print your forms, 
using any paper (even silvered, and thermal). 
Two tax-form transparencies are included — 
Form i040 page 1 « 2. Sandwich anvansparency 
between your priniout and any copying machine 
and pick your filled-out (ax form from the copy 
tray. 

Fills out the following forms; Scheduals A, B, C, 
D,E,F,R.andRP;Form 1040, 2440, 2441 2906' 
3468, 3903. 4137, and 5695; as well as the 
worksheets for unemployment compensation and 
IRA. Additional transparencies are only $2 
each. Distributed on cassette, for disk-versions 
Model 1 and 3 TRS-80s only, add S5.9S if you want 
It distributed on disk. (J3I,75 CA). •29 qe 

PEOPLE'S SOFTWARE TAPE 10 prints Out or 
displays what you need lo know to fill out Form 
1040 pages 1 b Z, Schedules A, B, C. and Form 
569S {energy credit). 

A complex of 11 modular programs called from 
a menu program, tape also contains a 
comprehensive checking-account system. 

Both programs are by Frank H, Marz of 
Delavan.Wl.and together fill a C48-1cngth tape. 
Both Tape 10 programs are for disk only, and 
have been specially formatted to automatically 
save to disk from tape. Forty-track DOS 
recommended, available for SIO from CIE. 

$10.95 
NewDOS-80— New Low Pricel 

Successor lo NewDOS-(- . same package for which 
you pay fl49 elsewhere, at CIE just... (QQ 95 

TAPE 9: 25 pr<%raTns! 

People's Software Tape 9, Just out, contains 2S 
programs, including: 

Convert, by SuperPIMx author Chuck House. It 
changes number bases from hexadecimal, 
decimal, octal, binary— from any one to any 
other! House also contributed his disassembler, 
which Is winner of the Rlchcraft Engineering 
(Disassembled Handlxiok for TRS-SO) Fastest 
Footrace contest. 

Disassembled Handbook author Robert M. 
RlcbardsoQ contributed three Basic programs 
wblch allow transmitting and receiving Morse 
code at speeds to 40 words-per-minute, without 
clock speedup. Uorse appeared in Disassembled 
vo. II and III. 

Basic Page Lister was adapted by House, and 
prints beautifully-formatted program listings. 

Allen R.Creenburg contributed a professional- 
quality amortliatlon-schedule preparation 
program, and a Multiplication-Tables Tutor. 

Also on Tape 9: Loan Payback by Dan Connors, 
Resonant Frequency by Steve Simcic, and 
Feedback System Stability Analysis by Phil Dunn. 

Gary Petersen contributed Distance Formula 
for X-y axis, and Bruno U. Larsen submitted a 
mailing list and sales-record-keeplng program. 
Carey Tyler Schug contributed a parser routine. 

Games include Solitaire, Boggle, an extremely 
fine Hangman, and a four-part quiz on American 
History, inventions, American wars and U.S. 
territories. The quli is by Ronald N. Goulden, and 
is followed by one on presidents and states, which 
Is so difficult the challenge Is to answer at least 
halt the questions correctly. 

Piet * Jon Splessens (Spiesoft) of Aartselaar, 
Belgium submitted Sherlock detective game and 
Word Search (guess opponent's word). 

Also on Tape 9 is Motorcycle Jump by Russell 
StarkeyandRobot by Wm. J. Schuler (original by 
W. Lappen), who also submitted Sea Search. 

$10.95 

All orders charge card, check or m.o. 

Calif, residents add6 pet tax. Dealer Inq. Invited 

Overseaa, add )1.50 per tape postage 



COMPUTER INFORMATION EXCHANGE 

Box !59 _„ 

San Luis Rey CA 92068 



122 • 80 Microcomputing, April 1981 



10 REM PROGRAM NO. 4 3-D SURFACE 

20 CLS 

30 PI=3.14 

40 FOBy=0TO29 

50 FORX=0TO8fl 

60 Hl=SIN(Y/29*2*PI-PI/2)-H 

70 H2=SIN(X/80*2*PI-PI/2)-H 

80 H=H1*H2*7.7 

90 F0RQ=1T0H:RESET(X+Y,Y+18-Q) :NEXTQ:IFX/2= 

INT(X/2}THENSET(X+Y,Y+18-Q) 
100 NEXT X 
110 NEXT y 
120 GOTO120 
130 ' MODIFICATIONS 

70 H2=SIN(X/80*4*PI-PI/2)+l 
80 H=H1*H2*4 



Program Listing 4. Three Dimensional Surface 



10 • PROGRAM NO. 5 3-D GRAPHS ON PRINTER 

15 ' LPRINTCHRS{27) ;CHRS(52) ;CHR5(27) ;CHR9(98) ; 

CHR?(13) 

16 ' LINE 15 IS FOR BASE 2 LINE PRINTER ONLY 

17 ' IT SETS 132 CHARS/LINE, 11.08 LINES/INCH 

18 ' IF YOUR PRINTER DOES NOT PRINT 132 COLUMNS, YOU 

19 • WILL HAVE TO REDUCE ALL NUMBERS PROPORTIONATELY, 

20 CLS:CLEAR500 
30 DEFINT H-Z 
40 DIMA5(132) 
80 F0RX1=1T0121 
90 H=0:L=200 

100 F0RQ=1T0132:AS(Q)=" ":NEXT 

110 FOR Y=1TO80 

120 X=(X1-Y)*2 

130 IF X<1THEN260 

140 IFX>80THEN250 

150 C=SQR{(X-40)*(X-40)+{y-40)*(Y-40))+l 

170 H=X+EXP(-.004*C*C)*75+5 

180 IPM>H THEN210 

190 IPM<L THEN230 

200 GOTO250 

210 H=H 

220 IF H>L THEN240 

230 L=H 

240 A$(H}="*" 

250 NEXTY 

260 F0RI=1T0132:LPRINTAS(I) ;:NEXT 

270 NEXTXl 

280 • MODIFICATIONS 

170 M=X-EXP(-.004*C*C}*75+40 

170 A=C*.1213-f.63:M=X-SIN(A-fA*A/6)/A/SQR{A)*50+40 

260 F0RI=1T0131:LPRINTA$(I) ; : NEXT: LPRINT 



Program Listing 5. 3-D Graphs on a Printer 



10 REM PROGRAM NO. 6 3-D SURFACE WITH SINGLE DOTS 

20 REM ONLY FOR USE WITH A BASE 2 PRINTER 

30 LPRINTCHRS(27) ;CHR? (50) jCHR$ (27) ;CHRS (98) ;CHR$ (14) 

40 CLS 

50 DEFINT H,L,H,I,Q,X,y,F,A 

60 DIM A(7,576) 

70 A1=0 

80 F0RX1=1T0484 

90 A1=A1+1 

100 H=-2000:L=2000 



110 


N1=.09:N2=.0001 




120 


FORY=1TO320 




130 


X=(X1-Y)*2 




140 


IFX<1THEN270 




150 


IFX>320THEN260 




160 


Dl=SQR((X-240} [2+Ci 


-80) [2)*N1+N2 


170 


D2=SQR((Y-240)[2+(J 


-80) [2)*N1+N2 


180 


H=X+180-SIN(D1)/D1* 


320-SIN(D2)/D2*220 


190 


IFH>HTHEN220 




200 


IFH<LTHEN240 




210 


GOTO260 




220 


H=M 




230 


IFH>LTHEN250 




240 


L=H 




250 


A(A1,H)=1 




260 


NEXTY 




270 


IFA1=7THEN290 




280 


NEXTXl 




290 


LPRINTCHR$(27) ;CHR$(99) ; :F0RQ=1T0576 


300 


LPRINTCHRS(128+A(1 


Q)+A(2,Q)*2+A{3,Q)*4+A(4,Q)*8+A(5,Q) 




*16+A{6,Q)*32+A(7 


Q)*64); 


310 


F0RA1=1T07:A(A1,Q)= 


0:NEXTA1 


320 


NEXTQ 




330 


LPRINT 




340 


A1=0:GOTO280 





Program Listing 6. 3-D Surface with Single Dots 



10 ' PROG t 7 ROTATING SCREW 

20 CLS 

30 CLEAR500 

40 DIM P(47) 

50 A=0:XC=-1 

60 PI=3.1415 

70 A=A+PI/ 29.5:IFA>2*PI-.001THENA=0 

80 XC=XC+1 

90 FORQ=0TO47:P(Q)=0:NEXT 

100 B=A-PI:IFB<=0THEHB=B+2*PI 

110 IF A<=Pl/2 THEN P(COS(A)*16+24)=l 

120 IF A<=PI OR A>=7*PI/4 THEN P(COS(A) *23+24)=l 

130 IFB<=3. 982661 THEN P{COS (B) *23+24)=l 

140 IF B>=PI/2 AND B<=PI THEN P (COS (B) *16+24 )=1 

150 IF A<=PI THEN P(47)=l 

160 IF A<= 2.300524 THEN P(8)=l 

170 IF B>= 0.8410687 AND B<=PI THEN P(40)=l 

180 IF A>PI THEN P{1)=1 

190 FORQ-0TO47:IFP(Q)=1THENSET{XC,Q) 

200 NEXTQ 

210 IFXC<127THEN70 

220 RESTORE:B?="":FORQ=1TO50:READA:B5=BS+CHR${A) :NEXT 

230 W=VARPTR{B?) 

240 POKE16526,PEEK(W+l) :POKE16527 , PEEK {W+2) 

250 X=USR{0) 

260 Z5=INKEYS:IFZ$=""THEN270ELSE ST=VAL(Z?) *40 

270 F0RQ=1T0ST:NEXT 

280 GOTO250 

290 DATA 33,254,63,17,255,63,1,255,3,237,184,14,16,17,0,60,33,63 

300 DATA 0,25,237,160,229,209,121,183,32,244 

310 DATA 62,16,33,0,60,229,209,19,1,4,0,237,176,17,60,0,25,61 

320 DATA 183,32,240,201 



Program Ustlr}g 7. Rotating Screws 



00100 JMACHINE LANGUAGE ROUTINE CALLED BY PROG I 7 

00110 ; 
0000 21FE3F 00120 LD HL, 16382 ;1 BEFORE END OF VIDEO 

0003 11PF3F 00130 LD DE, 16383 ;END OF VIDEO MBHORY 



& 



Business/Accounting 5 
Software 

'S'ERVICE 

'O'RIENTED 

ACCOUNTS 

'R'ECEIVABLE 

"SOAR" is a combined time reporting/ 
accounts receivable system designed for ser- 
vice organizations. TVansactions input to the 
system include charges to, and receipts from 
customer accounts. Employees charge time 
and/or dollar amounts against specific tasks 
codes. Pre-established inputs are employee 
rate, task hourly rate, task flat charge, and 
task rounding factor. 

Outputs produced include: 

*updated customer file — including bal- 
ance, last posting, and last receipt 
amounts 

''statement summary — by customer and 
task code 

'detail transaction report 

'employee and task summary — with reue- 
nue & percent 

*database reports — for employee, custo- 
mer and task code databases 

'statements (optional) — programmed to 
suit your forms (available at additional 
cost) 

Monitor and control your valuable resources 
with this system for only $395. (Order product 
code: SOAR) 



GENERAL 

LEDGER/CLIENT 

WRITE-UP SYSTEM 

Our General Ledger/Client Write-up System 
is a proven, quality product used by several 
Accounting firms and other Businesses. 

'features departmental financial state- 
ments 

'contains budget provisions 
'permits up to 500. user-defined chart of 
accounts 
'allows for transaction editing 
'retains standard Journal entries 
'accepts only balanced batches of trans- 
actions 

'provides easy-to-follow audit trail 
'uses conventional accounting symbols 
'included user documentation easily under- 
stood by present employees 

Several reports can be generated by the sys- 
tem including: 

'transaction audit reports 

'trial balance 

'income statement (profit & loss statement) 

'balance sheet 

'budget report 

'chart of accounts 

Incorporate speed and accuracy into your 
business record keeping by ordering our 
General Ledger System today for only $495. 
(Order product code: GLS) 



TASK --^ 

Computer Applications Inc. 

■1810 LARCHVIEW DRIVE, DAYTON. OHIO 45424 



(513)233-5515 



Product Code _ 

Company 

Representative 

Address 

City 



Slate . 



. Zip . 



Phone 

Credit Card Number 



Computer Model Icirclei 1 2 3 
Exp 



.^Ses List at Advertlsors on page 306 



80 Microcomputing, April 1981 • 123 



"With the TRS-80, all trigonometric 
functions use radians. Functions such as 
sine, therefore, have a period of 2 pi." 



characters per line and 13 half dot vertical 
line spacing (about 11 lines per inch). Pic- 
tures three and four were created with this 
program. 

If your printer outputs exactly 132 
characters per line and automatically 
prints when the buffer Is full, this program 
should work as written. 

However, printers vary, so I will warn 
you of two modifications which you may 
need to make. If your printer only prints 
when It receives a carriage return, use line 
260 in the modifications section. 

A more difficult problem Is If your print- 
er prints less than 132 columns. To fix this 
you will have to multiply ail of the num- 
bers by a certain ratio. For example, If you 
own an 80 column printer the ratio would 
be 80/132. The only Items which would not 
be multiplied would be the line numbers 
and the "X = (X1 -Y)-2" statement in line 
1 20. The Important variables are XI , X and 
Y. XI is the vertical line counter. X is the x 
coordinate, and Y is they coordinate. I use 
the point (X,Y) and the center of the sur- 
face (40,40) to find the distance from the 
point to the center. Line 170 then uses this 
distance just as X was used in Program 
Listing 1 to compute the value of the func- 
tion. 



Next, I use a high and low counter to 
find out If a point should be hidden. If It 
falls outside of this range, I add it to my ar- 
ray just as I did In Program Listing 2. Now 
you see why I started out with the simple 
concepts. 

We will cover Program Listing 6 very 
quickly because It can be used only by the 
Base 2 Printer or other printers that output 
single dot graphical data. The only differ- 
ence between this program and Program 
Listing 5 is that this one stores seven lines 
and prints them all at once. (See pictures 
one and two.) The surface was created 
with two SIN(X)/X equations with different 
centers. 

Picture two is the same surface as pic- 
ture one except that the surface has been 
rotated 90 degrees by changing the 
centers in the two distance equations. 

Before any of you get to eager to try this '■::.•;:■■::;':■,'•,'■.'.■ '.■'.'.■ 

one, I must warn you that these plots "■•::■:::•■'.■{'/■,'/•,'.■!■ 

took eight hours and forty five minutes each. '■:■■:;;;:'.'.■*.''.'.■'; 

Don't run the program now, but, instead, run It before '■':::;:;;:*:'.■, 

you leave for work, and It should be done when you get '■■!{;!;;;;:; 

home. '■"■'■■; 

Many of you don't have printers and are probably disap- '■; 

pointed that you cannot use Programs 5 and 6. So that everyone 
is happy, I have included this last program that rotates a graphical pre- 



0006 


01FF03 


00140 




LD 


BC,1023 


NO. OF BYTES TO HOVE 


0009 


EDBe 


00150 




LDDR 




SHIFT VIDEO ONE BYTE UP 


000B 


0e:i0 


00160 




LD 


C,16 


LOOP COUNTER 16 LINES 


000D 


11003C 


00170 




LD 


DE, 15360 


START OF VIDEO 


0010 


213F00 


00180 


LOOP 


LD 


HL,63 


POSITION OF LAST CHAR. 


0013 


19 


00190 




ADD 


HL,DB 


FIND ADDRESS 


0014 


EDA0 


00200 




LDI 




COPY EDGE. DEC C 


0016 


E5 


00210 




PUSH 


HL 


HAKE DE = HL 


0017 


Dl 


00220 




POP 


DE 




0018 


79 


00230 




LD 


A,C 


GET COUNTER 


0019 


B7 


00240 




OR 


A 


IS COUNTER ZERO? 


001A 


20F4 


00250 




JR 


NZ,LOOP 


IF NOT, DO AGAIN 






00260 


;THIS 


NEXT PORTION DISTORTS THE LEFT EDGE | 


001C 


3E10 


00270 




LD 


A, 16 


LOOP COUNTER 16 LINES 


001E 


21003C 


00280 




LD 


HL, 15360 


START OF VIDEO 


0021 


E5 


00290 


LOOP 2 


PUSH 


HL 


HAKE HL= DB 


0022 


Dl 


00300 




POP 


DE 




0023 


13 


00310 




INC 


DE 


MAKE DB = HL + 1 


0024 


010400 


00320 




LD 


BC,4 


NUMBER BYTES TO REPEAT 


0027 


BDB0 


00330 




LDIR 




COPY THEM 


0029 


113C00 


00340 




LD 


DE,60 


LENGTH OF REST OF LINE 


002C 


19 


00350 




ADD 


HL,DE 


HL = START NEXT LINE 


002D 


3D 


00360 




DEC 


A 


DECREMENT COUNTER 


002B 


B7 


00370 




OR 


A 


•IS A = 0? 


002F 


20F0 


00380 




JR 


NZ,L0OP2 


•NO. DO AGAIN 


0031 


C9 


00390 




RET 




YES. BACK TO PROGRAM 


0000 




00400 




END 






00000 TOTAL 


ERRORS 










LOOP 


0010 


00180 


00250 








L00P2 0021 


00290 


00380 










Machine Language Routine Called by Program Listing 7 



sentation of a screw on the screen. Type it In and try it before I tell you how I 
cheated. Have you run It yet? I hope so, because then you will know 
what I am talking about. 
■;■■•.. It probably appears to you as If the screw Is moving side- 

_;;;;;;.;._ ways on the screen. If this isn't how it appears to you, 
'•.;;',".;!■:;':;;. turn the contrast on your monitor down, and the bright- 

*:\Y'!:V'!'.*'*.i i i i : i : . "^^® ^P' Stand back, squint your eyes, and try to 

!'i'A;v!v;'»;'.::: :::::. imagine that It is turning. By the way, this program 

\'f. y7;';K;;;!;;J ; I : ; : ; : : ._ uses the numeric keypad as a throttle. Press 9 
'-."'.' -i ■*.■";■:;/::■!;!'::::; ;■ and It should almost stop. The key Is the 
'. *: ■■, ■ •. ■ ■ '.'v.-.\ ;:::::;:; fastest speed. 

• ■; ■'. '■. ■■■■■iiiliiji; ■: Program Listing 7 is very similar to Program 

• \ ': '■ ':::■•; ::■!■!■!■*.'!■■■, . Listing 2 except that I have used four 
:' .'■ :' ■■' |||:;;::;.;;! _■ ' ■'. f ^' ;■ ■. , sine waves and four straight 

.-' .■■ , ■' . ■■ -L-; ■■■;;;■, ' ■ . ' ■ . ' ■.'■!:. lines. The large number of 

.•' ;' ."' .*' . ■::::;!;■!;!'._ *■._ ''.^ '. ;. _:■' IF statements were used to 
.■' .■ ■ .■' . ■■ . ■ :.■■■■■; ': '.■ .■ :'.■•■' print only the portions of these 
•'_.■'.■'_.■ ' .'[ . '.i;-;";- ■;■;■.■'.•'. -..'■■" Hfies that would have been seen 
■■.■'.■■,•',■■.■;■■;: ; ; : :': " " in an actual screw. The data at the end 

;'_.•_".•_' . •_'.; '■ ' ■ ,■■.":;■:;;:: of the listing is for the machine language pro- 
.■'.■*.•'.■ '.■ '.■.'•'', ;.::;■;!:::■!:: gram. I included a listing of It In case some of 
:V ','■.'.' '.■'.■'.•.'■.'.'■.: :::'::: i: '.■.'.': you were interested. 

::';:';'.-':*.'".v!'/,-"r!'r. ":":';:;;: I hope you have learned about plotting sine 

,;;.j;". .•.■_;,■';■;';'•.!■.■■.".■;:::; :! waves, and were able to modify Program Listing 

■:•!:•!•!■!■.".•".■: ■ v^'V"' I ■''i''i)) ^ ^° work with your printer. If you don't have a 

'■i{M;;:i: :;:::: ::•'::;: printer, you may want to modify Program Listing 

"■::;:;::;:::;:;;;::{ 5 so that you can avoid all of the RESETting time 

■;::;!■ ■;:; in Program 4. 

;;;::;;'■ ;■ ■ If you have a compiler, this is the type of appli- 
■•::■:;■;;; cation where that extra speed will realty count. ■ 



124 • 80 Microcomputing, April 1981 



NEW 



Joystick versions of the Fantastic Games by BIG 5 (see page 211) and 
Software Innovation (see page 39). Available on tape or disk, same 
price as plain version. One "Stick 80" works with all. Money back 
guarantee. In stock now. 




TO 
TWICE THEFUNTRS-80 

STICK-8D MAKES KEYBOARD OBSOLETE. 

Feaiuies ihe tamous ATARI joystick B airections 4- lire 
caniroi Simple msriuciions to make joysiick versions oJ 
mosi action games Plugs into keytnaru or opansion int 
Price includes ATARI jorsnck wiin ALPHA imerlace ma 
insirucllons. FREE "MAGIC ARTIST" program. . . . .ISJS.yj 
Suptr fleji ti'iie ficno" li'.iwiic Somm y.rncs tor sw" su 
ny Sott'M.iie I'KiQviiTiotis Aiit'j iIJVASiON 
COSMfC iMIflUDtRS aRFAKOfll tath S9 9S 

SiaiARAOVtNiyHt Suae'«lionmltisoim(l Si J 95 
Ss<lA^ic .iijihois .mil oisliiijiilnrs curiMCi us lo' iDvsIii:- 
totivf'sionn.tr.kiiite tfli yoiii ei>si'n<] (jtf-ie^ 




MUSIC-BO MUSIC-80 MUSIC-BO MUSIC-SO MUSIC-BD 

Use £1 IS ling soitware 
0^ wrilG youi own Willi inis low cost 8 Dil digital to 
analog convener you can symnesize up to S music voices 
Built-in volume conttol handy when stereo noi nc;ir IRS-BO 
Simply Rlug me MUSIC-80 inio Itio kcyboaro or tfie E/1 
screen piinteipc'l and connect ineoulpur(RCA[ack)ioany 
ampiiher The Radio Snack S12 soeaker/ampiilier works 
line 
Fully assemoted and lesied. 90 day warranty S39 95 




YOU ASKED FOB IT EXPANOABUS XI. XJ. X3 AND %». 
CONNECI All -OUP IRS-3U neviCtS S.MULTANiiOUSlV 
on Itie '10 nin TRS-SO bus Any devjce thai normally plugs 
into lite keyOosro edge connector will also plug inro me 
IXPAHDABUS Ihe X'l ■ IS snown wilti p/DlecUve 
covets (mctudedt The TRS-80 KeyDwrc contains me ous 
drivers <74LS357I lor up 10 20 devices more than you will 
euerneed UsmgilieE/i npiugseiinerDeiweenKSana£<'i 
or in tie Screen Printer porr Protessiof*al ouaiily qoio 
plaied coniacis Compuier grade ■>0 conductor riDPon cable 
X? S29 X3 S« X4 S59 X5 S74 

Custi>'n conliqura lions are aiso avaiiapic can us 




AKAIOG-BO A WOBLO OF NEW APPLICATIONS POSSIBLE. 
8 DIGITAL MULTIMETERS PtUGGED INTO VOUR TRS-80'" 
Measure Tempeialuie Voi;age. Curreni. LigM Pressure etc 
Very easy 10 use lor eiampie tei s reaa irfput channel m to 
OUT 4 Selects inpui 1^ ana aiso siatis iite conversion 20 
A^mPlOl Puts tne result m vanapie A Voila' 
Spec ill cations Input range 0*SV 10 0*500V Eacn channel 
can De sei 10 a diUereni scale 

Resolution 20mV(0n5V range) Accutacy BDi1s< S%l Port 
Address lumper selectaOle Plugs into keypoard Pus or E'l 
(screen printer oD'O AS se moles ana tested 90 day warranty 
Contp'eiewitnpower supply, connector, manual $139 



\ 



only 
13« 



LET THE "CHAIN BREAKER" FREE YOUR MINI-ORIVES. 

End nt daisy*chain mess once and 10: all Fits all mini* 

drives Percom. Aerocornp. Shugart. Micropoiis Mit. Vista. 

Pertec Siemens. BASF Easy 10 install lusi lemove -fie 

or've cover plug >n tne ' CHAIN BREAKER" and reQiacc tne 

cover Voila'" 

FJDw you can Change and move your onves around without 

disassempiy Keep ii>e cover on and keep ine dust oul Higti 

re Ira Pi Illy gold piaied contacts, computer grade 3^ 

conductor capie Tested and guaranieea. 

Gel one for each drive only S139;> 



rnTEBfRCefts 



, nipho Product 




TOTRS-80 



INTERFACER 2: LOW COST INPUT/OUTPUT MODULE . 
Slili me best value m sense/coniioi devices Use n tor 
energy control. Burglar alarm, darkroom, selecinc d"ve. 
model irams.rohols. Shinner dok. .. 
—B latched TTL oulDuis 2 relays SPOT 2A 125V contacts 
—8 TTL/CMOS inputs. Input and 1 are ophcally isolated 
—Neat and compact design, very easy to use. 
to A- iNPiO) Reads tne 8 mpuis (it A= all mputs are 
low) 20 OUT O.X Controls the outputs ana tne relays 
Assembled & tested. 90 day warranty. Price includes power 
Supply, cable to KB or E/1. supero user's manual 'ree 
phone dialer program SSS Manual only St>. 



power relays undS 

yourl 






INTERFACER-BO: tne most »Dweilu: Sense-'Comtm moojie 
•8 mdusiriai grade feiays. single poie ooupie mron isolated 
ccniacts 2Arno tg i25Volls TTL lalcnedoulpuls ate also 
accessible to drive e'lemai seiid state relays 
.8 convenient LEOs constantly display the relay states 

Simple ■QUI commanas("nlMsiClC0ntioiIhe8ielays 
.8 ophcaiiV'isoiaieu mouTs 'or easy direc! inieriacing 10 
enternai sv/iicnes pnoicceiis keypads, sensors etc 
Simple iNP' cammanos reaa me status or me 8 mpuis 
Selectable port address Crean. compact enclosed design 
AssemDied tested. gO days warranty Price includes power 
supply. caPle, connector superb user's manual S<59 



GREEN SCREEN 

\A/ARI\III\IC3 

I3M and all Ihe piggies aie using green screen momtors 

IIS aOvamages arc novi wioeiy adve'hsed We leei mat every 

TfiS-fiO user should enjoy the beneiits ii provides Out 

WARNING: all Gieen Screens are npi created equal Here is 

what we found 

•Several are ]ii5i a Hal piece ol standard coioiea Luciie Tfie 

greert tmi was not made for this purpose and is ludged by 

many to be too dark Increasing the brightness control wilt 

result in a luizy display 

*Some are simply a piece ol mm plastic film taped onto a 

carOboaid Irame The color is satisfactory Out the woDbiy film 

gives It a poor appearance. 

■One 'optical liltei' is m laci plain acrylic sneeimg 

•False claim A few pretend to reduce glare In laci their 

llai and sitiny surfaces iDoih lilm and Lucue typei ADD meir 

own rellections to tne screen 

•A few laugfis One aa claims 10 ' reduce screen contrast 

Sorry gentleman but it's lust the opposite One of ihe Green 

Screen's rnajor oenelrts is to increase Ihe comrasi Deiween 

the text and the Uackgtouno 

•Drawbacks Most are using adhesive strips 10 lasien meir 

screen 10 ifie montidr This rneihod makes it awkward 10 

remove lor necessary periodical cleaning Ail leicepi ours) 

are iiat ligm pens will noi woik reiiapiy because ol the pig 

gap between me screen and the luOe 

Many companies nave Oeen manulacturmg video inters lor 

years. We are ndl the lirst (some ihink iney are). Out we nave 

done our noniework and we inink we manulaciuie ine Dest 

Green Screen Here iS why 

•It Ills fight onto the picture tube like 3 skin because it is the 

only CURVED screen MOLDED eiaclly 10 Ihe picture tube 

cutvaiure 11 is Cul precisely to cover me eiposea area 01 me 

piciu'e lube The fn is sucn that lie static electricity is 

suiiicient to keep n m place' We aiso mctude some invisible 

'eusatile tape lot a more secure fasienmg 

•The filter maierral lliai we use is lusl right, not too dark nor 

too light The result is a really eye pleasing display 

We arc so sure that ydu will never take your Green screen oM 

that we oflcr an unconditional nioneypack guaranty try our 

Green Screen lor 14 days 11 lor any reason you are not 

delighted wiin it. return it lor a prompt reluna 

A last word We inmk mat companies, like ours, who are 

selling mamiy Oy mail Should ^isi meir street aadress*have a 

phone number (for quesnons and orders )>accept CODs. not 

every one likes 10 send checks to a PO Donoffer me 

convemence ol charging iheir purchase 10 major credit cards 

How come we are the only green screen people doing ii^ 

Order your ALPHA GREEN SCREEN today S12 iO 



ALPHA Product Co. 



85-71 79 St.WOODHAVEN N.Y. 11421 ® info and order: (212)296.5916 



1^ 210 ADO $2 SU PER ORDER FOR SHIPPING AND HA^fDLIHG 

ALL ORDERS SHIPPED FIRST CLASS MAIL 
WE ACCEPT VISA MASTER CHARGE CHECKS MO 

COD adds; aa extra 

OUANTITY DISCOUNTS AVAILABLE 
NT RESIDENTS ADD SALES TAX 



vtu 



"This month, I will tell you how to make 

the disk commands do anything you want, 

such as drawing lines on the video or the printer." 



This table was produced with Program List- 
ing 3. The way this table is stored in ROM is 
a much more compact and less readable 
form. In ROM,all the words are crammed to- 
gether lii^e sardines in one long block. In or- 
der to signify the start of each word, the 
ASCII code of the first letter, such as 69 for 
E in the word END, is added to 128, which 
maizes 197, and is stored as the first letter. 
To decode this, 1 print letters until I get to 
one which has an ASCII number greater 
than 128, and then I tab to the next column 
and print the letter. I also included a count- 
er, N, which is the number which the inter- 
preter stores when you type one of these re- 
served words. 

Now we have a list of reserved words, we 
can start filling in the addresses as we find 
them. Those I have found are in Tables 2 
and 3. Table 2 is in numerical order, and Ta- 
ble 3 is in alphabetical order. I included USR 
even though it is not one of the disl< com- 
mands. 

Finding these addresses was a lot of 
work which few fools will want to repeat, es- 
pecially since I already provided the ad- 
dresses for you. However, this is basically 





10 REM PROGRAM NO. 1 PEEK ROUTINE 




20 S=17129 




30 E=32767 




40 INPUT"START ADDRESS" ;S 




50 INPUT"END ADDRESS" ;E 




60 FOR A = S TO E 




70 PRINT A;PEEK(A) , 




80 Z$=INKEY$ 




90 IFZ$<>"C" THEN NEXT A 




100 GOTO20 




Program Listing 1 


10 


REM PROGRAM NO. 2 LOOK FOR WORDS 


20 


FOR A = TO 13000 


30 


C = PEEK (A) 


40 


IF C>64 AND C<91 THEN PRINTCHR5 (C) ; : ELSEPRINT" "; 


50 


NEXT A 




Program Listing 2 



how I found addresses: I took one address 
at a time which followed one of the 195s. 



128 


END 


129 


FOR 


130 


RESET 


131 


SET 


132 


CLS 


133 


CMD 


134 


RANDOM 


135 


NEXT 


136 


DATA 


137 


INPUT 


138 


DIM 


139 


READ 


liO 


LET 


141 


GOTO 


142 


RUN 


143 


IF 


144 


RESTORE 


145 


GOSUB 


146 


RETURN 


147 


REM 


148 


STOP 


149 


ELSE 


150 


TRON 


151 


TROFF 


152 


DEFSTR 


153 


DEFINT 


154 


DEFSNG 


155 


DEFD8L 


156 


LINE 


157 


EDIT 


158 


ERROR 


159 


RESUME 


160 


OUT 


161 


ON 


162 


OPEN 


163 


FIELD 


164 


GET 


165 


PUT 


166 


CLOSE 


167 


LOAD 


168 


MERGE 


169 


NAME 


170 


KILL 


171 


LSET 


172 


RSET 


173 


SAVE 


174 


SYSTEM 


175 


LPRINT 


176 


DEF 


177 


POKE 


178 


PRINT 


179 


CONT 


180 


LIST 


181 


LLIST 


162 


DELETE 


183 


AUTO 


184 


CLEAR 


185 


CLOAD 


186 


CSAVE 


187 


NEW 


188 


TAB{ 


189 


TO 


190 


FN 


191 


USING 


192 


VARPTR 


193 


USR 


194 


ERL 


195 


ERR 


196 


STRINGS 


197 


INSTR 


198 


POINT 


199 


TIMES 


200 


MEM 


201 


INKEYS 


202 


THEN 


203 


NOT 


204 


STEP 


205 


+ 


206 


- 


207 


■ 


208 


/ 


209 


[ 


210 


AND 


211 


OR 


212 


> 


213 




214 


< 


215 


SGN 


216 


INT 


217 


ABS 


218 


FRE 


219 


INP 


220 


POS 


221 


SQR 


222 


RND 


223 


LOG 


224 


EXP 


225 


COS 


226 


SIN 


227 


TAN 


22B 


ATN 


229 


PEEK 


230 


CVI 


231 


CVS 


232 


CVD 


233 


EOF 


234 


LOC 


235 


LOF 


236 


MKIS 


237 


MKSS 


238 


MKDS 


239 


C1NT 


240 


CSNG 


241 


CD8L 


242 


FIX 


243 


LEN 


244 


STBS 


245 


VAL 


246 


ASC 


247 


CHR$ 


248 


LEFTS 


249 


RIGHTS 


250 


MIDS 






Table 1 


. Table created 


using Program 


Listing 3. All information is stored 


in the ROM 


in a more compact manner. 













Then I POKEd the address of my own rou- 
tine into the two bytes which were occupied 
by the 45 and the 1. 

I used the screen white out routine from 
Radio Shack's Editor/Assembler manual. 
Next, I started typing In disk commands 
and getting L3 errors until a word final- 
ly made the screen turn white. I contin- 
ued this until I had gone through the sec- 
tion. For a few addresses, I could not find a 
disk command to go with it. 

New Commands 

The procedure for using these new com- 
mands is fairly simple. First, write a ma- 
chine language routine. Second, decide on 
the word you want to use, and find its ad- 
dress in the alphabetical table (Fig. 3.) 
Third, POKE the LSB (Least Significant 
Byte) into the address, and POKE the MSB 
(Most Significant Byte) into the next higher 
address. That is all It takes to use one ot the 
commands. 

Program Listing 4 demonstrates exactly 
how to use the disk commands. The pro- 
gram is a Road Race game In which you 
must drive a car down a winding road filled 
with pothoies. Naturally, if you hit a pothole 
or the side, that Is the end of the road. There 
have been many of these games written; the 
problem with them all is that the car is al- 
ways driving in reverse. It starts at the top of 
the screen, and the obstacles move up the 
screen at It because that Is the way the vid- 



126 • 80 Microcomputing, Aprii 1981 



GAME BREAKTHROUGH 




TRS-80 



THE STICK 80 

H' FEATURES THE FAMOUS ATARI JOYSTICK. 

ET works with any LEVEL 2 AND DISK SYSTEMS. 

^ PLUGS DIRECTLY INTO KB. OR E/l (SCREEN PRINTER PORT). 

INCLUDES SIMPLE. DETAILED INSTRUCTIONS TO MAKE 

JOYSTICK VERSIONS OF MOST ACTION GAMES. 
COMPATIBLE WITH ANY OTHER TRS-80 ACCESSORIES. 
FULLY ASSEMBLED AND TESTED. READY TO PLUG IN AND 

ENJOY. 
FUN TO EXPERIMENT WITH IN BASIC: SIMPLY USE INP(O). 
90 DAY PART AND LABOR WARRANTY. 



UNCONDITIONAL MONEY BACK GUARANTY: Try your STlCK-80 for 14 days. If for any reason you are 
not delighted with it, return it for a prompt and courteous refund {including shipping and handling). 
PRICE INCLUDES ATARIJOYSTICK -f ALPHA INTERFACE + DETAILED INSTRUCTIONS + DEMO 

PROGRAM . ON LY $39 .95 model 3 owners: we have a model 3 to model 1 AOAPTEfi 



BIG FIVE SOFTWARE SUPER FAST MACHINE LANGUAGE ACTION GAMES 




^ 



«9 
* AA « 

a 



I f ■ I <M 

'I ■ ■ .4 ■ ■ 1 
* f ■ t 

' I.I « I I « 
* 



If you and yom niS-80 hwa longx) fof b fKt-pacid ircadi-typt gtma Ihcl is 
\t\Al a challenge. Ihan SUPEK NOVA B what you've be«n wailing far. In thii 
two player machine-language game, large aileroidi float ominously imund IIm 
screen. Suddenly your ship appiers and you muit destroy the asteroids b«tar« 
ttMy destroy you! (But weich out beceusa big astaroids breaV apart into litlla 
ones ) T\\t conlrols ttiat your ship will raipond to an Ihruit. rotate, hypenpaca. 
and fire. All lighl! You'va done il! You've cJaarwi away all the an ere ids! But what 
is thai saucer with the laser doing? Quicli! You must destroy him Jest because that 
guy s ,^u,3l,>^^^^^^^^^^^^ SUPER NOVA" 



The sound of the klaxon is celling you! Crual and crafty invaders have bean 
spotted in battle formation warping toward Earth at an mciadible speed. Suddtnfy. 
your ship materializes |ust below the huge flodc of invaders. Quickly and skillhilly 
you shift right and left as you carefully hie your lasers at them . But watch out! A 
few ate breaking out of the convoy end flying stiaight ai you! As tht wfiira of thair 
engines gets louder, you place your linger on the fire button knowing all loo well 
that this shot must connect — or your mission will be permanenlly over! With 

so.nd affac1s!-»-*^^-.»*4—GALAXY INVASION^ 



Your TRS-BO scraen has bean iranstcmed into a mue-like playflekl tor this 
game. As your ship appeers on iha bottom of the screen, ei|)ht alien lamships 
appear on the top. Alf of ihem are traveling at flank spaed directly et you! QuickC 
and boldly you move toward them and fire missiles Id destroy them. But the more 
aliens you destroy, the Jester the remaining ones become. If you gel loo good you 
must endure Iha wrath of the keeper of the mazafield: Ihe menacing "Ragihrp". 
You must dastroy him fast because, es you will find out, that guy's accurate! With 

sounde«acts!»»»»^*^*^**^**ftTJACKFORC^ 




Withlhousandsof stars whizzing by you. your SPACE DESTROYER ship 
comes out of hyparspaca directly under a convoy of aliens. AJmost effortlessly, 
you skillfully deslioy every lest one. But bahira you can congratulate yourself, 
another sal appears. Tl^ese seem to be slightly more intelligent than the firs! set. 
Quickly you eliminate all of them. too. But your hiel suppty is lepidly diminishing. 
You must still destroy two mora sets befoie you can dock whh your spec) station. 
All right! The spece station is now on your scanners' Oh no\ Inlniders have 
ovarleken the stalion! You must skiUhjIly lire your neutron lasers to alminaie the 
intruders from the station before your ertgines run oiri of hj)l and eiptodai With 

.♦♦♦-.♦♦♦*♦♦ COSMIC FIGHTER' 



sound! 



Tf>e second Big BlBJ has occuned and die galaxy is full of stisy aaleroids 
and mateors. As you look tftrough youi space port you see a belt of aitenikli 
drifting across Ihe scraen blocking your pafl) lo Ihe safety of the space station 
above. Bui be carehjl because meteor showers, eipToding suns end invading 
ahens may strike your ship and send it hurtling back to ground level. How many 
times can you and your opponani maneuvet through those obsieclts before tima 
Injns out? With sound etferts!**^*^ METEOR MISSION 11° 



1 special! 

^ INTRODUCTORY OFFER: ^ 

Order the STICK-80 with one or more 
games and choose one: 

•FREE ALPHA GREEN SCREEN 

OR 

•FREE MAGIC ARTIST PROGRAM 

IN ADDITION YOU MAY: 
ORDER 2 GAMES AND TAKE 10% OFF 
ORDER 3 GAMES AND TAKE 15% OFF 

All gemat are wnttan in machine language and supplied on cessette 

EACH GAME IS AVAILABLE IN 2 VERSIONS 
SIDE 1: LEVEL II 16K FOR MODEL 1 
^ SIDE 2: LEVEL II 16K FOR MODEL 3 $15.95 



B 



SIDE 1: DISK 32K FOR MODEL 1 
SIDE 2: LEVEL II 16K FOR MODEL 1 



THE DISK VERSION SAVES THE HIGH 
SCORES ON DISK $17.95 

• ALL THESE NEW JOYSTICK GAMES WILL ALSO WORK 
USING THE KEYBOARD WITHOUT ANY MODIFICATIONS, 

GOOD NEWS: If you already have a non- joystick 
version of these BIG FIVE SOFTWARE games, 
send the original tape{s) with your STICK-80 
order + $3 per game. We will send you a new 
Joystick version of yourgame{s). 

ALSO AVAILABLE DOUBLE-STICK 80: 2 ATARI 

JOYSTICKS + ALPHA DUAL INTERFACE + 

.INSTRUCTIONS + DEMO PROGRAM: $59.95 



ALPHA Product Co. 



85-71 79 St. WOODHAVEN NY. 11421 



A[)D S? 50 PER ORDER EOH SX'PPIUG HUD HAHOLING 

ALL ORDERS SHIPPED FIHSr CLftSS MAIL 

WE ACCEPT VISA t^ASTEH CHARGE CHECKS MO 

COO AQOE? 00 EXTRA 

QUANTITY DISCOUNTS AVAILABLE 

N Y HES'DENTS ADD SALES TAX 



phone: (212) 296 5916 



mt 



"The program is a Road Race 
game in which you must drive 
a car down a winding road fiiied 
with potholes." 



16526 


USR 


16732 


DEF 


16756 


CUD 


16762 


OPEN 


16765 


FIELD 


16768 


GET 


18771 


PUT 


16774 


CLOSE 


16777 


LOAD 


16780 


MERGE 


16783 


NAME 


16786 


KILL 


16792 


LSCT 


16795 


RSET 


16801 


SAVE 


16804 


LINE 


Table 2. Numerical listing of disk 


commands which 


can be used in a 


manner similar to USR calls. The ad- 


dress in front of the word is the loca- 


tion to POKE the address of your ma- 


chine language routine. 



eo display scrolls. To fix this, you have to 
turn the monitor upside down or write a ma- 
chine language routine which moves the 
contents of the screen down Instead of up. t 
prefer the second choice, since the first 
might damage the monitor. 

The machine langauge routine is fairly 
simple, it uses only 27 bytes of memory. You 
don't need an assembler, since the BASIC 
program POKEs the program into high 
memory. The first thing the program does is 
to use the alternate register. Evidently, the 
interpreter uses some of the registers, and 
if you don't save them with a PUSH or an 
EXX, some strange and funny things will re- 
sult. Next, the program moves the top fif- 
teen lines of the video down one line. It then 



CLOSE 


16774 


CMD 


16766 


OEF 


16732 


FIELD 


16765 


GET 


16768 


KILL 


18786 


LINE 


16604 


LOAD 


16777 


LSET 


16792 


MERGE 


16780 


NAME 


16783 


OPEN 


18762 


PUT 


16771 


nSET 


16795 


SAVE 


16801 


USR 


16526 


Table 3. Disk commands. Same as 


Table 2 except In alphabetical order. 



10 REM PROGRAM NO, 3 TABLE OF RESERVED WORDS 

20 N=128:PRINT,,, 

30 FOR A=5712T06175 

40 C=PEEK{A) 

50 IF0128THEN PRINT, N;" " ;CHR$ (C-128) ; :N=N-»-l:NEXTA:END 

60 PRINTCHR${C) ;:NEXTA 

Program Listing 3 



100 REM PROGRAM NO. 4 ROAD RACE DEMONSTRATION 

200 CLS:INPUT"DID YOU SET MEMORY SIZE TO 327 41";Z$ 

300 IF LEFTS (Z$,1)=''N''THENEND 

400 CLS:PRINT@47 5,''ROAD RACE" 

500 CLEAR100 

600 DATA 217,17,255,63,33,191,63,1,192,3,237,184,33,0,6 


700 DATA 17,1,60,1,63,0,54,32,237,176,217,201 
800 DATA 2608 : REM THIS IS THE SUM OF THE PREVIOUS DA 

TA 
900 FOR A=0TO26 : READ C : S=S-t-C : POKE 32741+A,C: NEXT 

A 
1000 READ C :IF SOC THEN PRINT"DATA INVALID, END OF RU 

N":END 
1100 POKE16804,229:POKE16805,127 
1200 PRINT: PRINT :PRINT"DO YOU WANT INSTRUCTIONS (Y/N) ? 

n 

1300 Z? = INKEY$:IFZ$=''N"THEN2400ELSEIPZ$=''Y''THEN1400ELSE 

1300 
1400 CLS:PRINTTAB(24)"*** ROAD RACE ***" 
1500 PRINT: PRINT"THIS IS A SIMPLE ROAD RACE GAME." 
1600 PRINT"THE OBJECT IS TO DRIVE YOUR CAR DOWN A WINDI 

NG ROAD," 
17 00 PRINT"HOWEVER, THIS IS NOT VERY EASY BECAUSE THE R 

OAD IS IN VERY POOR" 
1800 PRINT"CONDITION. YOUR CAR WILL LOOK LIKE THIS ( 

:I: ) , AND IT CAN"; 
1900 PRINT"BE CONTROLED WITH THE LEFT AND RIGHT ARROW K 

EYS. YOUR TURN ENDS"; 
2000 PRINT"WHEN YOU HIT THE SIDE OR ONE OF THE POTHOLES 

. YOUR SCORE IS" 
2100 PRINT"BASED ON THE LENGTH OF YOUR RACE. MY RECORD 

IS 1058." 
2200 PRINT:PRINT:PRINT:PRINT 

2300 INPUT"PRESS THE ENTER KEY TO BEGIN" ;Z$ 
2400 CLS 
2500 L=16353 
2600 Z=0:T=0 
2700 X=X-l-RND(0)/7 
2800 T=T+1 
2900 Z=Z+.05 
3000 Y=SIN(X)*19-l-22 

3100 W=SIN(Z)*5+15 : REM W = WIDTH OF TRACK 
3200 PRINT@0,STRING$(Y,146) ; STRINGS (W, 32 ) ;STRINGS C63-W- 

V,146); 



126 • 80 Microcomputing, April 1981 



"The main purpose of this program 
was to demonstrate how to use 
the disl< commands, so there are 

few features in the game." 



3300 
3400 
3500 
3600 
3700 
3800 
3900 

4000 
4100 
4200 

4300 
4400 
4500 
4600 
4700 
4800 
4900 
5000 
5100 
5200 

5300 



POKERND(60)+15360,128+RND{63) 

POKERND(60)+15360,32 

P=PEEK(15168) 

IPP=32THENL=L-2 

IFP=64THENL=L+2 

LINE 

IFPEEK(L-1)>1280RPEEK(L)>12B OR PEEK (L+1) >128THENG 

OTO4200 

POKEL-1 , 58 : POKEL ,7 3 : POKEL+1 , 58 

GOTO27 00 

F0RQ=1T09 : FORW=1TO30 : NEXTW : PRINTCHR$ ( 23 ) ; : P0RW=1T0 

30:NEXTW 

PRINTCHR$ ( 28 ) ; : NEXTQ 

CLS : PRINTCHR$ ( 23 ) " 

PRINT "SCORE 

IFT>HSTHENHS=T 

PRINT"HIGH 

G=G+1:TS=TS+T 

PRINT"AVERAGE 

PRINT: PRINT 

PRINT"PLAY AGAIN (Y/N) ?" 

Z$=INKEY$:IFZS="N"THEN5300:ELSEIFZ?="Y"THEN2400:EL 

SE5200 

CLS: END 

Program Listing 4 



COLLISION" :PRINT:PRINT 



";T 

";HS 

";INT(TS/G) 



fills the top line with spaces, gets the old 
registers back, and returns to the BASIC 
program. A return is used because the inter- 
preter PUSHes the return address onto the 
stack before it Jumps to our routine. 

MEMORY SIZE 32741 

First enter 32741 to the memory size 



question. Then type SYSTEM followed by /O. 
This should bring the memory size. 

When you RUN the program, it will ask 
whether you set the memory size. If you did, 
press enter. The next section of the pro- 
gram reads in data for the machine lan- 
guage and POKES it into memory. If also 
adds up all the data and compares it to a 



pre-determlned sum. If the sums do not 
match, you blew it when you typed in the 
program, and it tells you so. This is a valu- 
able feature; it keeps you from losing the 
entire program because of a common key- 
board bounce. 

Line 1100 is the one that enables our disk 
command. It POKEs the entry point of our 
machine language routine into the line ad- 
dress. Now, wheneveryou type LINE, even if 
you type new and erase the program, the 
contents of the screen will move one line 
down. 

Lines 1200-2300 provide some simple in- 
structions. The car is maneuvered by using 
the two arrow keys. I use the PEEK com- 
mand to see if a key is down rather than IN- 
KEY$ because INKEYS does not repeat If 
the key is held down. Table 4 shows the ad- 
dress to PEEK at for each key. For example, 
to detect whether the left arrow key is down, 
PEEK at location 15168. If bit 5 is on, or the 
value is 32, then the key is down. 

Table 4 was formulated using a modified 
version of Program Listing 1. 1 changed the 
program so that it would continuously dis- 
play the contents of memory from 14336- 
15359, which is the TRS-80 keyboard mem- 
ory. If no keys are down, the entire block will 
contain zeros. Whenever any single key is 
pressed, a certain bit in a specific pattern of 
addresses comes on. For example, the A 
key should cause all add-numbered ad- 
dresses in the keyboard memory to equal 
two, which is the value of bit one. 







00100 


; MACHINE LANGUAGE ROUTINE TO MOVE SCREEN DOWN 


7FE5 




00110 




ORG 


327 41 


START HIGH MEMORY 


7FE5 


D9 


00120 


START 


EXX 




USE ALTERNATE REG'S 


7FE6 


11FF3F 


00130 




LD 


DE,163B3 


BOTTOM OF VIDEO 


7FE9 


21BF3F 


00140 




LD 


HL, 16319 


ONE LINE ABOVE 


7FEC 


01C003 


00150 




LD 


EC, 960 


BYTES TO MOVE 


7FEF 


EDBB 


00160 




LDDR 




MOVE IT DOWN 






00170 


; CLEAR 


FIRST 


LINE 




7PF1 


21003C 


00180 




LD 


HL, 15360 


START OF LINE 


7FF4 


11013C 


00190 




LD 


DE, 15361 


NEXT CHARACTER 


7FF7 


013F00 


00200 




LD 


BC,63 


LENGTH OF LINE 


7FFA 


3620 


00210 




LD 


{HL),32 


SPACE IN FIRST CHAR 


7FFC 


EDB0 


00220 




LDIR 




■CLEAR LINE 


7FFE 


D9 


00230 




EXX 




fGET OLD REGISTERS 


7FFF 


C9 


00240 




RET 






7FE5 




00250 




END 


START 




00000 TOTAL 


ERRORS 


















Machine 


Language Listing 





80 Microcomputing, April 1981 • 129 



60 MICROCOMPUTING 
AKHOUNCES... 







__ — 


— - — 


f « , 


■-^ J* ^ 








1 


'~ 


1 


H " 


>X 


^ — I — 




1 


' i ■ , 


/ 



. . . and saves you hours of typing and aggravation. 

LOAD-SO is a monthly dump of the major program listings in SO Microcomputing on cassette. 
Publisher Wayne Green tells you more . . . 



"Frankly, after hundreds of hours of 
frustration, I seldom even try to keyboard a 
published program. Even if the magazine 
manages to get the program typeset correctly 
(which seems rare), I inevitably screw it up 
when I keyboard it. Who needs the aggrava- 
tion? 

"This is why I've started a new series of 
cassettes called Load 80. Each cassette will 
have program dumps of the listings in an 
issue of 80 Microcomputing. These listings 
are direct from the authors and tested by the 
80 staff. All but the very short program 
listings will be on these Load SO cassettes. 
Thus you will be able to save hours of input- 
ting programs and even more of debugging 
your keyboarding errors. 



"Though the authors of these programs 
will share the royalties from the sale of the 
cassettes, this will not preclude the better 
programs from being issued separately by In- 
stant Software (with royalties) with full 
documentation and associated hoopla. The 
documentation for the Load 80 programs 
will be entirely in 80 Microcomputing. 

"I originally was holding out for "Trash 
Dump" as a name for the cassettes, but cooler 
heads prevailed. If there turns out to be 
enough interest in Load 80, we'll set up a 
monthly subscription arrangement." 

Wayne Green, Publisher 



Send in the attached card and you 
will receive the cassette for the major 


r 


D Yes. . .send my LOAD 80 Cassette for only $9.95 

D Check Enclosed Bill my D AE D MC D VISA 

NIAMF 


n 


programs in this issue (April 1981). 
If the card is gone, photocopy the 
coupon. 


AnnRF<?s; 




riTV STATF 7IP 

rARn« FXPTRFnATF. 




plcuc nole I here ii no wirnniy eipieiicd oi implidJ ihti ihii progrim 
<i gDlng ID do inyihini Dih(t ihin i>v( you lyping. 


.s;ir,NATnRF intfrrank# 

Ptoosa allov A-i weeks lot dellverv 

BO Microcomputing Pine Street Petertxirougti NH 0345B 

Attn: Debra L. Boudrleou 




^ 


3I4BB 1 



130 • 80 Microcomputing, April1981 



"The machine language routine 
is fairly simple, it uses only 
27 bytes of memory." 



When more than one key is pressed si- 
multaneously, the patterns will overlap and 
some addresses will contain the value of 
one key, some will contain the value of the 
other key, some will contain the value of 
both keys combined, and the rest will con- 



tabie does not work perfectly; some combi- 
nations of keys affect other bits. Under nor- 
mal use this peculiarity never causes prob- 
lems. 

There is also another set of memory loca- 
tions which operate identically to this set, 



MEMORY 





1 


2 


B 
3 


IT 
4 


5 


6 


7 


15105 


@ 


A 


B 


C 


D 


E 


F 


G 


15106 


H 


1 


J 


K 


L 


M 


N 





15108 


p 


Q 


R 


S 


T 


U 


V 


W 


15112 


X 


Y 


Z 












15120 





1 


2 


3 


4 


5 


6 


7 


15136 


8 


9 




; 


, 






/ 


15168 


ENTER 


CLEAR 


BREAK 


t 


i 


^ 


-• 


SPACE 


15232 


SHIFT 
















Table 4. Table of memory locations and bits used to sense depressed keys. 



tain zero. I created the table in Table 4 by 
carefully noting the few addresses where 
the patterns do not overlap, in which there 
is only one key which can affect a specific 
bit in a certain memory location. If many 
keys are pressed down simultaneously, the 



which start at 14337. 1 have always used tfie 
second set; both sets operate identically, 
and so I offer the table my program uses. 

Back on the Road 

The following describes how I made the 



road curve and shrink. L is the location of 
the car, which I put in the center so that no 
one can race off the edge of the screen and 
drive through reserved RAM. I could have 
put a wall along the side, but it was easier to 
put the car in the center and let it get 
smashed by the rapidly approaching wait 
just before it reached the edge. 

T is the time counter, which is increment- 
ed each time the screen is moved down. 
This provides a simple scoring method, by 
using time as the score and by letting the 
driver race as long as he can. X and Z are 
used as angles in sine fuctions which deter- 
mine the curve and width respectively. By 
increasing the increments in lines 2700 and 
2900, the track can be made to bend and 
shrink faster. By changing values in lines 
2700-3100, you can observe how each num- 
ber affects the shape of the road. 

Line 3200 prints a string of graphics 
drawing the left edge of the road, followed 
by some spaces and another string of 
graphics drawing the right edge of the road. 
If you don't like the graphic character which 
I used, change the 146 to a different num- 
ber. Line 3300 POKES a random graphic 
character into a random position on the top 
line. Sometimes it falls inside the road, in 
which case it is a pothole. Otherwise it sim- 
ply adds texture to the road side. Texture is 
also the function of line 3400, which adds 
random blanks to break up the repetition. 



RSGLMODl - $50 - Enhancements to Radio Shack General Ledger 1,1 Special feature - Copy ONLY ONE disk for back-up security. 

Print features - General ledger with beginning balances; current month activity; ending balances ** Classified balance sheet. 

Print Options - Omit current column on income statement ** Omit account numbers on balance sheet and/or income statement. 

Input Display - Previous document name, number of entries/total entries permitted for current session, and dollar total of current 
document are always visible. These are nice anytime and just plain excellent after you return from an interruption. 

Input Options -Set up an "automatic" account number. Touch ENTER to use. Change to another account anytime** Re-do a document 
after it is balanced (Before starting next document) ** Change document name and entry date for each entry. One possibility 
is a check register with only one cash entry ** Automatic credits to liability, capital, and income accounts ** Others. 

Supplied as program lines which must be MERGED into the original programs, or, send a disk copy of the original programs and 
the modifications will be installed on your diskette — no additional charge, 

DDIR81 - 523 - Organize your disks. Creates program lines of directory contents using TRSDOS or NEWDOS, 32K/one drive, 

CAT - $12 - You have to plan ahead to beat the computer or a friend, X's and O's advance with each human move. Fast graphics, 

FTDEMQ80 - $12 - Displays and EXECUTES the NEWDOS/80 Appendix A programs and keyboard entries, A real time saver, 32K, 

Disk only. Deduct $3 each tor 2nd-3rd-4th program. Add 4% tor MasterCard /Visa 
NEWDOS/80 - $135 DOUBLER - $215 DOUBLE-ZAP II - $47 DOUBLE-ZAP (2.1)- $37 BASE 2 MODEL 850 - $760 w/Cable 

MODEL III DISK DRIVES FIRST - $760 SECOND - $350 EXTERNAL - $430 

^445 AT-80 3827 Dismount Dallas, Texas 75211 (214)339-0498 



t^See Lisl of Advertisers on page 306 



80 Microcomputing, April 1981 • 131 



REMsoFT. Inc. 

Let Your TRS-80® 

Teach You 

ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE 

Tired of buying book after book on assembly 
language programming and sflll not knowing your 
POP from your PUSH' 

REMsoFT proudly announces a more effi- 
cient way, using your own TRS-80® , to learn the 
fundamentals of assembly language programming 
-at YOUR pace and at YOUR convenience. 

Our unique paci(age, ' ' INTRODUCTION TO TRS-80® 
ASSEMBLY PflOGRAMMING", will provide you witti 
ttte following: 

• Ten 45-mmute lessons on audio cassetles. 

• A driver program to make your TRS-80® video 
monitor serve as a blackboard for tfie instructor. 

• A display program for each lesson to provide 
illustration and reinforcement tor what you are 
hearing. 

• A textbook on TRS-80® Assembly Language 
Programming. 

• Step-by-step dissection of complete and useful 
routines to test memory and to gam direct control 
over the keyboard, video monitor, and printer. 

• How to access and use powerful routines in your 
Level II ROM 

This course was developed and recorded by 
Joseph E Willis and is based on the successful 
series of courses he has taught at Meta Technologies 
Corporation, the Radio Shack Computer Center, and 
other locations in Northern Ohio. The minimum 
system required is a Level II, 16K RAM 

REMASSEM-1 only $69.95 



LEARN TRS-80® 

ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE 

DISK I/O 

Yout disk system and you can really step oul with 
HEMSOFT's Educaiional Module. REMOISK-1, a 

"short course" revealtng ttie details of DISK I/O 
PROGRAMMING using assembly language 

Using the same format as our extremely popular 
introduction lo assembly language programming, 
this "ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE DISK I/O PROGRAM- 
MING" course includes 

• Two 45-minute lessons on audio cassette. 

• A driver program to make your TRS-80® video 
monitor serve as a blackboard tor the instructor 

• A display program tor eacti lesson to provide 
Illustration and reinforcement for what you are 
hearing. 

• A booiilei of comprefiensive, fully-commented 
program listings illustrating sequential tile I/O, 
random-access file I/O, and track and sector I/O. 

• A diskette with machine-readable source codes 
for all programs discussed, in both Radio Shack 
EDTASM and Macro formats 

• Routines to convert from one assembler formal 
to the other 

This course was developed and recorded by 
Joseph E Willis, for the student with experience 
m assembly language programming, it is an inter- 
mediate-to advanced-level course. Minimum hard- 
ware required is a Model I Level II, 16 K RAM one 
disk drive system 



REMDISK-1 



only $29.95 




Dealer inquiries invited 

REMSOFT, INC. 

571 E. 185 St. 

Euclid, Ohio 44119 

(216)531-1338 



^ 



Include S1 5Q lor shipping arid rianOlirg 
Ohio residents aflfl V/i"/,, sales tax 

TRS-80^ IS a trademark ol the Tandy Corp 



Ttie next three lines test for an arrow key 
and adjust the car location if a key is down. 

And now: the tiling we've all been waiting 
for: Our new LINE command, in tine 3800. 
That one word moves the entire screen 
down, clears the top line, and pushes the 
car, which was on the bottom, of the screen. 
The LINE command can be put in the mid- 
dle of a line or anywhere the CLS command 
could be used. Line 3900 looks at the three 
bytes forming the car, and if there is a 
graphic block in any of them, there must 
have been a collision. Line 4000 displays 
the car. I used a colon, followed by the letter 
1, followed by another colon for the car. The 
two dots on the colon are the wheels, and 
the I is the body. Finally, in the next line, the 
program loops back and makes the race an 
endless loop. 

The rest of the program is the collision 
routine. Line 4200 makes the screen shake 
after a collision. It has a short time delay 
and then shifts the screen into expanded 
character mode with CHR$(23). It again de- 
lays and then shifts the screen back to nor- 
mal character size with CHR$(28). (I bet that 
none of you have discovered that command 
yet because the manual says that a CHR$ 
(28) returns the cursor to display position 
(0,0)). The rest of the program is straight for- 
ward. 

How to Enhance It 

The main purpose of this program was to 
demonstrate how to use the disk com- 
mands, so there are few features in the 
game. The following are some modifica- 
tions which you might like to add, to make 
the game interesting. The program is num- 
bered in increments of 100 so that there is 
plenty of room to insert modifications. 

There could be a finish line at a score of 
500, and YOU HAVE WON could be dis- 
played. Another method would be to have 
all races 500 time units iong, start with a 
score of ten, and lose one point for each col- 
lision. Scoring could be enhanced by keep- 
ing track of scores for more than one per- 
son by asking for their initials at the start of 
each race. Another improvement would be 
to allow difficulty levels by changing items 
such as speed, width of the road, frequency 
and sharpness of curves, and number of 
potholes. The best improvement would be 
to write the entire program in machine lan- 
guage and move the screen down only one 
graphic block at a time instead of three. 

Next month I will use the disk commands 
to create and print designs like the one 
shown with this article.H 




QUALITY 
PRODUCTS 
FROM 



SCREENEUIT: Easier to use than 
the normal EDIT command; more 
powerful too! To edit a Basic line, LIST 
it and type EDIT withoul an argument. 
You have now activated S(-REEN 
EDIT. Simply typing a letter will 
change what was there (overwrite), 
shift left arrow deletes, shift right 
arrow inserts spaces. Shift down arrow 
is useful for combining lines. Changing 
the line number will duplicate that line. 
Will edit any line 255 characters or 
less. Enter ends the editing process and 
Break escapes from editing and cancels 
all changes. Also allows you to re- 
execute command lines without 
retyping them! Don't let the price fool 
vou, this will be a much used utility!! 

JUST $9.9S 



Model I or III 



Level II or Disk Basic 



THE ALTERNATE SOURCE 

1806 Ada Street 

Lansing, MI 48910 

517-487 -S.SSS 

"^^ 517-485-0344 

Include |2.(H) for crush-proof box aru! 
postage, SI. 50 for COD. 4% for charge. 




EDU-WARE EAST 
E/ P.O. Box 336 

Maynard, MA. 01754 
617-568-8641 

1^477 




MATH-PAK-1: MATH-PAK-2: MATH-PAK-3 

Intaractlwe drill programs wtiere you enter ttta answers 
digit by digit, Just like paper and pencil. Witt) user 
selected difficulty levels, carryovers, reducing, simpli- 
fication, pointing off, scoring, games, and more. Used 
by sctiools flverywtiere. Order MATH-PAK-1 for inte- 
gers, MATH-PAK-2 for fractions, MATH-PAK-3 for 
decimals. (L2-16K) $14.95 ea. 

H-0-R-K-S 

Low cost, single entry accounting system for ttie tiome 
or office. Witfi 66 user assigned account codes, auto 
audit trail, searcti wltfi totals, 32 or 48K. 1 to 4 drives, 
credit and debit summaries with 3 options, up to 9200 
entries. $24.9SJcassette $29.95/di8c 

INVENTORY 4- 
Why settle for Just an inventory listing? Get aging 
reports with 2 options, reorder, total listings witti pur- 
ctiase dates and amounts, total costs, items sold, pro- 
fit/loss end more. Use as a stand alone system witti 
dally updates, delete, change, and file packing 
routines. (32K -1 disc minimum) I24.95/cassette 

$29.95/dlBc. 

CASH REGISTER 60 

Use your TRS-80 as a point of sale terminal with 
automatic Inventory lookup, pricing, update, and more. 
Print sales slips witti user adjusted formats, end of 
day reports with all cash, charge, and check sales by 
salesperson. CR80 requires INVENTORY-f-. 48K, and 
1 disc minimum (2 drives recommended). 

$24.95rcassette $29.95/disc. 



Mass residents and 5% tax. VISA. M.C., AND PHONE 
ORDERS ACCEPTED. Dealer inquiries Invited. Over- 
seas orders add $2.00 for air shipment. TRS-60 is a 
trademark of Tandy Corp. 



132 • 80 Microcomputing, April 1981 



Poor 

Man's 

Floppy 



HIGH SPEED CASSETTE SYSTEM 



c i-is^lle --ystems 




T"C -S 







Noiv the widely acclaimed 
JPC Cassette System is available 
for your TRS-80* computer. 
The price is only $90.00 

TC-8 Cassetle System 
JFC Products 
Albuquerque, NM 
Kit: $90 
Assembled: $120 

by Carl A. Kollar 

1 guess I don't have to teli any TRS-80 owners 
how frustrating the cassette system that 
comes with the computer can be. Even with the 
factory mod that's available, the annoyance of 
loading and checking programs becomes just 
barely tolerable. 

If you're like me, after you've just plunked 
down a chunk of money for a Level 11 16K ma- 
chine, "you ain't got nullin left" for even one 
disk drive at 500 bucks apiece. So you suffer. 

A reasonable alternative is the Exatron 
Stringy Floppy (ESF). This will cost you about 
250 bucks and totally eliminates your loading 
and saving problems, automatically and fast. 
I've had one of these for about six months and 
love it! 

But, if the price is slill too steep, have I got a 
device for you! 

The Device 

The February 1980 issue of Microcomputing 
had an ad that intrigued the hell out of me. It 
was a high-speed cassette system by JPC Prod- 
ucts acclaimed as a "poor man's floppy." It 
made all sorts of seemingly ridiculous claims 
such as "loads five times faster," "stores 50,000 
bytes on a 10-minute cassette," "less than one 
bad load in a million bytes with the volume con- 
trol anywhere between one and eight." 

All this for a measly [90] bucks? How could 
this be? A call to Albuquerque answered a few 
questions: Yes, it had its own power supply, 
and, it .stored programs five times faster be- 
cause it utilized higher density data. The com- 
puter outputs the information at a higher rate 
out of the rear keyboard connector. 

The ad had even claimed anyone could build 
it even if you have never soldered before. JPC 
would make it work, if you couldn't — for free. 
I was sold. I placed my order, and it arrived 
about two months later (parts shortage). 

I work in electronics, so I found the unit ex- 
ceptionally easy to build. It took about an 
hour. The manual is superb. (That's better than 
great.) It was clear, concise and exact with no 



FOR TRS-80* 

[Reprint of June 1980 Review, 80 Microcomputing] 




ambiguities. Important parts placements arc 
stressed (polarity markings on electrolytics, 
bands on diodes, etc.). 

JPC was right! With these instructions, you 
couldn't go wrong. The board quality is excel- 
lent. It is doubie-sided and parts locations are 
clearly marked on the component side of the 
board. There are no jumper wires to in,stall. 
JPC utilizes PC traces and plated-through 
holes for connections to traces on the other side 
of the board. 

Also, there are absolutely no adjustments or 
settings to bother with. 

The documentation is a sheaf of 8 '/j x 1 1 pa- 
pers stapled together. It is written in the nicest 
format I've seen in a while. Each command 
and/or subjects is covered on its own sheet in 
large type. All explanations are in easy to read 
English — not computeresc. 

Commands and Features 
SAVE"filename": Saves your BASIC pro- 
gram on cassette. 

LOAD: Reads the next BASIC program from 
the cassette. 

LOAD"filenarae": Searches for and loads the 
specified file from cassette. 
LOAD? and LOAD?"filename": Reads file 
from cassette, and compares contents to mem- 
ory. 

LOADN: Prints a list of all the programs on a 
cassette, until interrupted by the "break" key. 
LOADN"filename": Same as above except the 
tape will stop at the end of the program named. 
KILL: Removes the file manager program 
from memory so that the extra memory can be 
used by large programs. 
RSET: Allows the operator to rewind and posi- 
tion the tape on tape recorders that have these 
functions tied to the motor control jack. 
KLiLN"t'ilenanie":TC-8 searches for a specified 
program and runs it immediately. 
PlJT"filename": Same as SAVE "filename", 
except it is for use with system tapes. 
GET: Same as LOAD, except it is for use with 
system tapes. 

GET"filename": Same as LOAD "filename", 
except it is for use with system tapes. 
GET? and GET7"menainc": Same as LOAD? 
and LOAD?"filename", except it is for use 
with system tapes. 
GET^' and GETN" filename": Same as 



LOADN and LOADN'Tilename", except it is 
for use with system tapes. 
OPEN: Required before cassette input or out- 
put of a data file can be attempted. 
CLOSE: Required to end a cassette dala file. 
PRINTS: Allows numerical or string dala to be 
output to a cassette file. 
INPUTS: Allows numerical or string data to be 
input from a cassette file. 

1 haven't counted them, so I don't know 
about the "one load in a million bytes" claim, 
but my son, Anthony (age 1 1), loaded about 30 
of his programs from his Radio Shack format 
tape to a new TC-8 format tape. He's run them 
all and found no bad loads. 

Unlike the standard tape system, you can po- 
sition your tape anywhere before the program 
you want and not have to look for a blank spot 
between programs. The TC-8 patienlly waits 
for the program you want and then starts load- 
ing without getting confused by the portion of 
the previous program you just fed it. 

Try that on your regular cassette system; 
you'll wear out the reset button. ■ 

ORDER NOW 

To order your TC-8 kit, send your check or 
money order for $90.00 plus $3.50 postage 
and handling to JPC PRODUCTS CO., 12021 
Paisano Ct., Albuquerque, NM 87112 (New 
Mexico residents add 4""/!) sales tax). Credit card 
orders accepted by phone or mail. Personal 
checks will delay shipment. We will otherwise 
immediately ship you the TC-8 kit, the cabinet, 
the ribbon cable, the power adapter, an instruc- 
tion manual, and a cassctle containing the 
software. 




^190 



PRODUCTS CO. 
Phone (505) 294-4623 
12021 Paisano Ct. 
Albuquerque, N.M. 87112 



^See List at Advertisers on page 306 



80 Microcomputing, April 1981 • 133 



CONSTRUCTION Parti 



How does 192x26 sound? 



A High-Density 
Graphic Interface 



Dennis Murray 

CompuTech 
1005 Chestnut Dr. 
Christiansburg, VA 24073 

Paul Fowler Jr. 
Enable Electronics 
2103 Charlton Lane 
Radford, VA 24141 



Do you have the feeling that 
you are drawing pictures, 
plots, and graphs using a paint 
roller for a drawing pen? How 
would you like an interface thai 
provides 192 dot positions hori- 
zontally and 96 dot positions 
vertically? That's over 18,000 
separately addressable dot lo- 
cations! You can have exactly 
that if you build this high density 
graphics interface. 

This is not a programmable 
character generator with limita- 
tions and relative software com- 
plexity. It is a legitimate, one- 
dot-per-bit graphics interface. 

The prerequisites for the de- 
sign of a high density graphics 
interface for the TRS-80 are size 



and simplicity. Size is important 
to fit the circuit inside the com- 
puter case. Simplicity is impor- 
tant if relatively inexperienced 
TRS-80 owners are to install and 
maintain the interface. We feet 
that both objectives have been 
met due primarily to the philoso- 
phy of using as much of the ex- 



television set without a tuner or 
intermediate frequency (IF) sec- 
tion. This type of monitor 
sweeps the screen with a dot of 
light starting at the top left cor- 
ner of the screen and proceed- 
ing across the screen from left 
to right and top to bottom (Fig. 
1). The term for this technique is 



^7he character generator (Z29) is really 

nothing more than a ROM whose 

memory Is addressed by the ASCII 

representation. . ." 



isting (and debugged) TRS-80 
video display hardware as pos- 
sible, and use of 4K x 1 static 
RAM chips. 

While this circuit should not 
be attempted by those with 
no hardware experience, it 
shouldn't be a difficult task. 

Video Monitor Concepts 

The TRS-80 monitor is really 
nothing more than a modified 



raster scan. A complete scan of 
the whole screen is called a 
frame and is composed of 264 
lines. Ail 264 scan lines are not 
available for display, however, 
because approximately 72 are 
needed to provide proper mar- 
gins for top and bottom and 
time for vertical retrace. This 
leaves 192 scan lines to display 
information. The screen is re- 
freshed at a rate of 60 frames a 



second to minimize flicker and 
ac hum. 

The horizontal and vertical 
sweeps are generated by free- 
running sawtooth oscillators. 
The natural frequency of oscilla- 
tion isslightly lower than the de- 
sired sweep (See Fig. 2). These 
oscillators can be re-triggered 
early and start a new sweep by 
superimposing a reset signal 
(called SYNC) on the video sig- 
nal transmitted to the monitor. 
Thus, if the computer provides a 
SYNC signal at a repetition rate 
slightly faster than the horizon- 
tal oscillator's natural frequen- 
cy, the monitor's sweep will be 
pulled into synchronization with 
the incoming video signal. Once 
synchronization is established, 
it is easy to determine the exact 
location of the monitor's light 
dot at any instant. By turning 
the dot on or off at the right 
time, characters or graphics can 
be formed on the screen. (See 
Fig. 3.) 

The operation of a video moni- 
tor is simple. It depends on the 
input video signal to provide all 
information to display data. 

Generation of the video signal 
becomes the responsibility of 
the computer. The TRS-80 ac- 



134 • 80 Microcomputing, April 1981 



SCAN LINE I 

SCAN LINE 2 

SCAN LINE 3 

SCAN LINE 4 

SCAN LINE 5 

SCAN LINE 6 



Fig. 1. Raster Scan. Arrows indicate display portion of scan. Daslied 
iines indicate bianfied retrace. 




RETRACE OCCURS DURING 
THIS TIME 



Fig. 2. This is an example of a signal generation by a monitor's 
horizontal output stage. Retrace occurs during the sharp vertical 
lines between scans. 



complishes this with a special- 
ized section of hardware. 

TRS-80 Video Text Generation 

This section is to familiarize 
the reader with the concepts of 
text generation as they apply to 
the TRS-80. A detailed descrip- 
tion of the TRS-80 operation is 
also available from Radio Shacl< 
in a booklet entitled ■'TRS-80 Mi- 
crocomputer Technical Refer- 
ence Handbook." 

Fig. 4 is a functional block 
diagram of the video display cir- 
cuitry. For simplicity, only the 64 
character-per-line mode will be 
presented. 

The video clock generator is 
driven by the TRS-80 system 
clock and generates the three 
most critical clocks of the cir- 
cuit: SHIFT, CHAIN, and LATCH. 
It is the responsibility of SHIFT 
to inform shift register Z10 and 
Z1 1 when to output the next dot. 
Its frequency is determined by 
the rate at which the dots are to 
be displayed; in this case, SHIFT 
operates at 10.6445 Megahertz. 

CHAIN serves the dual pur- 
pose of driving the address 
counters and serving as the low 
order address line for the dis- 
play RAMs (Z45-48, Z61 -63). Note 
that for every complete cycle of 
CHAIN, two different locations 
are addressed: one is refer- 
enced when CHAIN is at logic 



Oand another when CHAIN is at 
a logic 1 . Thus, CHAIN would op- 
erate at a frequency equal to 
one-half the rate at which mem- 
ory addresses change. Since the 
TRS-80 uses a five-by-seven dot 
matrix for character display and 
requires one "undot" (black dot) 
to separate characters horizon- 
tally, we need six dots per char- 
acter. This means we must in- 
crement memory locations once 
every six dots and CHAIN must 
be one-half of that speed. Thus, 
CHAIN operates at a frequency 
of 887 kHz (SHIFT dot rate of 
10.6445 MHz -^ 6dots/character 
-^ 2 = 887 kHz). 

The function of LATCH is to 
provide enough delay so that 
the RAM and character genera- 
tor output can stabilize, and 
then load the shift register with 
that output (Fig. 5). Therefore, 
LATCH must operate at the rate 
characters are to be output to 
the screen, which is one-sixth of 
the dot rate, or1.774 MHz. 

The video RAM is addressed 
by the video refresh counters 
made up of Z65, Z50, Z12, and 
Z32. The counters provide a 
means of sequentially access- 
ing memory while simultane- 
ously producing horizontal and 
vertical sync. Integrated circuits 
Z65 and Z50 comprise a divide- 
by-32 counter that, when coupl- 
ed to CHAIN, provides the low- 



order six address lines for the 
video RAM. The result is a max- 
imum addressing range of 64 se- 
quential locations, which hap- 
pens to be the number of char- 
acters on a line. The last counter 
stage of Z50 is configured to 
provide a horizontal sync pulse 
and sufficient delay time to al- 
low horizontal retrace blanking 
on the monitor. 

A total of 12 scan lines is re- 
quired to display one text (or 
graphics) line for the TRS-80. 
{See Fig. 3.) This means that 
once a horizontal scan is com- 
plete, we must re-address those 
character locations 11 more 
times before moving on to new 
text. This function is handled by 
Z12. Once Z12 has counted 
through 12 scan lines, it pro- 
vides an output pulse to the text 
line counter made up of part of 
Z65 and Z32. 

The text line counter serves 
two purposes: It provides a di- 
vide-by-16 counter to drive the 
high-order video RAM address 
lines and it provides a vertical re- 
trace blanking for the monitor. 

The insertion of four-bit multi- 
plexors (Z64, Z49, and Z31) be- 
tween the video refresh count- 
ers and the video RAM allows 
the system to access that RAM 



in order to read or change its 
contents. 

The source of the video RAM's 
address is switched from the 
video refresh counter to the sys- 
tem address bus when VID* is 
pulled low. When this happens, 
the data output from the RAMs 
will not necessarily be valid for 
video display. Therefore, VID' 
sets a flip-flop (Z7) to ensure 
that the video display is blanked 
during that portion of the hori- 
zontal sweep disturbed by the 
CPU's access to the video RAM. 

During normal screen refresh 
the output from the video RAM 
is captured after it is stable in a 
six-bit latch by a signal called, 
appropriately, LATCH. Once 
latched, the RAM address is in- 
cremented so that the next loca- 
tion can be accessed while the 
present data is being processed 
by the character generator or 
the block graphics generator 
(Fig. 5). 

The character generator (Z29) 
is really nothing more than a 
ROM whose memory is ad- 
dressed by the ASCII represen- 
tation of the character to be dis- 
played and the scan line current- 
ly being displayed. Its output is 
five bits wide, representing the 
array of dots necessary to build 



C C C C C C 

L L L L L L 



SCAN LINE I 
SCAN LINE 2 
SCAN LINE 3 
SCAN LINE 4 
SCAN LINE 5 
SCAN LINE 6 
SCAN LINE 7 
SCAN LINE 8 
SCAN LINE 9 
SCAN LINE 10 
SCAN LINE 



SCAN LINE 12- 



r 


2 


)( 


5 ^ 


X 




D 


-4 


J\ 


J- 


^ — ~~ 


4 - 






- - 


- ■ 


- ' ^ '*" 


^^^U. 


^ 


X 


S 


- ■ 


' ^ ^^ 




<rS 


X 


— ■ 


- '^ ' 






■ - 


— ■ 


"""'*" 


. --*- -X ■ 


■ - 




- - 


— ■ 


' ""'^ 


•^ - - 


C^- 


-- 


- - 


- 


' — 


" ^ "^ 


■^ - — 


- - 


- - 




- 


- - 


~~ ^ 


~\ -^ ^ " 




- - 




- 


- - 


— 


J 


. — 


- - 




- 


- - 


^ ^ "^ 


1 - — ^^- 


. - 


- 




- 


- — 


" ^ " 

















Fig. 3. Character Generation Using Raster Scan 



80 Microcomputing, April 1981 • 135 



tHaiN*iaa7.04iKHii 

x: 



Fig. 4. TRS-80 Alpha/Graphics Block Diagram 



VIDEO 
ADDRESS 

COUNTERS 

Z50 



FBOM 
CPU 



MUX 

Z3I, 39, 64 



^ ^^ VIDEO Rl 



1^ 



Z45, 46, 47, 48 
Z6l, 6£, 63 



□VEBFLOW = HOP! 



ROW LINE 
COUNTER 
(CHAR/LINE) 



BIT 0-BIT S IS LINES 



SCAN LINES 



TEXT LINE 
COUNTER 
Z32 



'^ LI, LgriT 



1^ 



^1 



ALPHA/NUMERIC 
CHfiR. GENERATOR 
ZZ9 



ALPHA/NUMERIC 
SHIFT REG. 

zio 




GRAPHICS 
SHIFT REGISTER 
Zll 



CRSPHICE OUT 



HLPHA/NOM OUT 



COMPOSITE 
VIDEO 

MIXING a 

DRIVER 

26, ZS, Z30. 

Z4I.0(. QZ. 
Z57 



COMPOSITE 

VIDEO OUT T P'N 4 



a video image of thai character 
(Fig, 3), These five bits are then 
fed to a shift register where a 
bianl< bit is added. The finai six 
bits are shifted out, one bit at a 
time, to a video driver section 
where each is mixed with the 
horizontai and vertical sync sig- 
nals, amplified, and matched to 
the impedance of the monitor 
(75Q). The resulting signal, 
called composite video, is pre- 
sented on J2 for connection to 
the video monitor. 

The graphics generator is 
composed of a four-line to one- 
line multiplexer (Z8) and a shift 
register (Z11). The multiplexor 
routes two of the six data bits 
present on its input to its two 
output lines. Which input bits 
are selected is determined by 
the A and B inputs to the multi- 
plexer. These inputs are driven 
by the two most significant bits 
of the scan line counter (Z12). 

Since Z12 is configured as a 
divide-by 12, the information 
supplied to the A and B inputs 
will change on every fourth scan 
line. Thus, each pair of bits se- 



lected by multiplexer Z8 will be 
held for four scan lines, then an- 
other pair is picked. When all 12 
scan lines for a character row 
have been completed, the multi- 
plexer will have supplied three 
pairs of bits, thus the vertical 
stacking of three graphics 



two blocks wide and three blocks 

deep. 

if the graphics mode Is indi- 
cated for the character, Z63 will 
output a logic 1. This will result 
in the multiplexer's block graph- 
ics being loaded into shift reg- 
ister Z11 instead of the charac- 



^he prerequisites for line design 
of a higfi density graphics 
interface -for tiie TRS-80 are 
size and simplicity/' 



blocks per character row. 

The multiplexer's output pair 
is presented to shift register 
Z1 1 , which is wired so that each 
bit represents a total of three 
dots. Since each character posi- 
tion is six dots wide, this tech- 
nique will cause the monitor to 
display two blocks of dots, hori- 
zontally, for each character lo- 
cation. The result is a form of 
graphics where each character 
position is divided into a matrix 



ter generator loading Its data in- 
to shift register ZIO. Z11 will 
then shift its dots out, one at a 
time, to the video driver section. 
There it Is mixed with the hori- 
zontal and vertical sync signals, 
amplified, and sent to plug J2 as 
composite video. 

High-Density Graphics Interface 

During the design of the in- 
terface, a compromise had to be 
reached between adequate 



screen resolution and excessive 
memory comsumption. The final 
decision was that the ability to 
resolve and display screen posi- 
tions down to the size of the nor- 
mal TRS-80 period would pro- 
vide sufficient detail. This is, in 
reality, a small square two dots 
high and two dots wide. 

The TRS-80 outputs a charac- 
ter block six dots wide by 12 
dots high when operating in the 
64 character/line mode. This 
translates to a total of 384 dots 
horizontally by 192 dots vertical- 
ly. Thus, if a period is a small 
box two dots by two dots, we 
can display 192 dots horizontal- 
ly and 96 dots vertically. That is 
18,432 discrete, separately ad- 
dressable positions. 

In order to use as many of the 
TRS-80 provided signals as pos- 
sible, the high-density interface 
should use a similar data latch 
and address update scheme. 
Use of the TRS-80 signals such 
as BLANK, LATCH, Dot 2, SHIFT/ 
LOAD, and SHIFT simplifies the 
design of such an interface and 
provides a means of synchroniz- 



136 • 80 Microcomputing, April 1981 




Photo 1. HR-1 High Resolution Graphics 



IC2a. The output of IC2a is used 
as the input clocl*; to a divide- 
tay-32 coiumn address counter 
made up of IC2b and ICIOb. It is 
also used as a bank select to de- 
termine which half of the divided 
memory is accessed— the high- 
order three bits or the low order 
three bits of a byte. 

Assuming the high-density 
graphics Interface is not being 
addressed by CPU the MEMORY 
SELECT will be low, and the 
BANK SELECT will work as fol- 
lows: 

• When BANK SELECT is low, 
both inputs to IC16d wilt be low, 
resulting In a high Input level to 
the chip enable inputs (CE) of 
IC7, IC8, and 109. These memory 



sees a low logic level on both its 
inputs it will output a high logic 
level to the chip enable inputs of 
IC4, IC5, and IC6, thus deselect- 
ing them. 

• BANK SELECT Is initially low 
following a horizontal retrace 
due to the reset signal from 101. 
Upon the next Dot 2 negative 
edge, BANK SELECT will toggle 
high; thus the alternate bank is 
selected. Therefore, BANK SE- 
LECT will operate at a frequency 
equal to Dot 2-^-2 throughout 
the horizontal scan, at which 
point a retrace resets the 
counters. 

The task of maintaining the 
proper row scan line address is 
handled by 1013 configured as a 



Ing the normal TRS-80 alphanu- 
meric mode and the high-densi- 
ty graphics mode on a charac- 
ter-by-character basis without 
loss of synchronization. This 
feature is a requirement If 
graphic titling, legends, etc. are 
to be used. 

Interface Operation 

TRS-80 signals BLANK and 
LATCH are input to a 74LS74 
D-flop (ICI). The output from 101 
will then indicate when a retrace 
(either horizontal or vertical) is 
taking place. The output is also 
used as a switch to reset the col- 
umn address registers and to in- 
hibit an undesired clock pulse 
present from Dot 2 immediately 
after the end of retrace blanking. 



The Q output from 101 and the 
input from Dot 2 are ANDed to- 
gether In 1017b and inverted by 
IC16a to provide an input clock 
to the column address registers, 
102 and IO10. Therefore the col- 
umn address registers can only 
be updated during a horizontal 
scan and not during retrace. 

The high-density graphics 
memory is made up of six 4K x 
1 bit Static RAM chips organized 
as thirty-two six-bit bytes per 
line, 96 lines deep, with each bit 
representing a displayable box 
twodotssquare. Since Dot 2 will 
provide a clock pulse once every 
six dots and we want to display 
12 dots per byte. Dot 2 must be 
divided by two before it can be 
used. That is the function of 




Photo 3. ALIEN Generated by HR-1 




Photo 2. HR-1 Circuit Board Installed in TRS-80 



chips are then effectively dis- 
abled. IC16b inverts the BANK 
SELECT signal and feeds it to 
IC16c, whose output will then go 
low. Thus, 104, IC5, and IC6, rep- 
resenting the leftmost three bits 
of a byte, will receive a low on 
their CE line and will be selected. 
• Upon receipt of another Dot 2 
pulse, BANK SELECT will tog- 
gle, going high. When this hap- 
pens IC16d will see a high level 
on one of its inputs and give a 
corresponding low output to the 
chip enable (CE) input of IC7, 
108, and 109. These RAM chips 
will thus be selected and will 
output the rightmost three bits 
of a byte. IC16b inverts the 
BANK SELECT signal and feeds 
it to IC16C. Since IC16c now 



divlde-by-two counter followed 
by a dlvlde-by-96 counter. The 
output from the divide-by-two 
counter is ignored (1013 pin 3) 
with the remaining seven count- 
er outputs serving as the high- 
order seven RAM address lines 
for video refresh. 

The counter is configured as 
a divide-by-128 counter which is 
reset on the 96th count. IC13 
gets its input from the TRS-80 
signal HDRV. HDRV occurs 
once for every scan line at the 
start of horizontal retrace, thus 
providing sufficient time for the 
RAM to stabilize on the new ad- 
dress. 

The TRS-80 signal VDRV is 
used to synchronize the horizon- 
tal scan line counter with the 



80 Microcomputing, April 1981 •137 



LATCH 
ll,774MHr) 



DATA TRANSFERRED FROM 
THE CHARACTER OR BLOCK 
GRAPHICS GENERATOR TO 
THE SHIFT REGISTERS ZIO 
a ZIL 

NEW DATA FROM VIDEO RAMS 
LATCHED IN Z?8 AND THE RAM 
VIDEO REFRESH ADDRESS 
INCREMENTED, 



Fig. 5. 



TRS-80 by resetting IC13 at the 
beginning of a vertical retrace. 
IC2, IC10, and IC13, therefore, 
provide all RAM addressing nec- 
essary to accomplish screen re- 
fresh. 

In order to be useful, the RAM 
must be accessible not only by 
the screen address counters, 
but by the CPU address bus as 
well if data is to be read and writ- 
ten there. This Is accomplished 
through the use of three four-bit 
multiplexers {ICs 3, 19, and 14} 
whose select line is driven by a 
four-bit comparator (IC12). IC12 
compares the CPU address 
lines A12 through A15 against 



the setting of a four-position DIP 
switch. The DIP switch Is set to 
represent the desired memory 
location for the high density 
graphics RAM. When IC12 finds 
a match between the DIP switch 
setting and the CPU's address 
line, it pulls MEMORY SELECT 
high. MEMORY SELECT high 
causes several things to hap- 
pen: 

• The output of the four-bit mul- 
tiplexers (ICs 3, 19 and 14) will 
now reflect the address present 
on the CPU's address bus rather 
than the default condition of the 
screen refresh address. 

• Both CE NOR gates (IC16c 



and IC16d)will give a low output, 
thus reflecting all six data bits 
as a complete byte. 

• Pins 1 and 12 of IC15 (IC15a 
and IC15d)wiil be HIGH. If this is 
a READ command WR will be 
high, resulting in a LOW output 
from IC15a since both its inputs 
are now HIGH. At the same time, 
lC15d will output a HIGH since 
WR is inverted by IC15b result- 
ing in a low condition to pin 13 of 
IC15. WE on all RAM chips 
will thus be HIGH, indicating a 
READ. All six RAMs will output 
their data (referencdd by the 
CPU address bus) to a hex buf- 
fer (IC11) which is now enabled 
since its enable lines are drawn 
LOW by IC15a. These data bits 
will then appear on the CPU's 
data bus as DO through D5. 

• If the command is a WRITE, 
the effect is reversed. WR is now 
low with the result that IC15a 
will output a HIGH since both its 
inputs are not HIGH and IC15d 
will output a LOW since both its 
inputs are HIGH (WR was invert- 
ed prior to input to IC15d). The 
LOW output of IC15d will pull 



the WE line of all RAMs low, re- 
sulting in the data present on 
the CPU's data bus to be written 
in the location specified by the 
CPU's address bus. IC1 1 will not 
be enabled since it sees a HIGH 
on its enable line from IC15a, 
thereby preventing a conflict on 
the data bus. 

• IC15c will clear the shift 
register (IC18), resulting in the 
output of black dots for the 
duration of the access. Since 
the RAM is presently being ad- 
dressed by the CPU rather than 
the screen refresh circuit, the 
data output by the RAMs will not 
be correct and therefore should 
not be shown on the screen. 

During normal screen refresh 
the RAM's WE is held HIGH (in- 
dicating a READ) since MEM- 
ORY SELECT is low, BANK SE- 
LECT will determine which half 
of a RAM data location is output 
to the shift register (1C18). AND 
gates IC17a, c, and d effectively 
route the selected RAM data to 
the shift register. The left bit of 
each half goes to IC17d, the next 
bit of each half to IC17c, and the 



230/PIN 10 




Fig. 6. Schematic of High Resoiution Graphics Interface. 



138 • 80 Microcomputing, April 1981 



A-*AAV*- •tr-ir-ififtr-tfit'tfir-ttiffftr-tftftriTtr-tr *«** *** -tt-tfiftctr'tftfb-tftftftftftftftfttit -tt ir-tr 

4MHZ, DOUBLE DENSITY,COLOR&B/W 
GRAPHICS . .THE LNW80 COMPUTER 




Wlien you've compared tlie features of an LNWSO Computer, you'll quickly 
understand why the LNW80 is tiie ultimate TRS80 software compatible system. 
LNW RESEARCH offers the most complete microcomputer system at an outstand- 
ing low price. 

We back up our product with an iinconvertional 6 month warranty and a 10 
days full refund policy, less shipping charges. 

LNW80 Computer $1,200.00 

Lfiwao Computer w/BSW Monitor 5 one 5" Drive $1,664.00 

All orders must be prepaid, CA residents please include 6* sales tax. 
Shipping and handling charge of S15.00 must be included with every order. 
* TRS80 Product of Tandy Corporation. 
** PMC Product of Personal Microcomputer, Inc. 



COMPARE the: features and performance 



FEATURES 




LNW80 


PMC -80** 


TRS-80* 
MOOEL III 


PROCESSOR 




4.0 MHZ 


1 ,8 MHZ 


2.0 MHZ 


LEVEL II BASIC INTERP. 




YES 


YES 


LEVEL 11! 
BASIC 


TRS80 MODEL 1 LEVEL II COMPATIBLE 


VES 


YES 


NO 


4aK BYTES RAM 




YES 


VES 


YES 


CASSETTE BAUD RATE 




500/1000 


500 


500/1500 


FLOPPY Disk CONTROLLER 




SINGLE/ 
DOUBLE 


SINGLE 


SINGLE/ 
DOUBLE 


SERIAL RS232 PORT 




YES 


YES 


VES 


PRINTER PORT 




YES 


YES 


VES 


REAL TIME CLOCK 




YES 


YES 


YES 


?a X 80 CHARACTERS 




YES 


NO 


NO 


VIDEO MONITOR 




YES 


YES 


YES 


UPPER AND LOWER CASE 




YES 


OPTIONAL 


YES 


REVERSE VIDEO 




YES 


NO 


NO 


KEYBOARD 




63 KEY 


5S KEY 


53 KEY 


NUMERIC KEY PAD 




YES 


NO 


YES 


B/W GRAPHICS, 128 X 48 




YES 


YES 


YES 


HI-RESOLUTION B/W GRAPHICS, 


480 X 19? 


YES 


NO 


NO 


HI-RESOLUTION COLOR GRAPHICS 
128 X 192 IN 8 COLORS 


(NTSC), 


YES 


NO 


NO 



HI-RESOLUTION COLOR GRAPHICS (RGB), 
384 X 192 IN 8 COLORS 



OPTIONAL 
5 MONTHS 



NO 
90 DAYS 



TOTAL SYSTEM PRICE 



$1,664,Q0 



SUE 



LESS MONITOR AND DISK DRIVE 



II ,200.00 



$1,375. 



NO 
90 DAYS 



$2,187.00 



LNW80 

- BARE PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD & MANUAL 589,95 

The LNW80 - A high-speed color computer totally compatible with 
the TRS-80*. The LNW80 gives you the edge in satisfying your 
computation needs in business, scientific and personal computa- 
tion. With performance of 4 MHz, Z80A CPU, you'll achieve per- 
formance of over twice the processing speed of a TRS-80*. This 
means you'll get the performance that is comparable to the most 
expensive microcomputer with the compatibility to the world's 
most popular computer [TRS-80*) resulting in ttre widest soft- 
ware base. 

FEATURES: 

. TRS-80 Model 1 Level 11 Software Compatible 
High Resolution Graphics 

. RGB Output - 384 x 192 in 8 Colors 
. NTSC Video or RF MOD - 128 x 192 in 3 Colors 
. Black and White - 480 x 192 
. 4 MHz CPU 

. 500/1000 Baud Cassette 
. Upper and Lower Case 
. 16K Bytes RAM, 12K Bytes ROM 
Solder Masked and Si 1 kscreened 

LNW SYSTEM EXPANSION 

- BARE PRINTED CIRCUIT BOARD 

AND MANUAL $69.95 

WITH GOLD CONNECTORS $84.95 

The System Expansion will allow you to expand your LNW80, TRS-80* 
or PMC-80** to a complete computer system that is still totally 
software compatible with the TRS-8D* Model 1 Level H. 



32K Bytes Memory 

5" Floppy Controller 

Serial RS232 20ma I/O 

Parallel Printer 

Real Time Clock 

Screen Printer Bus 

On Board Power Supply 

Solder Masked and Silkscreened 



KEYBOARD 



LNWaO KEYBOARD KIT 



1.95 



The Keyboard Kit contains a 63 key plus a 10 key, P.C. board, and 

remaining components. 



LNW RESEARCH 

C OR PORA T ION 
14661 -CMYFORDRD. 
TUSTIN CA. 92680 



v-53 



LNDoubler 

- Aisembled and Tested 



Double-density disk storage for the LNW Research's "System Expan- 
sion" or the Tandy's "Expansion Interface". The LNDoublerTM is 
totally software compatible with any double density software 
generated for the Percom's Ooubler***. The LNDoublerTM provides 
the following outstanding features. 

, Store up to 350K bytes on a single 5" disk 

. Single and double density data separation 

. Precision write precompensation circuit 

. Software switch between single and double density 

. Hardware override into single density only 

. Easy plug in installation requiring no etch cuts, jumpers 

or soldering 
. 35, 40, 77, SO track 6" disk operation 
120 day parts and labor Warranty 
*** Ooubler is a product of Percom Data Company, Inc. 

DOS PLUS 3. 2D $95.00 



Micro Systems software's double density disk operating system. 
This operating system contains all the outstanding features of 
a well developed DOS, with ease in useability. 

LNW DATA SEPERATOR 

- Assembled and Tested $17.95 

The LNW Data Separator provides you with a reliable and inexpen- 
sive means of solving your disk data read error problems for your 
5" single density drives. Compatible with both the LNW System 
Expansion and Tandy's Expansion Interface. Some soldering is 
required. 

CASE 

LNW80 CASE . Add $12.00 for postage 



$34.95 



The streamline design of this metal case will house the LNWao, 

LWN System Expansion, LNW80 Keyboard, power supply and fan, 
LNDoublerTM, or LNW Data Separator. This kit includes all the 
hardware to mount all of the above. 

PARTS AVAILABLE FROM LHW RESERARCH 
4116 - 200ns RAM 

6 chip set $26-00 

8 chip set S33.50 

16 chip set $64.00 

24 chip set $94.00 

32 chip set $124.00 

LHW30 "Start up parts set" LNW80-1 $82.00 

LNW80 "Video parts set" LiiW80-2 $31.00 

. LNW8D Transformer Lm80-3 $13.00 

. LNW80 Keyboard cable LNW80-4 $16.00 

. 40 Pin computer to expansion cable S15.00 

System Expansion Transformer S19.00 

. Floppy Controller (FD1771) and UART (TR1602] . . . S30.00 

VISAS MASTER CHARGE ORDERS&INFO. NO. 714- 552 -8946 
ACCEPTED, Add S3 for postage SERVICE Na 714-641-8850 



right bit of each half goes to 
IC17a. 

Since one-half of the RAMs 
will be tri-stated (due to a HIGH 
on their respective CE line) the 
pull-up resistors will pull those 
data lines high. As can be seen 
by the schematic, this means 
that one input to each AND gate 
will always be high. The output 
of these AND gates will then re- 
flect the state of the other input 
line, which is driven by the se- 
lected RAM chips. The output of 
IC17d contains the most signifi- 
cant bit to be output. This bit is 
the first to be displayed and is, 
therefore, wired to the first two- 
bit locations of the output shift 
register. 

IC17c contains the next most 
significant bit so it is wired to 
the next two locations to be 
shifted out. IC17a contains the 
least significant bit so It is wired 
to the fifth and sixth bits to be 
shifted. The remaining two bits 
of the shift register are not used 
so they can be ignored. 



By wiring each data bit to two 
shift register bits, each data bit 
will be present on the shift regis- 
ter output tine for two shift 
pulses. Therefore, each data bit 
will be displayed on the screen 
two dots wide. 

Control for the shift register 



erTRS-80 generated signal used 
to inform the shift register when 
to load new data from IC1 and 
when to allow shifting of dots to 
VIDEO OUT; 

• SHIFT and SHIFT/LOAD were 
referenced earlier under the de- 
scription of the TRS-80 Video 



^7his article should provide the reader 

with an understanding of raster 

scan video display concepts as they 

apply to the TRS-80. , ." 



comes from three locations: 

• MEMORY SELECT (IC15c), 
which has already been de- 
scribed; 

• SHIFT, which is a TRS-80 gen- 
erated signal used to inform the 
shift register when to output the 
next video dot; 

• SHIFT/LOAD, which is anoth- 



Text Generation. 

The output from the shift reg- 
ister is called VIDEO OUT and 
goes to a switch (SW5) which 
has been inserted in the TRS-80 
line called GRAPHIC between 
TRS-80 Z11 pin 13 and TRS-80 
Z30 pin 2. The position of this 
switch determines whether the 



normal TRS-80 block graphics 
mode is selected or the high 
density video graphics mode is 
enabled. 

Summary 

This article should provide 
the reader with an understand- 
ing of raster scan video display 
concepts as they apply to the 
TRS-80, and offers an alterna- 
tive high density graphics inter- 
face that can be built at a rea- 
sonable cost. The quality of the 
graphics available with the In- 
terface allows the user to 
achieve a level of display so- 
phistication not presently at- 
tainable with a TRS-80. 

The second section of this ar- 
ticle addresses construction 
and installation of the interface 
and driving software to make 
this a viable package. A com- 
plete printed circuit board of the 
interface designed to be in- 
stalled inside the TRS-80 con- 
sole is available for $26 from the 
authors. ■ 




Z30/PIN 2 



Fig. 6. 



140 • 80 Microcomputing, April 1981 



HARDWARE BREAKTHROUGH 

DESIGN SOLUTION inc. presents the AN-SERIES DEVELOPMENT SYSTEM 



DIGITAL SPEECH PROCESSOR 2716-2732 EPROM PROGRAMMER 




Experimetit with digital speech synthesis and recognition, using a BASIC editor program pro- 
vided with Ihis system. Speech is entered, digitized and stored in memory or in disk files. 
Vocabulary files are construced using digital core images ol your voice. Labeled and indexed 
sounds, words and phrases are then available for use in your BASIC programs. Different 
vocabulary files can be loaded for different BASIC Programs, etc. while the digital speech 
processor will operate on any model I, Level II TRS-80* system. We recommend a level II 
with disk drive to reduce voice image loading times. Experiment with data compression from 
BASIC, by increasing and decreasing sample rates. Develop your own voice recognition pro- 
grams. Simulate low pass, band pass, and high pass filters, etc. This is truly a software man's 
dream-come-true. Enter a string of numeric data and let your TRS-80 repeat it. Let your 
TRS-80 dictate data files for error checking. The sky and your imagination are the absolute 
limit; 



DIGITAL PORT INTERFACE 



At last! An affordable EPROM programmer tor your TRS-BO". Program either 2716 or 2732 
EPROMS from a BASIC program in less than 300 seconds. With DESIGN SOLUTION'S 
SOFTWARE you a:e able to program IBURN INI EPROM from TRS-80 memory, VERIFY 
data transfer, copy ROM to EPROM, or load TRS-80 memory from ROM or EPROM. THE 
AN-551 is a must for all small system development packages. Unit comes complete with ex- 
ternal power supply and operation manual. The 40-pin edge card connector is GOLD plated 
for extra long life. ZERO INSERTION FORCE SOCKETS simply plug into the front panel 
socket of the AN-551 if quick changes are required, (ZIP socket not included.) 



ANALOG PORT INTERFACE 




Now you can BREADBOARD your digital projects with ease. The AN-511 DIGITAL PORT 
provides all the hardware necessary to interface your digital projects with the TRS-80*. From 
MACHINE LANGUAGE or BASIC programs you can now access and control; 

8 BITS OF OUTPUT DATA FROM TRS-80 

8 BITS OF INPUT DATA TO THE TRS-80 

8 DECODED PORT ADDRESS (DEVICE CONTROL] LINES 

8 BIT DATA BUS FROM Z-BO IN TRS-80 
Using the IN and OUT commands in BASIC or their machine language counter- parts, 3 bit 
data values can be moved from external hardware projects into the TRS-80 and vice-versa 
With the 8 decoded port outputs up to 8 additional bytes of input or output data can be ac- 
cessed. The AN-511 is supplied with external power supply and complete operation and pro- 
jects manual. 



The SUPER BOX! The ANALOG PORT, MODEL AN-538, is a very versatile ANALOG TO 
DIGITAL AND DIGITAL TO ANALOG CONVERTER, All conversion operations are under 
TRS-eO" program control. Expehment with MUSIC and VOICE SYNTHESIS. From 
machine language or BASIC programs you can manipulate analog signals, digitiie voltages 
and measure them with the TRS-80. Generate various waveforms, noise, speech patterns, 
etc., and output them as analog signals. The AN-538 also provides a mini-digital port. The 8 
bit output data to the D/A converter is accessable through the front panel connector, along 
with 8 extra decoded port (device control) lines. All conections are made using standard #22 
solid wire. Lines push through the front panel, received underneath by special connectors, 
ensuhng positive connection. The AN-538 comes complete with external power supply and 
operation-project manual. 



All connections made to AN-SERIES products from your breadboard ate simply pushed 
through the front panel. Custom connectors on the P.C.B. provide super reliable connec- 
tion for thousands of operations. All AN-SERIES products ate warrenled for a full 
90-DAYE under DSI's limited warrenty policy- Complete documentation is provided tor 
each model in an attractive folder, including theory of operation, and Special interest pro- 
jects and applications. All units are supplied with external power supply modules that con- 



nect through a mini-jack on the front panel. A 40-conductor cable is required tor connec- 
tion with your TRS-80 and is NOT SUPPLIED by DESIGN SOLUTION, but is available 
from your local RADIO SHACK STORE. (Components are 1(278-771} 40 conductor hb- 
bon cable and 2(276-1558) edge card connectors.) 

•TRS-80 is a registered trademark of RADIO SHACK, a TANDY COMPANY. 



DESIGN SOLUTION INC 

BOX 1225, FAYETTEVILLE, AR 72701 



^123 



C.O.D. add $3.00 - Other add $1.50 S/H. 
Orders and Information: (501) 521-0281 



^See List ot AOvertisers on page 306 



80 Microcomputing, April 1981 • 141 



AMERICAN 

118 SO. MILL STREET • PRYOR, OK 74361 

PHONE (918) 825-4844 

ALL LISTED PRICES ARE CASH DISCOUNTED. WE ACCEPT MC, VISA, AND COD {REQUIRES CERTIFIED CHECK, CASHIERS CHECK OR CASH), FOR CtHARGE CARD ORDERS PLEASE ADD W Fno 
COD SERVICE PLEASE ADD 5%, SHIPPING AND HANDLING ARE FREE ON ALL ORDERS. OKLAHOMA RESIDENTS PLEASE ADD 4% SALES TAX 



32K-EXPANSION INTERFACES 



SPECIAL OFFERING. 
Due to a very special purchase, 
American Business Computers 
is able to offer a limited number 
of Radio Shack* Expansion 
Interfaces at the lowest price 
ever. 



For TRS-80* 



Model 1 



399 



95 



American Business Computers 
guarantees Expansion Interfaces 
to be Brand New — still in origi- 
nal documentation and in per- 
fect working condition. 



ALL CABLES AND DOCUMENTATION ARE INCLUDED WITH INTERFACES. 



.--192 



HARD DISK DRIVES 

For TRS-80* Model II Users 

Up and running — 
and available for immediate delivery 



AMERICAN BUSINESS COMPUTERS IS NOW 
ABLE TO OFFER HARD DISK (WINCHESTER) 
DISK DRIVES FOR SALE. THESE DRIVES ARE 
AVAILABLE FOR TR8-M MOD M. TRS-SO MOD 
I, S-100, AND APPLE COMPUTERS. 



SEVERAL DIFFERENT DRIVES AND CON' 
TROLLERS ARE AVAILABLE FOR THE THS 
BO MOD II. ALL DRIVES ARE SUPPLIED WITH 
HARD DISK CPM OPERATINO SYSTEMS. CA 
PACITIES RANQE FROM 500 MEQABYTE&. 
CALL OR WRITE FOR PRICES. 



^317 



TEAC DISK DRIVES 

We are pleased to an- 



nounce thai we are now 
able to offer TRS-80 
compatible mini disk 
drives. These drives are 
fully compatible with 
TRSDOS. NEWDOS, 
and NEWDOS 80 PLUS. 
The TEAC DRIVE is one 
of the first Japanese disk 
drives to appear on the 
American market. In 
many ways it is quite su- 
perior to its American 
made counterparts. 



$295 



Single Drive In Single 
Enclosure 

$570 

Duel Drive In One Enclosure 
(Cabinet) 

Two Drive Cable - $29.95 
Four Drive Cable - $39.95 



A high-precision lead 
screw method is used for 
positioning the head to 
the correct track. Four 
motor steps are used for 
move the width of one 
track. This improved 
positioning accuracy 
greatly reduces the pos- 
sibility of data error. 

I.- 322 



MAGIC WAND 
AND THE MOD II 



The Magic Wand is the most powerful, most 
flexible, most reliable, most usable word pro- 
cessina software available for a CP/M-Based 
Model II Computer 1 



$295 



■ TM Digiial Reii-arcl! Int 

That's not bragging. That's just telling it like 
it is. 

The MAGIC WAND is the best word proces- 
sing software ever written for a microcom- 
puter. It can do more work in less time with 
higher quality than any other product you can 
buy. 

The MAGIC WAND is a rock solid piece of 
software. The command structure is simple 
and logical and complete. We have not tossed 
in features without thought to the overall de- 
sign of the package. Nor have we included any 
feature that is not thoroughly implemented. 
The programs are crash-proof and completely 
reliable. 

And the system is supported by what we are 
told is the best user's manual ever produced 
for microcomputer software. It contains a 
step-by-step instructional program designed 
for the novice. The trainee uses sample files 
from the system disk and compares his work 
to simulated screens and printouts in the 
manual. 



^396 



BUSINESS 
COMPUTERS 



master charge 




THE MX-80 NOT ONLY 

DOES EVERYTHING, IT 

DOES EVERYTHING 

WELL. 



This is the new Epson MX-80 dot matrix printer, (t does just about everything you couid 
ask a printer to do. Quickly. Quietly. ReUably. In fact, for OEM installations, the MX- 
80 may be the single best, all-round printer you can buy. But that's not the best reason 
to buy it. 

The MX-80 prints bidireciionaily at 80 CPS in a user-defined choice of 40, 80, 66 or 1 32 
columns. And if that's not fast enough, its logical seeking function minimizes print head 
travel time. The MX-80 prints 96 ASCII, 64 graphic and eight international characters 
with a tack-sharp 9x9 matrix. For a long time. Epson printers are known for reliability 
and the MX-80 is no exception. But that's not the best reason io buy it either. 
The print head has a life expectancy of up to 100 x 10 characters, and when it wears out, 
just throw it away. A new one costs less than $30 and the only tool you need to change 
it is attached to the end of your arm. The MX-80 is compact weighs only 12 lbs., and the 
whole unit, including the two stepper motors controlling carriage and paper feeding 
functions, is precisely controlled by an interna! microprocessor. But even thai isn'i why 
you should specify the MX-80. 

The best reason is this: because Epson ...Call FOF UnbcHCVablV 

makes more printers than anyone else in " ' 

the world, we can afford to sell each one 'LOW PtICC 

for a little less. --397 



AW... WHAT THE HECK 

RAM Memory Chips for the TRS-80 



It is the policy of American 
Business Computers to offer 
merchandise at the lowest 
price possible. Servsral 
months back we began sell- 
ing RAM Memory Chips for 
the TRS-80 for $45.00 
per set. Someone else sold 
chips for $44.00. We sold 
them for $38.00. They sold 
them for $37.95. So we say 

"AW WHAT THE 

HECK!" Let's see the other 
guys beat this price. 



$24 



PER 16KSET 



These chips are brand 
new"4]l6's". These 200 
nanosecond chips are 
fully compatible with all 
TRS-80 produces. In- 
structions for insertion 
are included, however 
the dip shunts required 
for converting a 4K 
Model I to a 16K Model 
I are not included at this 
low price. 



PAPER FOR YOUR PRINTER 



9'/2 X 11 , 9/2x11 

3200 Sheets - 1 5 Pounds P^^'CES INCLU DES ^^^^ g^^^^^ _ j g p^^^^^^ 



$32.00 

14x11 
3200 Sheets- 15 Pound 

$46.00 



SHIPPING WITHIN 

CONTINENTAL 

UNITED STATES 

VIA UPS 



$37.00 

14x 11 

3000 Sheets- 18 Pound 

$53.00 



*TM TANDY CORP. 



OKIDATE MICROLINE 80 
PRINTER - $479 

The Microline is built on a rugged cast alumi- 
num base to withstand the rigors of continuous 
business use. It is driven by two motors and 
will run all day with no duty cycle limitations. 
Microline printers use a dense 9x7 dot pattern 
to produce crisp, clean copies, first copy to last. 
The seven pins in the head are "fired" using 
energy stored in tension members. This tech- 
nology permits the use of short, low mass pins 
made with an extremely hard alloy. The head 
produces less heat, thereby extending its life. ^ u 



900 C.P.S. 
PRINTER 

That's right nine hundred characters 
per second. That's the print speed 
that can be obtained using the new 
Florida Printer Model 600 C. The 
600 C uses a unique "Slored-Energy" 
print head to obtain a prim speed of 
600 CPS in normal print font and 900 
CPS in a condensed print font. This 
printer is not inexpensive but it is 
definitely the fastest dot matrix 
printer in the world. Call for prices... 



INEXPENSIVE 

DAISY WHEEL 
PRINTER 



$1450 



^^484 




Incorporating the latest large scale integration 
technology, the Starwriter is built by one of 
the world's most respected computer peri- 
pheral manufactures. The printer is furnished 
complete and Read-To-Use, reguiring no 
hardware or software changes. 
Using an industry standard 96-characier prim 
wheel, the Starwriter produces letter-quality 
printing on 3 sharp copies v/ith up to 136 
colmns. The Starwriter is backed up by a one- 
year warranty (3 months on parts and labor, 
9 succeeding months on parts) and is further 
supported by a strong, fully trained and tech- 
nically proficient service organization. 



EDUCATION 



More hints and kinks for educational software authors. 



Programming for 
Education— Part 3 



Jerome I. Weintraub 
690 Mtn. View Rd 
El Cajon. CA 92021 



All educational programs are either 
teaching or testing programs. While it 
may be obvious that a teaching program 
teaches and a testing program tests,there 
seems to be a belief that testing programs 
also teach. Unless the program is actually a 
combined program, it is not possible to 
teach by testing. 

There is also a theory that if you admin- 
ister the same test twice to the same stu- 
dents they will do better the second time, 
because they remember the answers. I find 
it difficult to accept this theory. Unless a 
student looks up the answers to the ques- 
tions in the interim, he has no better chance 
to get the answer correct the second time 
than he did the first, even if he can remem- 
ber how he answered it. I recommend that 
you do not deliberately use a testing pro- 
gram as a teaching tool. 

A program that tests can be identified by 
one or more of the following characteris- 
tics: 

• When a student has responded to a 
question, the computer tells him whether 
his answer was right or wrong and goes 
on to the next question. 

• If the response is correct, the program 
goes to the next item; if incorrect, the 
same item is repeated until the student 
responds correctly, or it is repeated a 
given number of times after which the 
correct answer is given. The program 

144 • 80 Microcomputing, April 1981 



then moves to the next item. 

• In multiple choice items, the wrong 
answer is dropped and the item repeated 
until it is answered correctly. 

• A testing program gives the student no 
help or clue as to how to find the correct 
answer. Listing 1 is an example of a test- 
ing program. 

A teaching or instructional program can 
be tutorial or remedial. A tutorial program 
presents information to the student and 
asks a question to find out if the student 
has mastered the information. If he has, the 
program goes on to new information; if not, 
the program provides more detailed infor- 
mation or a simpler version of it, based 
completely on the nature of the student's 
response. 

A remedial program is similiar to a tutori- 
al one, except that it usualiy doesn't pre- 
sent information in advance. When a stu- 
dent responds incorrectly, it provides the 
student with help of some sort to figure out 
what the answer should be. 

It might break the question into simpler 
components: If the student cannot add a 
column of figures, it might present the indi- 
vidual addition problems that make it up. 
See Fig. 1, which illustrates a complete 
remedial program for the addition problem 
79 + 62 + 34. The equation is continually 
simplified to the point where the student is 
asked to count stars to compute the sum of 
a basic two addend element of the original 
problem. 

Basic elements are defined as irreducible 
learning tasks. Most fields of learning are 
based on certain elements that must be ac- 
cepted without proof, or must be memor- 
ized. Such elements are not the logical 
result of other elements. The alphabet, for 
example, cannot be logically constructed, 
since it is an arbitary collection of symbols. 



The only way to learn the alphabet is to 
memorize it. The sounds of some of the let- 
ters are based on their names and can be 
derived from them, but most letter sounds 
must be memorized as well. 

Number facts Iike2 + 3can be derived by 
counting; 1, 2,— 3, 4, 5. But the names of the 
numbers and their sequence must be mem- 
orized. There is a pattern in number se- 
quence, but It is not derived from something 
else. A child can learn the pattern only after 
he has a concept of the sequence. 

A remedial program can also branch to 
the simpler, more basic concepts that 
underlie or support the concept in question. 
Fig. 2 shows how a program could move 
from a question about guide words in a dic- 
tionary through explanatory and simplified 
frames, ending with the alphabetical order 
of the letters of the alphabet. 

A remedial program could give hints (Did 
you remember the period after the abbrevia- 
tion?) or supply missing elements in incre- 
ments leading up to the complete answer. If 
the student misspelled 'ceiling' you could 
ask, 'Did you remember to put the E before 
the I?' 

A frequently used technique in remedial 
programs is to drill the student on an item 
he missed. Responding to 6 + 5 several 
times in succession will more effectively 
help him to remember than including the 
problem in a program containing several 
different problems. The spelling program in 
Program Listing 2 provides drill in each 
word missed. The math program in Fig. 1 
can be written to note which errors the child 
is making. After having exposed the student 
to several problems that follow the same 
pattern, the computer can determine where 
the child needs help. You can then give the 
student a different problem with the same 
characteristics. 



"All educational programs are. . . teaching or testing. . 
There seems to be a belief that testing programs also teach. 



Another type of drill program presents 
the same information in several forms, pro- 
viding separate but equal repetitions. Each 
of the following statements would appear 
on the screen individually: 

Olympia is the capital of Wastiinglon. 

is the capita] of Washington, 

Olympia is the capitai of 

The capital of Washington is 

What city is the capifai of Washington? 

If your computer has large memory, the 
program can automatically place the stu- 
dent into a remedial program and then 
return him to the main program when he ex- 
hibits mastery. This l<ind of program must 



also provide the teacher with an alert 
should a child make no progress after three 
or four tries. There are limits to the extent to 
which you can provide for the range of 
human variables that might require the at- 
tention of the teacher rather than the com- 
puter. 

Testing programs are easier to write than 
teaching programs. A well-written teaching 
program can help a student move rapidly 
through a field that he understands easily. 
Correctly answered i<ey questions may 
serve as evidence that this particular stu- 
dent does not need extensive details in 
order to master the objective of the immedi- 



ate lesson. The student may then be able to 
skip the details until he reaches a level 
where he needs them. 

Writing an effective teaching program re- 
quires knowledge of how students learn, 
knowledge of the subject in question and 
the elements that support the subject, and 
the sequence in which they should be pre- 
sented in order to proceed from the simple 
to complex. The program must be designed 
to analyze errors and branch to a subrou- 
tine that presents the steps, the concepts, 
or the elements that the student must know 
in order to respond correctly to the original 
question, Once the student masters the ma- 





THINK 5 ONES, 
AND I IN lO'S 
COLUMN 



C = CORRECT 
W = WRONG 




Fig. 1 



80 Microcomputing, April 1981 • 145 



terial in the subroutine, he returns to the 
original question and tries again. If success- 
ful, fie is ready to go on to the next item. 

Odds and Ends 

The following are several short but impor- 
tant tips I would like to share with you in 
this section. 

• Double-sized print. 

One of the features of the TRS-80 best 
suited for educational programs is the 
availability of double-sized print. The com- 
mand is PRINT CHR$(23). This size is 
especially appropriate for younger children 
who usually find it difficult to read smaller 
print. PRI NT statements must be composed 
carefully when using CHR$(23), because 
you are limited to 32 characters per line. 
You will also find that CLS cancels this 
command, so it must be reentered in the 
program Vi'henever you want to use it after a 
CLS. To avoid having to do this in a program 
where it appears several times, I suggest 
you place it in a subroutine, for example: 
CLS:PRINT CHR$(23):RETURN. 

• Punctuation, grammar, vocabulary. 



BUNDLE DARK 

ARE GUIDE WORDS 
ON PAGE 26 
OF YOUR 
DICTIONARY 




GUIDE WORDS 
TELL YOU THAT 
ALL WORDS 
BETWEEN THEM 
N ALPHABETICAL 
ORDER ARE ON 
THE SAME PAGE 



F/ff.2 



Educational programs on a computer 
present a model for young children to copy. 
The repetitive nature of most computer pro- 
grams will serve as a subconscious drill 
master, training the child to remember the 
form as well as the content of the lessons. 
For this reason it is of utmost importance 
that your programs display proper punctua- 
tion and grammar. 

Some unacceptable forms can be acci- 
dentty displayed to children because of the 
nature of program writing, ratherthan being 




BUNDLE STARTS 
WITH B 



DARK STARTS 
WITH D 



CANDLE STARTS 
WITH C 




TYPE THE 
LETTERS OF THE 
ALPHABET IN 
ORDER 



5 'LISTING NO. 4 
10 CLEAR500 
15 CLS 

20 PRINT"LISTING 4" 
25 PRINT STRINGS(63,51) 

30 PRINT"THE INKEYS FUNCTION — EXAMPLE 3" 
35 PRIKT:PHINT" VARIABLE LENGTH WORDS" 
40 PRINT STRINGS(63,61] 

45 PRINT "PRESS <ENTER> TO BEGIN. ": INPUT AS 
50 I=0:J=0 
55 FOR 1=1 TO 5 
50 READ QS (I) ,AS(I) 

6 5 NEXT I 
70 B1S="" :X=0: J=J+1: C5=INKEY$ 

7 5 CLS 

76 E=LEN(AS(J) ) 
80 PRINT@7*64, "C^J;") ";QS(J) 

85 PRINT: PRINT"TYPE THE WORD THAT SHOULD COME FIRST" 

86 PRINT"IN APLPHABETICAL ORDER." 

87 F0RE1=1 TO E 
90 FOR X=l TO 150 

95 BS=INKEY$:IF BS=""THEN NEXT X 
100 IF X>450 THEN 190 
105 IF B$=CHRS(8) then 80 
110 IF BS=CHRS(13) then 80 
120 PRINT BS; 
155 B1S=B1S+BS 
160 NEXT El 
165 IFB1?<>A51J 
17 PRINT " 
175 GOSUB 215 

PRINT " 

PRINT"THE ANSWER 

GOSOB 215: GOTO 7 
190 PRINT" TIME'S UP!":GOSUB 215:G0T0 70 
195 PRINT@7*64,"THIS IS THE END OF THE LESSON." 
200 PRINT"G00D-BYE FOR NOW." 
205 PRINT "GO BACK TO YOUR CLASS .": PRINT: PRINT: PRINT : PRINT 

210 FOR X=l TO 2000: NEXT: RESTORE 'USE 9000 IN PRACTICE 

211 J=0:GOTO 50 

215 FOR X=l TO 1000:NEXT 

IF J>4 THEN 195 

RETURN 
230 DATA "COME RAIN WOOD" , "COME ", "MOTHER 
235 DATA "AROUND", "RUN GO SEE ", "GO" , "JUMP 
240 DATA "JULY", "BRING BABY BECAUSE" , "BABY 



180 
181 

185 



220 

225 



) THEN 180 
CORRECT! " 
GOTO 70 
WRONG ANSWER." 

IS.. . ";AS1J) ; "." 



BIG AROUND' 
JULY JUNE" 



Program Listing 1 



merely the result of poor programming by 
the programmer. Some examples: Any IN- 
PUT statement on the TRS-80 wil auto- 
matically be followed by a question mark, 
INPUT "WHAT IS YOUR NAME";N$ will ap- 
pear on the screen as, WHAT IS YOUR 
NAME? If you put a question mark in the in- 
put statement, INPUP'WHAT IS YOUR 
NAf^E?";N$, you will end up with two ques- 
tion marks on the screen. 

On the other hand, INPUT"PRESS 
ENTER" will print as PRESS ENTER? This 
error can be avoided by saying. PRINT 
"PRESS ENTER.":INPUT A$. The question 
mark will then be on a line of its own, avoid- 
ing the impression that a question mark 
should foHow a statement like 'Press enter.' 
Using INKEYS instead of INPUT avoids any 
question mark. 

Another very common error occurs when 
a string variable follows a PRINT statement, 
such as PRINP'VERY GOOD";N$. Most of 
you realize this will print as VERY 
GOODJOHN (no following punctuation as 
well as no comma or space between GOOD 
and JOHN). The statement must be written, 
PRINP'VERY GOOD, ";N$;".", using a com- 
ma and space after good and the period 
after the string variable N$. 

You must keep in mind that these and 
other minor errors which mean nothing to 
an educated adult would be significant to a 
young elementary school child. Instruc- 
tions must also be written in the vocabulary 
of the reader, if he is to be given the best 



146 



80 Microcomputing, April 1981 



WE WILL NOT BE UNDERSOLD 



DISK DRIVES 




FOR TRS-80- Model I 

CCl-IOOTEAC 5'A",40Track(102K) $314 

CCI-100MPI 5V4",40Track(102K) $319 

CCI-280 5y4",80Track(204K) $429 



ADD-ON DRIVES FOR ZENITH Z-89 
CCI-189 SVi", 40Track{102K) $394 

CCI-289 5V4", 80 Track (204K) $499 

Z-87 Dual 5V4" system $995 

External card edge and power supply included. 90 day warranty/one 

year on power supply 

RAW DRIVES 8"SHUGART801R $425 

5V4"MPI,TEACorTANDOM $CALL 

MORROW DESIGNS/THINKER TOYS™ 

DISCUS 2D 1 DRIVE $938 2 DRIVE $1635 

DISCUS2 + 2 1 DRIVE $1259 2DRIVE$2245 

DISCUS Hard Disk M26 $3990 M10 $2999 

DEI CARTRIDGE TAPE BACK-UP 

For your hard disk. With either S-100 control card 

or piggy back board for single board Z-80 computers. :$:3&«C $2995 

DISK OPERATING SYSTEMS 

PATCHPAK #4 by Percom Data $8.95 

CP/M'" for Model I, Zenith $145 for Model II, Altos $ 169 

NEWDOS Plus 40track $ 79 NEWDOS 80 $135 

DISKETTES — Box of 10 with plastic library case 

5%" Scotch $35 Maxell $40 BASF/Verbatim $24 

8" Scotch $50 Maxell $55 BASF/ Verbatim $36 

CLEAR PLASTIC CASE-Holds 50 5 V«" diskettes $19 



COMPLETE SYSTEMS 

ARCHIVES 

ALTOS ACS8000 Series 

APPLE li-16K $1075 

Call for other Apple products 

TRS-80* II-64K $3499 

ZENITH 48K, all-in-one computer 

ZENITH Z-19 

TELEVIDEO 920C S 748 

IBM 3101 Display Terminal 

ATARI 400 $ 479 

APF Game Only $ 95 

MATTEL INTELLiVISION 

Used TR5-80* Model t Computers, tested and guaranteed 



-96K 



III-16K 



950 

800 
System 



MONITORS 



APF 

BELL& 

HOWELL 

LEEDEX 

SANYO 

SANYO 

SANYO 

SANYO 

ZENITH 



9"BSWTVM-10 

9"B&WBHD911 
12"B&W $129 

9"B&WVM4509 
12" B&W DM5012 
12" Green Screen DM5112 
13" Color DMC6013 
13" Color 



;CALL 

iCALL 

$3749 

$ 899 
$2395 
$ 795 
$1049 
$1195 
$ 795 
$ 489 
$ 229 
JCALL 



$120 



$220 
13" Color $389 
$155 
$226 
$238 
$416 
$350 



PRINTERS 




NEC Spinwhter 

Letter Quality High Speed Printer 

R.O. 

R.O, with tractor feed 

KSR with tractor teed 



C.ITOH Starwriter $1795 Starwriter II 

EPSON MX-80 

PAPER TIGER 

IDS 445 Graphics & 2K buffer 

IDS 460 Graphics & 2k butter 

IDS 560 Graphics 

ANADEX DP-8000 $849 DP- 9500/01 

OKIDATA 

Microline 80 Friction & pin feed 

Microline 80 Friction, and pin & tractor feed 

Microline 82 Friction & pin feed feed 

Microline 83 120 cps, uses up to 15" paper 

CENTRONICS 730 $ 595 737 $ 780 779 

EATON LRC7000'^ 

TI-810 

TRS-80' software, compressed print & vert, form control 



$2395 
$2595 
$2895 

$1995 
J CALL 

$ 699 
$1050 
$1599 
$1345 

$ 499 

$ 599 

$ 719 

$ 995 

$ 969 

$ 269 

$1865 



16K RAM KITS 2 tor $56 $30 

200 ns for TRS-80*, Apple 11, (specify): Jumpers $2.50 

S-100 CALIFORNIA COMPUTER SYSTEMS 




TELECOMMUNICATIONS 

LIVERMORE STAR MODEM 2 year guarantee 
UNIVERSAL DATA SYSTEMS UDS-103 
D-CAT HARD WIRED DIRECT MODEM 
AUTO-CAT Auto Answer, Direct Connect Modem 

For fast delivery, send certified checks, money orders or call to arrange direct bank wire transfers. Personal or company checks require two 
to three weeks to clear. All prices are mail order only and are subject to change without notice. Call for shipping charges. 



DEALER (NATIONAL/INTERNATIONAL) INQUIRIES INVITED Send fot FREE Catalogue 



$129 

$179 
$189 
$249 



MAINFRAME Model 2200A $349 

Z80CPU Model 2810 $269 

MOTHER BOARD Model 2501 $ CALL 

16KSTATIC RAM,200ns Model 2016BC $309 

32K STATIC RAM, 200ns Model 20320 $619 

64K DYNAMIC RAM Model 2065A $599 

FLOPPY DISC CONTROLLER Model 2422A $359 

EXTENDER BOARD Model 2520 $ CALL 

2P + 2SI/0 Model 2718 $ CALL 

ACCESSORIES 

z-80 SOFTCARD $299.00 
SCOTCH HEAD CLEANING DISKETTE: Cleans drive 

Read/Write head in 30 seconds; specify 5 V4" or 8", $ 25.00 
FLOPPY SAVER: Protection for center holes of 5V4" 

floppy disks. Installation tools and rings for 25 diskettes. $ 11.95 

Re-orders of rings only $ 6.95 

VIDEX BOARD 80 Column, U/L case conversion card $279.00 

CRT FILM: Helps eliminate external glare, 9" $ 29.00 

RF MODULATOR: Adapts video to TV $ 29.00 

TRS-80 & OTHER MYSTERIES $ 18.95 

NECSPINWRITERTHiMBLE $11.95 RIBBON $ 6.00 

CCS CARDS: Parallel or serial printer interface cards $115.00 

RS232: For Radio Shack Interface. $ 89.00 

DISK-DRIVE EXTENDER CABLES: Fits all mini disk drives. $ 16.95 

SIX (6) PRONG ISOLATOR: ISO 2 $ 54.00 

AC FILTER/6 PRONG POViTER STRIP $ 39.00 

DISK DRIVE CABLES: 2 drive $29.00 4 drive $ 35.00 



The CPU SHOP . 



TO ORDER CALL TOLL FREE 1-800-343-6522 

TWX: 710-348-1796 Massachusetts Residents call 617/242-3361 



5 Dexter Row, Dept. M04M 
Charlestown. Massachusetts 02129 
Hours 10AM-6PM (EST) Mon.-Fri. (Sat. til 



5) 



Technical Information call 617/242-3361 
Massachusetts Residents add 5% Sales Tax 
Tandy Corporation Trademark/' Digital Research 



^^^ .^^^ 


1 ■■MM^^^^^^^ 


master charge 


1 WS4* 




*, ,!!^^H 



►-See List of Advertisers on page 306 



80 Microcomputing, April 1981 • 147 



''One secret of maintaining interest is to i<eep thie 
iesson siiorter tfian the chiidren would iike it to be." 



chance to understand them. Too many 
times directions seem to be written as a 
ciiallengetottie reader rat lier than a guide! 
If you are not aiready familiar with the vo- 
cabulary of the age level you are program- 
ming for, be guided by the reading and math 
workbook materials published by textbook 
publishers. 

• Introductory lessons. 

I have found it helpful to write a program 
designed to introduce young students to 
the TRS-80. The teacher or an aide should 
be present during this lesson. It covers the 
following points: 

How to use the ENTER key— that it tells 
the computer we have finished our turn; 
now it is the computer's turn to do some- 
thing. Practice using the left arrow to erase. 
. Provide time for the child to become fa- 
miliar with the keyboard; have him type his 
name, the letters of the alphabet, the num- 
erals, and compositions of his own choice. 
Summarize the major directions so children 



' 'Too many times 

directions seem to be 

written as a challenge 

to the reader rather 

than a guide. " 



will befamiliarwith them, such as: WHAT IS 
YOUR NAME? THIS IS THE END OF THE 
LESSONS. GO BACK TO CLASS, 

Be consistent in your directions. Use the 
same vocabulary in all of your programs. If 
your computer programs are to be effective, 
the computer itself must be eliminated as 
much as possible as a roadblock to learn- 
ing. 

,: When you use the INKEY$ function, tell 
children they will not have to use the ENTER 
key. If it is properly programmed it should 
not be a mechanical problem, but students 
may be confused by the way it works. 

If your computer has the calculator key- 
board, train the children to use it and the 
ENTER key on it. 

Experiment with the use of POKE 
16396,175 to disable the BREAK key. If you 
do use it, note that it will remain in com- 
mand until you press RESET or turn the 
computer off. 

Above all, be sensitive to the reactions of 
the children as they use the computer and 
your programs. The main reason I think my 
programs are successful is that I have re- 
vised them whenever I noted a child having 
difficulty due to computer use or program- 



ming technique rather than subject matter. 

• Length of lessons. 

My observation of elementary school 
youngsters reveals that long sessions at 
the computer are counter-productive. Even 
computer games that are intrinsically inter- 
esting cannot maintain the attention of the 
younger child for more than about twenty 
minutes. This phenomenon seems to hold 
true for everything they do, whether it's 
math or playing on the playground. 

Aside from its educational content, a les- 
son must have two related qualities: it must 
be able to hold the student's interest during 
the lesson and be able to attract him to re- 



turn to it with enthusiasm the next time. 
Without having to inject a lot of extrinsic en- 
hancements, like fancy graphics or game- 
like contests, an easy way to achieve these 
objectives Is to keep the lesson short 
enough so that the student's interest level 
is still high at the end of the lesson. 

Unfortunately, many teachers practice 
the opposite technique! When the children 
are Interested in their assigned tasks, the 
teacher is tempted to allow the lesson to 
continue in order to take advantage of the 
interest level. Eventually the interest level 
decreases, and the lesson comes to an end, 
but it is characteristic of human nature to 
remember the end rather than the begin- 
ning or the middle of an experience, There- 



35 INPUT"HOW FAST";H1 'REPLACE THIS LINE WITH Hl=7100 

40 DIMAS(2800) 

45 CLS:PRINT CHR$(23) 

50 PRINT@6*64, "PLEASE REWIND THE CASSETTE TAPE." 

55 PRINT" I'LL WAIT FOR YOU..." 

60 OUT 255,255 

65 POR Z=l TO H1:NEXT 

70 OUT 255,0 

7 5 CLS 

80 PRINT CHRS(23) 

85 PRINT@6*64,"TIME FOR SPELLING!" 

90 PRINT; PRINT"TYPE VOUR NAME, PLEASE..." 

95 INPUT E$ 

100 PRINT: INPUT"WHAT LESSON ARE YOO ON |1-11)"!A 

105 rF{A<l)OR(A>ll)THEN 100 

110 D=10*{A-1)+1 

115 C=0:CLS:PRINT CHRS(23) 

120 PRINT@6*64, "PRESS THE PLAY KEY" 

125 PRINT"ON THE CASSETTE PLAYER." 

130 PRINT:PRINT"PRESS ENTER WHEN YOU ARE READY. ": INPUT AS 

135 PRINT"TYPE THE WORD YOU HEAR" 

140 PR1NT"NEXT TO THE NUMBER" 

145 PRINT"ON THE SCREEN." 

150 N=0:F=D-1 

155 FOR C = l TO D-l-9 

160 READ AS(C] 

16 5 NEXT C 

170 FOR E=D TO 0+9:6$="" 

175 F=F+1 

180 OUT 255,255 

1S5 FOR i] = l TO Hl:NEXT 

190 OUT 255,0 

195 PRINT CHRS (23) 

200 PRINT F;:INPUT BS:IF B$=""THEN 200 

205 IF BSOASlE) THEN N=N+1 : A5 (N) =AS ( E) : GOSUB 325 

210 IF N=5 THEN 270 

215 NEXT E 

220 PRINT"VERY GOOD, ";ES;"." 

225 IF N>0 THEN 245 

230 PRINT"YOU GOT A PERFECT SCORE!!!" 

235 PRINT "10 OUT OF 10!!" 

240 GOTO 260 

245 ERINT"YOU GOT ONLY "; N; "WRONG " 

250 PRINT"OUT OF 10!!" 

255 PRINT"STUDY. .."sFOR G=l TO N: PRINTAS (G ) : NEXT G 

260 PRINT"YOUR NEXT LESSON IS NO.";A+l!"." 

265 GOTO 285 

270 CLS:PRINT CHRS (23 ) :PRINT*'THAT' S ALL FOR TODAY." 

275 PRINT"STUDY.. .":FOR G=l TO N:PRINTAS (G) : NEXT G 

280 PRINT"YOUR NEXT LESSON IS NO.";A;".'" 

285 PRINT"TELL YOUR TEACHER." 

290 PRINT"GOODBYE, ";ES;"." 

295 FOR X=l TO H1:NEXT 

300 CLS:PRINT CHRS(23] 

305 PRINT@6*64, "INSTRUCTIONS:" 

310 PRINT:PRINT:PRINT"PLEASE TYPE RUN AND" 

315 PRINT"PRESS <ENTER> KEY." 

320 END 

325 CLS:PRINT CHRS(23) 

330 PRINT"THE WORD IS ";AS(N);"." 

335 PRINT:PRINT"TYPE IT ONCE" 



program continues 



148 • 80 Microcomputing, April 1981 



Positional Mathematics 

POSITIONAL MATHEMATICS was tast used prior to 1 1035 B.C. Its revival began in 1970 A.D. The 
advent of the computer has permitted the most complex of all math systems to once again be a working 
tool in Man's quest to know himself. Positional Math, a system of numbers and words, provides a means 
of determining Man's experiences and when they will occur. The Programs offered are among the first 
to be published. A series of Lessons will be offered to introduce Positional Mathematics. 

LESSON ONE is ready. Lessons Two - Seven will be offered as they are completed. The approximately 
60K of Lesson One is in four parts and is a necessary beginning in using the Positional Mathematics 
Programs. For this reason LESSON ONE is offered in an introductory package with the Program, 

INDIVIDUAL GROWTH. 



LESSON ONE — An Introduction to Positional Mathematics: Part i. Words & Numbers, the Universe; Part II, 
The Name of Man; Part III, Numbers & Health; Part IV, Wealth & Love Balance. Lessons are interactive with 
student's personal data input. Each Part Cloads in 16K, Level II. 

INDIVIDUAL GROWTH — gives life position & intensity, crises &crises years, experience & years, balance & 
years, and indicates growth balance as positive or negative for wealth, work, sex, health, love, knowledge & 
success (sold with Lesson One until June, 1981). 

LOVE & SEX FOR A COUPLE — gives love & sex balance & conflicts and comments for each person and 
positional dates for each with intensity & if positive or negative, 

INDIVIDUAL LIFE WEALTH — gives the balance for wealth: balance, conflict, growth, success, experience & 
life wealth balance with summary. 

WEALTH BALANCE — DATES — gives life wealth balance, balance for years, months and dates with balance 
for each of 90 years from birth ... the 1-9 series positions balance for any year and the 1-9 series life wealth 
balance positions. 

INDIVIDUAL LIFE SEX — gives life sex balance and balance for 1-9 series for balance, conflict, growth, 
success and experience. 

INDIVIDUAL LIFE WORK — gives life work balance and balance for 1-9 series for balance, conflict, growth, 
progress, success and experience. 

LIFE POSITIONS & EXPERIENCE YEARS — gives life positions &intensity and the balance forthe l-ISseries 
of positions and experience years, positions and experiences for sex, love, wealth, work, health and sociability. 



Programs are on cassette for TRS-SO" Level H, 16K , . , introductory single program price S 19.95 

INTRODUCTORY OFFER — LESSON ONE and INDIVIDUAL GROWTH ... for only $19.95. 

A savings of $39.95 . . . Lesson One price after May 30, 1 98 1 will be S29.Q5 . . . Most single programs will be 

S29.95 after July, I98L 

Order by Program Name . . , send check or money order . . . allow two weeks for checks to clear. 



■TKSHf) IS a TrruJemark of Tandy Corp 
SEE FUTURE TURTLE ADS FOR NEW PROGRAMS 



Turtle Computer Software Corporation 

10400 N. Central Expwy., Suite 307. Dallas, Texas 75231 





^SBe List of Advertisers on page 306 80 Microcomputing, April 1981 '149 



MORE FOR YOUR ^ 

RADIO SHACK 
TRS-80 MODEL I ! 

THE DATAHANDLER 

DATABASE MANAGEMENT 
SYSTEM IN MMSFORTH 

Now the power, speed and compactness of 
MMSFORTH drive a major applicalions pro- 
gram for many of VOUR home, school and 
business tasks! Imagine a sophisticated 
database management system with (leKibili- 
ty to create, maintain and print mailing lists 
with multiple address lines, Canadian or the 
new g-digit U.S. ZIP codes, and multiple 
phone numbers, plus the speed to load hun- 
dreds of records or sort them on several 
fields in 5 seconds! Manage inventories with 
selection by any character or combination. 
Balance checkbook records and do CONDI- 
TIONAL reporting of expenses or other cal- 
culations. File any records and recall 
selected ones with optional upper/lower 
case match, in standard or custom formats. 
Personnel, membership lists, bibliographies, 
catalogs of record, stamp and coin collec- 
tions—you name it! ALL INSTANTLY, with- 
out wasted bytes, and with cueing from 
screen so good that non-programmers quick- 
ly master its use! With manual, sample data 
files and custom words for mail list and 
checkbook use. 

Technical: Handles data as compressed in- 
dexed sequential subfiles of up to 25K char- 
acters (9K in 32K RAM). Access 1-4 data 
diskettes. Modified Quicksort. Optionally 
precompiles for 5-second program load. Self- 
adjusts for many routine mods. Structured 
and modular MMSFORTH source code ideal 
for custom modifications. 
THE DATAHANDLER VI. 1, a very soph- 
isticated database management system 
operable by non-programmers (requires Disk 
MMSFORTH, 1 drive S 32K RAM); with 
manuals 159.95' 




FORTH 



THE PROFESSIONAL FORTH 
FOR TRS-80 MODEL I 

(Over 1,000 systems in use) 

MMSFORTH Disk System V1,9 (requires 1 

disk drive 8 16K RAM) just $79.95' 

MMSFORTH Cassette System VI. 8 (requires 
Level II BASIC & 16K RAM) $59.95* 

AND MMS GIVES IT 
PROFESSIONAL SUPPORT 

Source code provided 

MMSFORTH Newsletter 

Many demo programs aboard 

MMSFORTH User Groups 

Programming staff can adapt 

THE DATAHANDLER to YOUR needs. 

MMSFORTH UTILITIES DISKETTE: includes 
FLOATING POINT MATH (L.2 BASIC ROM 
routines plus Complex numbers, 
Rectangular-Polar coordinate conversions, 
Degrees mode, more), plus a full Forth-style 
280 ASSEMBLER; plus a powerful CROSS- 
REFERENCER to list Forth words by block 
and line. All on one diskette (requires 
MMSFORTH, 1 drive 4 16K RAM), , , $39.95* 

FORTH BOOKS AVAILABLE 

MICROFORTH PRIMER (comes with 

MMSFORTH) separately $15.00' 

USING FORTH — more detailed and advanc- 
ed than above $25.00* 

THREADED INTERPRETIVE LANGUAGES- 
advanced, eicellent analysis of 

MMSFORTH-like language $18.95* 

CALTECH FORTH MANUAL — good on 

Forth internal structure, etc S10.00" 

* — Software prices include manuals and re- 
quire signing of a Single-system user 
license. Add $2.00 S/H plus $1.00 per addi- 
tional book; Mass, orders add 5% tax. 
Foreign orders add 20%. UPS COD, VISA S 
M/C accepted; no unpaid purchase orders, 
please. 

Send SASE tor free MMSFORTH inlormauon 
Good aeale'S sougM 

Get MMSFORTH products from your 
computer dealer or 

MILLER MICROCOMPUTER 
SERVICES (M4) ^112 

61 Lake Shore Road, Natick, MA 01760 
(617)653-6136 



340 


PRINT"AFTER EACH ? MARK." 




345 


FOR L=l TO 5:CS="" 




350 


INPUT CS 




355 


PRINT C$;:IF CSOAS (N) PRIHT" IS WRONG. TYPE ";A${N);" 


. " : GOTO 




350 






360 


PRINT" IS RIGHT, ";ES;"!" 




365 


IF L= 


5 PRINT"READY FOR THE NEXT WORD,.," 




37 


NEXT 


L 




375 


RETURN 




380 


END 






500 


DATA 


INK, OCTOBER, BRICK, ACT, MARKET, TICKET, ARITHMETIC 




505 


DATA 


BUCKET,STRIKE,BLANKET,SUBTRACT, INSECT, SUBJECT 




510 


DATA 


AC RE, ARCTIC, DRINK, THINK, CRICKET, THICKET 




515 


DATA 


BISECT, DISSECT, TRACTOR, ATTRACTIVE, ACREAGE 




520 


DATA 


ACTIVITY , SECTION , COUNTERACT, ANTARCTIC 




525 


DATA 


PEOPLE, FRIEND, SUIT, FRUIT, BUILT, MOVIE, BUILD 




530 


DATA 


FIELD, PIECE, JUICE, POEM, CHIEF, BRUISE 




535 


DATA 


SHIELD, POETRY, BUILDING, BRUISING, SHIELDING 




540 


DATA 


WIELD, YIELD, FRIENDLY, CHIEFLY, PEACE 




545 


DATA 


FIERCE, SUITABLE, JO ICY, CRUISE, HANDKERCHIEFS 




550 


DATA 


SON , MONDAY , BECOME , OVEN , MONTH , FRONT , TON 




555 


DATA 


DO ZEN, BOTTOM, APRON, DOCTOR, SECOND, RIBBON 




560 


DATA 


BUTTON, COMPANY, NAPKIN, PERSON, PRISON 




565 


DATA 


PHANTOM , COMPANION , ACCUSTOM , MILL ION , WEAPON 




570 


DATA 


OP IN ION, DIAMOND, PIGEON, REASON, POISON 




575 


DATA 


EARTH , EARLY , GREAT , LEARN , WEATHER , DEATH 




580 


DATA 


HEALTH , THREAD, BREAK .BREAKFAST , INSTEAD 




585 


DATA 


HEAVY , STEAK, PEARL , HEARD, STAKE , BRAKE 




590 


DATA 


HEAVIER .WHETHER , EARN . EARNESTLY , ENDEAVOR 




595 


DATA 


BREATHTAKING, DEAFENING, DREADFUL, STEADILY 




600 


END 


Program Listing 2 





fore, when the subject comes up again the 
next day, the interest levei at the beginning 
o( the second lesson is lower than it was at 
the beginning of the first. 

One secret of maintaining interest is to 
keep the lesson shorter than the children 
would like it to be. When students leave the 
computer reluctantly and ask when their 
next turn is, you know your lessons are the 
right length. Do not be tempted to allow the 
children to stay longer! I keep all of my com- 
puter sessions under ten minutes. See if it 
works for you. 



• Inputting Math Responses. 

When you do a math problem (with pencil 
and paper) do you write the answer from left 
to right or from right to left? The correct 
answer is, 'It depends.' Look at these eight 
problems: 



X 7 



21 
+ 52 


2} 
7) 


493 
567 
462 
931 


3) 936 4| 
- 489 


500 5) 
- 200 




8) 73i9T7 




415 
X 93 


425 
X 10 





You might say that in 1 -7 the correct pro- 
cedure is to enter the answer from right to 
left, but I would guess that in actual prac- 
tice few of you would do number 5 that way; 
wouldn't you simply write '56'? I would fur- 
ther guess that many of you would write the 



answers to numbers 1, 4, and 7 from left to 
right. Number 8 must be done from left to 
right. Number 6 is a three-step problem, so 
the answer cannot be written directly in 
either direction. 

When planning for input of the answers 
to these problems on the computer, there is 
no clear cut criterion to help you to decide 
whethertogoright to left or left to right! It is 
possible to program the computer to accept 
answers in either direction, but it is not pos- 
sible to predict the direction the student will 
decide to use when he is solving the prob- 
lem. Requiring answers to be inputted ac- 
cording to a variable set of criteria will 
result in confusion. 

t can see two reasonable solutions to this 
dilemma; allow the student to place the cur- 
sor wherever he decides to start inputting 
the answer or to input all answers from left 
to right, regardless of the method used to 
calculate the answer. The former method 
would still result in confusion among 
younger children, so I recommend the lat- 
ter. 

I consider writing educational programs 
for elementary school students a highly 
specialized field. Professional program- 
mers who are not familiar with the charac- 
teristics of young children may produce 
programs that are structurally excellent but 
still do not achieve their objectives. This 
material should prove helpful to both pro- 
fessional programmers and school staff 
members who desire to write effective edu- 
cational programs for elementary school 
students. ■ 



150 • 80 Microcomputing, April 1981 



THE ALTERNATE SOURCE 



TASMON 

Written By Bruce Hansen 

• Replace Registers 

• Modify Memory 

• Hex Memory Dump 

• ASCII Memory Dump 

• Disassembled Dump 

• Disassemble to Printer 

• Dump Screen to Printer 

• Sum Hex Values 

• Subtract Hex Values 

• Find 1-4 Consecutive Bytes 

• Skip Forward One Instruction 

• Back l.p One Instruction 

• Clear Screen 

• Relocate System Programs 

• Move a Block of Memory 

• Load a Svstem Tape 

• Load a /CMD Disk File 

• Write a System Tape 

• Write a /CMD Disk File 

• Disassemble to Disk 

• Disassemble to Tape 

• ROM or RAM Breakpoints (9) 

• Set Breakpoints 

• Display Breakpoints 

• Clear Breakpoints 

• Single Step witb (^ALL in full 

• Single Slep liirough CALLs 

• Trace at Eight Speeds 

• GO Execute Program 

Disassembles with Labels! 

TASMON is fully relocatable, 
file oriented, and excellently 
implemented. Comes with an 
extensive user manual complete 
with sample dialogues and 
command reference card. For 
use on Level II, Disk System or 
Model III. .32K recommended. 

$29.95 

(Specify disk or tape, please) 



TRAKCESS 

Written by Roxton Baker 

• Analyze any TRS-80 disk 

• Build vour own disk formats 

• Direct control of 1-4 drives 

• Toggle between drives 

• Pencil-like editing features 

• Edit in hex or ASCII 

• Handles sectors of any length 

• Learn about disk structure 

• Read and Write Sectors 

• Take and Put Tracks 

• Scan Track Sectors 

• Locate Disk Sectors 

• Copy Track 

• Duplicate Disk 

• Build Format Track 

• Edit or Fill Memory 

• Figure CRC's 

• Hex or ASCII dump to Printer 

• Will copy to a blank diskette 

• Default values for most input 

• Scrolls thru tracks & sectors 

• No system DOS in drive zero 

• Handles any number of tracks 

• Breaks any 'protected' code 

• Will copy any 'protected' disk 

A Powerful Zap Utility! 

Version 1.1 Now Available 

• Highly Interactive 

• Smoother Operation 

• Full Error Checking 

• Compatible with \ewdos/80 

TRAKCESS is approximately 
25K of Basic and machine 
language code. It requires a 
Model I 48K Disk system; two 
drives are required for copy 
functions. Printer optional. 

$24.95 



KBE 
KeyBoard Editor 

Written by Larry Kingsbury 

PROGRAMMABLE KEYS 

• Operable under DOS or Basic 

• Operable under EDTASM 

• Program 191 different keys 

• Allows 'nested' softkeys 

• Load softkeys from disk 

• Save softkeys to disk 

• Pre-defined softkeys included 

• Toggle softkeys on or off 

• Redefine any key at ANY time 

• Softkey length unlimited 

FULL SCREEN EDITOR 

• Operable under Basic or DOS 

• Operable under EDTASM 

• Edits any line up to 255 chars. 

• Softkeys work in Edit Mode 

• Easy duplication of lines 

DRIVER 

• Keyboard debounce 

• Auto repeat 

• Lower case 

• Typewriter keyboard 

• Echo video display to printer 

• E/P control key support 

• P^ull graphics input 

• Prevents printer hangup 

• Sets lines per page 



KBE is compatible with VTOS, 
NEWDOS, NEWDOS/80, and 
TRSDOS 2.3. KBE requires a 
.32K disk system for operation, 
and is supplied on diskette with 
user's manual. KBE is 

compatible with double density. 



$39.95 



Don't Forget a Subscription to TAS -- $12.00 for 6 issues! 



1806 Ada Street 

Lansing, Miehij^an 48910 

517/187-.S:i58 

517/485-0344 

Add $2.0(1 far (Tush-prool box and po'itage, SI .SO for 
(.01) iiidcrs. ■I'.^t for Mnslcr (Jitirfii' or i i^u ortirr.s. 




v'lae 



( ) Send 
( ) Sfji.l 



\nmp: 
A ddm..';: 
City: _ 



TASMOM 
TRAKC.l'SS 



( ) 6 issues plcd-.f 
{ ) Send mt' KHK 



State. Zip: 



r 



£3 



/MlCROCO/HPUrER 

TECHNOLOGY 
.INCORPORATED 



SPRING SALE 



J 



CLEARANCE SPECIAL 

SHUGARTSA400(TF.3) 



35 track disk drive 

indudes power supply 

ond chassis. 

LIMITED SUPPLY 

P^FREE FULL YEAR WARRANTY ^^^^ 



$299 



1 
11 
1 

D 

1 
\ 




with purchase of new 
SHUGARTSA400(TF-3L) 

comes complete with 
power supply, chassis, 
cabled NEW DOS 80 

o-v $439 



THE MICROCONDUCTOR'" 



the ultimate data base manager 
for your TRS-80® 

The MICROCONDUCTOR" is nor just a file monoger bur a rrue Dora 
Bose Manogemenr System suJtoble for both rhe novice ond profossionol 
users 

DATA FILES— No limir on rhe number of records o file con hove 

RELDS— Any rype (siring, inrerger. single, double) Eight enrry modes 
(including defaults, counring and suppress) 
REPORTS— Four v^oys ro generate reports Totol numeric column(s) 
Print on ony poper in ony format (storements. labels, etc.) 
SORT— Any fieldCs) (i.e. multiple-heysort) Any size file, numeric or 
ASCII Ascending or descending 
MAINT. -Command oniicipotion. Record duplication. Direct access 
ond sequential search 
UPDATING,/— Add subtract, multiply, divide fields. Combine results from 
MERGING previous calculations Tesr for ony condition ond take ocion 



TRS-80® MODEL I 
TRS-80® MODEL II 



M59 
*399 



NEWFORTRS-80® 



TF-6 60 TRACK DISK DRIVE 
byMPI 

Double your copociry. 
Single head minj floppy. 
More Than 200K byres of 
storage. Corriplere wirh 
pov^/er supply ond chassis. 



5619 



TF-9 DUAL 60 TRACK DISK 
DRIVE by MPI 

Quadruple your copociry. 
400K byres of srorooeC like 
hovifig 4-40 track drives in 
one unir), Complere wirh 
power supply and chassis. 



*769 



MOD II 8" Disk System 

1 Drive Sysrem *949 

2 Drive Exponsion System H,445 



r 



Disk Drive Sole! 

vv'irh FREE power supply and chassis. 

Shugarr SA400L, 40 rrk *329 

Perrec FD200, 40 rrk *379 

TF-5 MPI 051,40 rrk *349 

TF-7 Mircopolis, 77 rrk *559 

TDH-1 Dual sided drive, 35 rrk *449 

TF-OM Drive sys. 2 Shugorr 40 rrk *649 

SOFTWARE SALE 

NEWDO580 M49 

NEWDOS+40rrk *110 30 rrk *99 

AJA Business Pkg. ..*359 

TheSource MOO Dosic Compiler M95 



MONTHLY SPECIAL 

Shugort 5A801 Bore Drive 



^459 



rv-j M 



'C&i^L.^- .^4^, 






MOD I Disk Expansion Systems 

• 2 Shugarr SA400 TF-3 *656 

• 1 Two-Drive Cable *26 

• 1 Exponsion Interface 32K *439 

• 1 D05+ *99 

TOTAL LIST PRICE H,222 



SPECIAL PRICE ONLY. 



>1077 



• DARE DRIVES FOR ANY MICROCOMPUTER 

PertecFD200 '282 FD250 .. . *359 

Shugorr 5A400 35 trocli . . '269 5A400L 40 track . '279 



MPI 051 

MPI D91 



'279 
'399 



D52 
I392 



'349 
'525 



Memory Kir C 1 6K) »43.00 

AC isoloror C6 socket) *49.95 

Disk Head Cleaner M9.95 

DiskerresVerbctlm (10) hard ring *30.00 



w 




fe 






Anodex 9500 



M,449 



Printers 

MJcroline82 '649 

MicrolineBO. .. '1.060 
Centronics 77Q '1,069 

Cenrronics 700 .... H, 129 

Bose 2 '649 

Cenrronics 737 '839 

Centronics 702-9. ...'1,995 

Molibu '2,093 

Paper Tiger '895 

DoisyWheel '1.799 



INTRODUaORYOFF'^° 
SAVE SODO LIST ^94 

OkidatQ 
MicrolineSO 

^599 



^ 



^ 



EPSON 
POINTER 



*595 



Registered rrademork of Rodio Shack 



:^ 



y 



152 • 80 Microcomputing, April 1981 



^ 



V 



TRS-80® MODEL III OWNERS 

We think our disk system for 
exponding your copocity is just 
OS good OS theirs - ond we know 
it costs much less . . . 



COMPLETE SYSTEMS 
AND COMPONENTS* 

TRS-80® MOD III SYSTEM 



with 2 

disk drives, 46K* 



SAVE S500 
OFF LIST PRICE 




16K RAM, Model III Basic *899 

MTI DISK DRIVES for MOD III 

Infernal Kits 
Disk Drive 1 ., *649 

Disk Drive 2 *279 




External Add-on Kits 

Disk Drive 3 



Disk Drive 4 

Model III DOS OAAonuol 

16KRAMKit 

RS-232 Serial Interface 



*379 
*359 

>21.95 
»95 



New low cost internal disk kit avail- 
able to expand yourstoroge capability. 
With this kit, now, you may expand 
your Model III computer up to four MTI 
40 track disk drives, giving 175,000 
bytes of Storage per drive for a total of 
TOOK. 

The kit includes one 40 track disk 
drive, controller, power supply, cables, 
mounting hardware and installation 
documentation. 



Manufacturer Direct 
Price ONLY 



»649 



filA 



MICROCOMPUTER TECHNOLOGY, INC.] 

3304 W. MACARTHUR, SANTA ANA, CA 92704 
• PHONE (714) 979-9923 • TELEX #67840i TAD IRIN 



*Uses MTI Memory, Disk Drives & Components 

® TR5-80® 15 A REGISTERED TRADEMARK 
^ OF TANDY CORPORATION 



M3-D 




^See Li&t of Advertisers on page 306 



80 Microcomputing, April 1981 • 153 



GAME 



Hey kids, don't be a Pepper, be a processor. Play Simul-80 today. 

Simul-80-A Weird Game 



Dennis Bathory Kitsz 
Roxbury, VT 05669 



How's your computer club doing with 
machine or assembly language pro- 
gramming? Are your advanced students 
chafing at the limitations of BASIC, but 
can't get a handle on the operation of the 
CPU? Then Simul-80 is for you! It is a fren- 
zied, physically dangerous simulation of 
the internal operations of a mythical 
microprocessor similar to the TRS-80, in 
which every participant plays the role of a 
basic computer element. 

Simul-80 was first attempted during a 
microprocessor seminar at the Vermont en- 
vironmental engineering firm of DuBois & 
King, Inc., and lapsed into total confusion 
as the engineer in charge of adding two 
one-digit numbers came up with the wrong 
answer. Here's the game and the rules. . . 
good luck! 

The Players 

Fifteen people (including one human) are 
needed to play a complete round of 
Simul-80, although eight can play a ser- 
viceable game. If absolutely necessary, 
players marked with an asterisk can be 
replaced with props. 

The Accumulator (A) performs simple ad- 
dition and subtraction, and turns over a zero 
card and a carry card. This is the hardest 
intellectual task in the game, and the ability 
to count to ten is prerequisite. 



The Program Counter (PC) keeps track of 
the current position within the program. The 
ability to count accurately up to one is 
essential. 

The Memory (MEM) holds a great card of 
information — but can see only one number 
on it at a time. Roulette table experience is 
an added plus for this player. 

The Instruction Decoder (ID) accepts 
numbers from MEM and looks up their 
meaning on a master list. Hire an accoun- 
tant for this task. 

The Address Bus runs from place to 
place informing other participants where 
they should be. Sneakers are recommend- 
ed. 

The Data Bus also runs from place to 
place with precious digits of information. 
This is the most strenuous physical task; 
sneakers are recommended, knee pads and 
helmets are required. 

*Four Registers (B, C, H, and L) write 
down numbers when told to do so. Leg irons 
may be used to hold these players in place. 

'Two drones, the Zero (Z) and Carry/Bor- 
row (CY) flags hold up cards when told to do 
so. Avoid using Dr. Strangelove types here. 

The Clock acts like a square dance caller 
and keeps the whole thing together. A crew- 
cut is desirable, along with a touch of West 
Virginia twang. 

An Input/Output Device (I/O) gives and ac- 
cepts information at the beginning and end , 
of the program. There will be enough time in 
between for this player to step out for a 
seven-course meal at the Lido. 

For simplicity, this simulation does not 
provide for a stack pointer, nor any sort of 
interrupt functions, though it can easily be 
expanded to include them. A few other ac- 
tivities have been modified for sanity's 



sake. . .ordinary decimal numbers are 
used, not such nasties as binary or hex. 

The Instruction Set 

The instruction set is divided into simple 
groups, and code numbers are assigned to 
represent each of the individual instruc- 
tions. The instructions include the follow- 
ing: 

• Loads. The accumulator and the four 
registers may be given numerical Informa- 
tion, which they hold on to until otherwise 
instructed. There are eight load commands 
in Simul-80. 

• Increments and Decrements. The regis- 
ters may change the positions of their wall 
cards by one {see Props, below). There are 
four such Instructions in the game. 

• Adds and Subtracts. The accumulator 
may perform simple addition and subtrac- 
tion when Instructed to do so. Comparisons 
are a kind of subtraction, but no result is ob- 
tained; only the flags are altered. Seven 
arithmetic functions are available. 

• Jumps. The program counter shifts its 
current position In memory to a new one, 
and the program continues from there. 
Three jumps are used in this instruction set. 

• Special Instructions. There are three: 
One clears everything out of the accumula- 
tor, another does nothing, and the last halts 
the operation of the program. 

Listing 2 describes the instructions in nu- 
merical order. Since programs can actually 
be written in Simul-80 code, the instruction 
set can be expanded to include commands 
#6, 15 to 19, 21 to 24, 32, 35 to 39, and 41 to 
98. 

The Program 

Listing 1 presents a complete program In 



154 • 80 Microcomputing, April 1981 



"Simul-80. . . lapsed into total confusion as the engineer. . . 
adding two one-digit numbers came up with the wrong answer." 



Simul-80 numerical code and Simul-80 
mnemonics. The first column contains the 
address the program counter will hold aloft 
for all to see; the second column contains 
labels for observers to identify segments of 
the program (the players never see these); 
the third column contains the machine's in- 
structions which memory holds and the in- 
struction decoder must interpret. The play- 
ers do not see these last two columns 
either: The fourth column, containing the 
abbreviated descriptions of each instruc- 
tion (the mnemonics), and the last column, 
presenting detailed comments about the 
program's operation. 

The routine performed by this simulation 
Is the addition and subtraction of a column 
of two-digit numbers. There are a few limita- 
tions which the human using the I/O device 
must respect when writing for this single- 
precision computer: 

• Only two-digit numbers may be used. 
Two is written 02, seven Is written 07, etc., 
and no numbers can be greater than 99. 

• No subtotal may be negative, nor may the 
total be negative. 

• No subtotal may exceed 999, nor may the 
total exceed 999. 

• Addition {-f ) is indicated by using code 
01, subtraction (-) by using code 02, and 
total or equals ( = ) by using code 03. 

• Addition and subtraction may be per- 
formed in any order, but equals ( = ) must be 
the final command. For example, to pro- 
duce the result of: 3 -f 15 -t- 98 - 33 -t- 12 
- 18 -(- 67 - 13 -t- 1, it is coded: 03 01 1501 
98 02 33 01 12 02 18 01 67 02 12 01 01 03. 

The coding requirement for the human is 
to take the original problem, make sure 
every number Is converted to exactly two 
digits, and replace the mathematical signs 
with their equivalent code numbers. Notice 
that It makes no difference that 1 -i- 1 is 
coded 01 01 01. It's the proper order that 
counts. 

The Props 

• A Coding Sheet. This Is a lined sheet on 
which the controlling human lists the prob- 
lem being computed. The I/O device re- 
quires these numbers, but Is not capable of 
creating or correcting their order. 

• Identification Tags. All performers must 
be properly Identified so that the traveling 
address bus and data but can find them. 
The accumulator, zero and carry/borrow 
flags, memory and Instruction decoder are 
seated; the program counter, four registers, 
and the I/O device should stand. The clock 
may be anywhere within hearing distance 
of all players. 

• Information Sheets. Since players will 
hardly be able to memorize all their actions, 
information or instruction cards must be 
provided. The text for each card is present- 







Program Listing 1. 


Address 


Label Instruction 


Mnemonic 


Comment 


01 


START 01 


LD A,(B) 


;Get "tens" digit from input 


02 


10 


LD (H),A 


;Put it in "tens" subtotal register 


03 


02 


LD A,(C) 


;Get :"ones" digit from input 


04 


11 


LD (L).A 


:Put it In "ones" subtotal register 


05 


NCTINS 03 


INC BC PTR 


;Bump input pointer by one 


06 


02 


LD A,(C) 


;Get arithmetic code from input 


07 


20 01 


CP01 


jAdditton code = 1; is it? 


09 


31 21 


JPZ, "ADD" 


;Go to additon if code = 1 


11 


20 02 


CP02 


;Subtraction code - 2; is it? 


13 


31 52 


JPZ, "SUB" 


;Go to subtraction if code - 2 


15 


20 03 


COP 03 


;Equals or total code = 3; is it? 


17 


31 90 


JPZ, "END" 


;Go to end if code = 3 


19 


34 83 


JP-ERR" 


;Go to error trap if t 1, 2, or 3 


21 


ADD 03 


INCBC PTR 


;Bump pointer to vaiue to add 


22 


02 


LD A, (C) 


;Get "ones" digit from input 


23 


26 


ADD A,{L) 


;Add previous "ones" subtotal 


24 


11 


LD IL),A 


;Save new "ones" subtotal 


25 


33 39 


JP NC, "HIBVT" 


;Go if result not greater than 9 


27 


04 


LD A,(H) 


;lf >9, get "tens" subtotal 


28 


27 01 


ADD A,01 


;Let Tens = Tens + 1 


30 


10 


LD (H),A 


jSave new "tens" subtotal 


31 


33 39 


JP NC, "HIBYT" 


;Go if result not greater than 9 


33 


07 


INC HL PTR 


;lf > 9, bump to "hundreds" piace 


34 


05 


LD A,(L) 


;Get previous "hundreds" subtotal 


35 


27 01 


ADD A,01 


;Lel Hundreds = Hundreds + 1 


37 


11 


LD (L),A 


;Save new "hundreds" subtotal 


38 


08 


DEC HL PTR 


jBump pointer bacl^ to normal 


39 


HI BYT 01 


LD A,(B) 


;Get "tens" digit from input 


40 


25 


ADD A,(H) 


;Add previous "tens" subtotal 


41 


10 


LD iH),A 


;Save new "tens" subtotal 


42 


33.05 


JP NC,"NXTINS" 


;Go back (done) if not greater than 9 


44 


07 


INC HL PTR 


;lf > 9, bump to "fiundreds" piace 


45 


05 


LD A,(L) 


;Get previous "hundreds" subtotal 


46 


27 01 


ADD A,01 


;Let Hundreds = Hundreds + 1 


48 


11 


LD (L),A 


;Save new "hundreds" subtotal 


49 


08 


DEC HL PTR 


;Bump pointer back to normal 


50 


34 05 


JP"NXTINS" 


;Done — go back tor more input 


52 


SUB 03 


INC BC PTR 


;Bump pointer to value to subtract 


53 


05 


LD A,(L] 


;Get previous "ones" subtotal 


54 


28 


SUB A,(C) 


jSubtract new value from previous 


55 


11 


LD 1L),A 


;Save new "ones" subtotal 


56 


33 70 


JP NC,"HBT2" 


;Go if result no borrow ( > 0) 


58 


04 


LD A,(H] 


;lf borrow, get "tens" digit subtotal 


59 


29 01 


SUB A,01 


;Let Tens = Tens - 1 


61 


10 


LD 1H|,A 


;Save new "tens" subtotal 


62 


33 70 


JPNC,"HBT2" 


;Go if result no borrow ( > 0) 


64 


07 


INC HL PTR 


;H borrow, bump to "hundreds" place 


65 


05 


LD A,(L) 


;Get "hundreds" digit subtotal 


66 


29 01 


SUB A,01 


;Let Hundreds = Hundreds - 1 


68 


11 


LD 1L1,A 


;Save new "hundreds" subtotal 


69 


08 


DEC HL PTR 


;Bump pointer back to normal 


70 


HBT2 04 


LD A,(H) 


;Get previous "tens" value 


71 


30 


SUB A,(B) 


jSubtract new value from previous 


72 


10 


LD 1H),A 


jSave new "tens" subtotal 


73 


33 05 


JPNC,"NXTINS" 


;Go back (done) if no borrow 


75 


07 


INC HL PTR 


;if borrow, bump to "hundreds" place 


76 


05 


LD A,(L1 


;Get "hundreds" subtotal 


77 


29 01 


SUB A,01 


;Let Hundreds = Hundreds - 1 


79 


11 


LD {L),A 


jSave new "hundreds" subtotal 


80 


08 


DEC HL FTR 


jBump pointer back to normal 


81 


34 06 


JP"NXTINS" 


;Done— go back for more input 


83 


ERR 09 


DEC BC PTR 


jBump input pointer back 


84 


12 09 


LD A,09 


;Get error code digit ready 


86 


13 


LD (B),A 


;Let "Tens" value = error code 9 


87 


14 


LD (C),A 


;Let "Ones" value = error code 9 


88 


03 


INC BC PTR 


;Bump pointer to bad code 


89 


99 


HALT 


;Halt program and report to human 


90 


END 05 


LD A,(L) 


;Get "ones" subtotal value 


91 


14 


LD (C1,A 


;Put subtotal in output register 


92 


04 


LD A,(H) 


;Get "tens" subtotal value 


93 


13 


LD (B),A 


;Put subtotal in output register 


94 


07 


INC HL PTR 


;Bump pointer to "hundreds" place 

Program continues 



80 Microcomputing, April 1981 • 155 



95 


05 


LD A,(L) 


« 


03 


INC BC PTR 


97 


U 


LD (C),A 


9B 


40 


CLRA 


99 


13 


LD (B},A 


00 


99 


HALT 



;Get "hundreds" subtotal value 
;Bump output pointer one position 
;Put "hundreds" subtotal In output 
;Set A equal to zero 
;Put zero In "thousands" place 
;Stop program and report to human 



Simul-80 Program for Addition, Subtraction, 
and Total, with Error Trapping 



■TURN THE WHEEL 




RIVET 





Program Listing 2 




NUMERICAL CODE 


DESCRIPTION 


ABBREVIATION 


CM 


No operation (ssrvoB as a delay) 


NOP 


01 


Load Accumulator with contents of Register B 


LD A,{B) 


02 


Load Accumulator with contents of Register C 


LD A,{C) 


03 


Increment the pointer position of B and C 


tNC BC PTR 


04 


Load Accumulator with contents of Register H 


LD A,(H) 


05 


Load Accumulator with contents ot Register L 


LD A.(L) 


06 


No such instruction . . computer reports error 






07 


Increment the pointer position of H and L 


INC HL PTR 


08 


Decrement the pointer position of H and L 


DEC HL PTR 


09 


Decrement the pointer position of B and C 


DEC BC PTR 


10 


Load H Register contents with Accumulator 


LD (rt),A 


11 


Load L Register contents with Accumulator 


LD (L).A 


12 NN 


Load Accumulator with the value NN 


LD A,NN 


13 


Load B register contents with Accumulator 


LD (B),A 


14 


Load C Register contents with Accumulator 


LD (C),A 


15-19 


No such instruction . . . computer reports error 






20 NN 
21-24 


Compare Accumulator with the value NN 
No such instruction . . . computer reports error 


CP A,NN 




25 


Add contents of Register H to the Accumulator 


ADD A.fH) 


26 


Add contents of Register L to the Accumulator 


ADD A,(L) 


27 NN 


Add the value NN to the Accumulator 


ADD A,NN 


28 


Subtract contents of Register C from Accumulator 


SUB A,(C) 


29 NN 


Subtract value NN from the Accumulator 


SUB A,NN 


30 


Subtract contents of Register B from Accumulator 


SUB A,(B) 


31 NN 


if Z is set, change Program Counter to NN 


JP Z,NN 


32 


No such instruction . . computer reports error 






33 NN 


if CY is not set, change Program Counter to NN 


JP NC,NN 


34 NN 


In any condition, change Program Counter to NN 


JPNN 


35-39 


No sucti instruction . . . computer reports error 






40 


Clear the Accumulator to Zero 


CLRA 


41-98 


No such instruction . . . computer reports error 






99 


Program halts operation 


HALT 



ed later in this article. 

• The Program. Memory must have a com- 
plete listing of the program, but it should be 
made up in such a way that the contents of 
only one memory location are visible at a 
time; the whee\ shown in Fig. 1 is ideal for 
this purpose. 

• Wall Charts. Since the registers are not 
expected to be intelligent, they must have 
vi/all charts to refer to. Such charts usually 
consist of a pie-shaped figure with a mov- 
able arrow. The arrow points to blank 
spaces which may be filled with numbers as 
the need arises. See Fig. 2. 

• Flash Cards. A pair of true drones are the 
Zero and Carry/Borrow flags, who are each 
given a card. One side reads "set," the other 
reads "not set." 

• A Program Counter Booklet. This is a flip- 
book containing one hundred sequential 
numbers, 01 through 00. At each change in 
the program's position, the program count- 
er flips to the proper number. 

• Pencil and Paper. Every player should be 
provided with writing materials and enough 
scraps of paper to write down a value, 
should it be needed, during every step of the 
program. 

• Shoulder and Knee Pads. This game is 
not approved under the Occupational Safe- 
ty and Health Act (OSHA), and in a small 
room these pads will be essential. 




Fig. 1. 



Fig. 2. 



Program Details 

Before looking at the rules of the game, 
let's have a look at the program itself and 
what it does; refer to Listing 1. 

This program represents the operation 
of a theoretical microprocessor similar to 
the one which controls the TRS-80, 
although it makes a few assumptions 
which are unlike the Z-80's operation. 
Some commands perform the same func- 
tions, but the mnemonics are quite dif- 



156 • 80 Microcomputing, April 1981 



RACET SORTS — BACET UTILITIES — RACET compuies — RACET SORTS — HaCET UTILITIES — RACET compules — RACET SORTS — RACET UTILITIES — RACET computes ^ 

o 



HARD DISK 
MULTIPLEXOR 

FORTRS-80*Modll 




r 


1 



g-T-m-T-t-rrT ^ ammM i 



NOW YOU CAN HAVE THAT LARGE COMMON DATA BASE!! 

• Allows up to 4 Mod H's to connect to a single controller — up to 4 hard disk drives per controller. Users may access the same file simultaneously (first-come 
first-served). 

• Uses Cameo controller and standard 10-megabyte cartridge (tiard) disk drives along with RACET Hard/Soft Disk System (HSD) software. Removabte Disk 
Pack Backup! 

• Access times 3 to 8 times faster ttian floppy. Mixed floppy/hard disk operation supported. 

• Compatible with your existing TRSDOS programs — you need only change filenames! All BASIC statements are identical. 

• A single file may be as large as one disk. Directory expandable to handle thousands of files. 

• Includes special utilities — XCOPY for backup and copies, XPURGE for multiple deletions, DCS directory catalog system, and Hard Disk Superzap. FOflMAT 
utility includes options for specifying sectors/gran, platters/drive, logical disk size, etc. 

HARD DISK DRIVE AND CONTROLLER $5995 RACET HSD Software $400 Call for multiuser pricing. Dealers call for OEM pricing, 

• •NEW* • DISCAT(32K 1 -drive Mm) Mod I, III $50.00 

This comprehensive Diskette Cataloguing/Indexing utility allows the user to keep track of thousands of programs in a categorized library. Machine language program 
works with all TRSDOS and NEWDOS versions. Files include program names and extensions, program length, diskette numbers, front and back, and diskette 
iree space 

• * NEW* * KFS-80 (1 -drive 32K Min — Mod II 64K) Mod I, III $100.00; Mod II $175.00 

The keyed file system provides keyed and sequential access to multiple files. Provides the programmer with a powerful disk handling facility for development of 
data base applications. Binary tree index system provides rapid access to file records. 

• *NEW** MAILLIST(1-drtve32KMin — Modi! 64K) Modi, III $75.00; Mod II $150.00 

This ISAM-based maillist minimizes disk access times. Four keys — no separate sorting. Supports 9-digit zip code and 3-digit state code. Up to 30 attributes. 

Mask and query selection Record access times under 4 seconds!! 

A-'* NEW* * LPSPOOL (32K 1 -drive Min) Mod I $75.00 

LPSPOOL — Add multi-tasking to permit concurrent printing while running your application program. The spooler and despooler obtain print jobs from queues 

maintained by the system as print files are generated. LPSPOOL supports both parallel and serial printers. 

ffASIC LINK FACILITY 'BUNK' {Mod I Min 32K 1-disk) Mod I $25.00; Mod U $50.00; Mod III $30,00 

Link from one BASIC program to another saving all variables! The new program can be smaller or larger than the original program in memory. The chained program 

may either replace the original program, or can be merged by statement number. The statement number where the chained program execution is to begin may 

be specified! 

INFINITE BASIC (Mod I & Mod III Tape or Disk) Mod I $50.00; Mod III $60.00 

Extends Level II BASIC with complete MATRIX functions and 50 more string functions. Includes RACET machine language sorts! Sort 1000 elements in 9 seconds!! 

Select only functions you want to optimize memory usage. 

INFINITE BUSINESS (Requires Infinite BASIC) Mod I & Ml $30.00 

Complete printer pagination controls — auto headers, footers, page numbers. Packed decimal arithmetic — 127 digit accuracy +, -,',/. Binary search of 

sorted and unsorted'arrays. Hash codes. 

COMPROC (Mod I & Mod III — Disk only) Mod I $20.00; Mod III $30.00 

Command Processor. Auto your disk to perform any sequence of instructions that you can give from the keyboard. OIR, FREE, pause, wait for user input, BASIC, 

No. of FILES and MEM SIZE, RUN program, respond to input statements, BREAK, return to DOS, etc. Includes lowercase driver software, debounce and screenprint! 

GSF (Mod I & III Tape or Disk -- Specify Memory Size) Mod I $25.00; Mod tl $50.00; Mod III $30.00 

Generalized Subroutine Facilities. The STANDARD against which all other sorts are compared! Machine language — fast and powerful! Multi-key multi-variable 

and multi-key character string. Zero and move arrays. Mod II includes USR PEEKS and POKES. Includes sample programs. 

DSM(Modl Mm 32K2-drive system. Mod II 64K 1 -drive. Mod III Min 32K 1 -drive} Mod I $75.00; Mod II $150.00; Mod III $90.00 

Disk Sort/Merge tor RANDOM files. All machine language stand-alone package for sorting speed. Establish sort specification in simple BASIC command File, 

Execute from DOS. Only operator action to sort is to change diskettes when requested! Handles multiple diskette files! Super fast sort times — improved disk I/O 

times make this the fastest Disk Sort/Merge available on the TRS, 

UTILITY PACKAGE (Mod II 64K] $150.00 

Important enhancements to the Mod II, The file recovery capabilities alone will pay for the package in even one application! Fully documented in 124 page manual! 

XHIT, XGAT, XCOPY and SUPERZAP are used to reconstruct or recover data from bad diskettes! XCOPY provides multi-file copies, 'wild-card' mask select, 

absolute sector mode and other features. SUPERZAP allows examine/change any sector on diskette including track-0, and absolute disk backup/copy with I/O 

recovery. DCS builds consolidated directories from multiple diskettes into a single display or listing sorted by disk name or file name plus more. Change Disk 

ID with DISKID. XCREATE preallocates files and sets 'LOF' to end to speed disk accesses, DEBUGII adds single step, trace, subroutine calling, program looping, 

dynamic disassembly and more!! 

BASIC CROSS REFERENCE UTILITY (Mod II 64K) $50,00 

SEEK and FIND functions for Variables, Line Numbers, Strings, Keywords, 'All' options available for line numbers and variables. Load from BASIC — Call with 

'CTRL'R. Output to screen or printer! 

DEVELOPMENT PACKAGE (Mod II 64K) $125.00 

includes RACET machine language SUPERZAP, Apparat Disassembler, and Model II interface to the Microsoft 'Editor Assembler Plus' software package including 

uploading services and patches for Disk I/O. Purchase price includes complete copy of Editor Assembler + and documentation for Mod I. Assemble directly 

into memory, MACRO facility, save all or portions of source to disk, dynamic debug facility (ZBUG), extended editor commands. 



CIRCLE READER REQUEST FOR FREE Ja-PAGE CATALOG 
'TRS-eO IS A TRADEMARK OF TANDY CORPORTION 



CHECK. VISA, M/C,C D PURCHASE ORDER 
TELEPHONE ORDERS ACCEPTED (714) 637-5016 



^ RACET COMPUTES "3 



1330 N, GLASSEL, SUITE 'M', ORANGE. CA 92665 
RACET SORTS - RACET UTILITIES - RACET compules - RACET SORTS - RACET UTILITIES - RACET compules - RACET SORTS RACET SORTS — RACET UTILITIES - 



i'See List of Advertisers on page 306 



80 Microcomputing, April 1981 "157 



ferent (in Z-80 language, there is no CLR A, 
but tfie function XOR A— exclusive OR the 
accumulator— has the same result). 

In a real processor, the registers' point- 
ers actually point to memory, and should 
also involve a trip through our MEM player. 
But for convenience, Simul-80 lets B, C, H, 
and L have their own anonymous block of 
memory. In actual practice, wevwould have 
to identify these registers and their posi- 
tions as well. 

The I/O device has accepted coded infor- 
mation from the human, and recorded it on 
the wall chart for registers B and C (the 
method is explained in the Rules of the 
Game). The first instructions command the 
accumulator to take what is in B (the "tens" 
digit) and give it to H; the same is done to 
transfer C (the "ones" digit) to L. In other 
words, registers B and C hold the two-digit 
input value, and, after the intervention of 
the accumulator, registers H and L will hold 
the running subtotal. 

At NXTINS (next instruction), we move 
the pointer for B and C one position for- 
ward, and get the value pointed to by 0, put- 
ting it in A. It iscompared to01, thecodefor 
add ( + ); if the result of the comparison is 
exact, it will set the zero flag. This is done 
because comparison is a kind of subtrac- 
tion that leaves the minuend and subtra- 
hend intact; no result is produced, only a 
flag is tweaked. It is likethe statement A>B, 
where neither A nor B is changed, but an 
evaluative result is produced. If the zero flag 
is set, the program moves to the position 
marked ADD. 

If the comparison is not exact, the pro- 
gram falls through to the next instruction in 
order, and checks the value against 02, the 
code for subtract (-); if an exact compari- 
son sets the zero flag this time, a jump is 
made to SUB. Failing that test, the value is 
checked for the equals ( = ) code, and jumps 
to END if the comparison matches. 

If all these tests fail— that is, if the code 
is neither01,02nor03 — we do not have one 
of the three permitted instructions of the 
game, and the program as entered by the 
human must be in error. Therefore (we are 
now looking at address #19), the program 
jumps along to the position marked ERR, 
eventually halting the action. 

Let's assume the code was that for addi- 
tion. Moving to ADD at address #21, the pro- 
gram is told to increment the BC pointer 
once more. If you are following the BC 
pointer, you will see that it must now be 
pointing to the number we are to add, since 
the numbers and math codes follow each 
other in alternating sequence. 

To effect this, the accumulator loads up 
with the value in register C (the "ones" digit 
of the value to add), and next adds to itself 



Information Sheets 



Address Bus 



1. During cycle two, go where called, and accept the value given to you. 

2. Perform the following actions: 



IF THE INSTRUCTION 
YOU RECEIVE IS: 



33 



34 



IF NONE OF THE ABOVE 



PERFORM THIS ACTIVITY 



Advance the B and C pointer. 
Advance the H and L pointer. 
Decrease the H and L pointer. 
Decrease the B and C pointer. 
Walt for the next cycie two and get 
the next value from MEM. ignore 
this vaiue, but immediately check Z. 
if Z is SET, then give your value to 
PC at the beginning of the next cy- 
cle one. If Z is NOT SET, do nothing. 
Wait for the next cycie two and get 
the next value from MEM. Ignore 
this vaiue, but immediately check 
GY. H GY is NOT SET, give your 
value to PC at the beginning of the 
next cycle one If GY is SET, do 
nothing. 

W/ait for the next cycie two and get 
the next vaiue from MEM. Immedi- 
ately give your value to PC at the 
beginning of the next cycle one. 

Do nothing . . . this is a machine 
failure that will lead to chaos. 



Accumulator 

1. During cycle one, give any value requested by the data bus. 

2. During cycle two. receive any value given by the data bus. 

3. During cycle three, perform calculations as follows: 



IF THE VALUE YOU 
RECEIVE IS: 

Less than or 
equal to 9 
25, 26, 27 



PERFORM THIS OPERATION: 

Make this your current vaiue 

1. Wait until the next cycle three, then add the value you will receive to your current 
value. The result becomes your new current value. 

2. Immediately do one of the following: 
Result Give to Z Give to CY 



<9 


NOT SET 


NOT SET 


-10 


SET 


SET 


>10 


NOT SET 


SET 



28, 29 or 30 



1. Wait until the next cycle three, then subtract the value you will receive from your 
current value. The result becomes your new current value. You may borrow a "phan- 
tom" one If needed to complete ttie subtraction. 

2, Immediately do one of the following: 



Result 

X) 

= 
If borrow 



Give to Z Give to CY 



NOT SET 

SET 
NOT SET 



NOT SET 

NOT SET 

SET 



20 



1, V^ait until the next cycle three, then compare that value with your current value. 
Your current value remains unchanged. 

2, Immediately do one of the following: 



Result 



Give to Z Give to CY 



C,V. is greater NOT SET NOT SET 

C.V. is greater SET NOT SET 

C.V. is less NOT SET SET 

40 1, Set your current value to zero; give SET to Z, NOT SET to CY. 

Remember: Your current value may only be through 9. 



158 • 80 Microcomputing, April 1981 



meet a 




PLUS 













WP^H^B^^""'^ 














Model IIM6K $859 



Here are just a few of our fine offers . . . 
call toll-free for full information. 

PERIPHERALS 

Expansion Interface OK 
Expansion Interface 16K 

+ Expansion Interface 16K 
Expansion Interface 32K 

+ Expansion Interface 32K 
16KRAMN.E.C.200N.S.ch 

MODEMS 

Lynx Direct Connect 
COMM 80 Interface 
Chatterbox Interface 
Telephone Interface II 

PRINTERS 
Line Printer IV 
Daisy Wheel II 
Line Printer VI 
NEC Spinwriter 5530 
OKIDATAMicrolineSO 
EPSON MX80 

DISK DRIVES 
Model IIM-Drive 
PERCOMTFD100 
TEAC 40 Track 

PLUS real back-up warrantees — 



COMPUTERS 




Model II 64K 


S3375 


Model III 4K LEVI 


599 


Model III 16K 


859 


Modellll32K 


981.50 


+ Model III 32K 


915.50 


ModelllUSK 


1104 


+ Model III 48K 


972 


Model III 32K 




2 Disc & RS232 c 


2149 


Color Computer 4K 


310 


Color Computer 16K 439.95 


+ Color Computer 16K 


366.50 


Color Computer 16K 




w/extended basic 


489 


Pocket Computer 


199 


VIDEOTEX 


329 


APPLE 48K only 


1279 


ATARI 800 16K 


789 


+ Computer Plus New Equipment. 


1 80 Day Extended Warranty 





$249 

359 
305.50 
469.95 

362 
ips 39 

219 

159.95 

239 

169 

849 
1695 

999 
2595 

499 

519 

712 
389 
319 



n 

checic out these 

unusual package 

values for price 

and warranty 



¥ 



MODEL I 32K E.I 
1st. Drive, Line Printer IV, 
10 Diskettes PureR.S. $1675 

combined warranty 1699 



MODEL II 64KW/2 Disks, 
Daisy Wheel II, Scripsit 

Pure R.S. 



6350 



MODEL III 48K, 1st. Drive, 
Line printer IV, Scripsit Word 
Processor, 1 Diskettes 

PureR.S. 2800 
combined warranty 2699 

COLOR COMPUTER 1 6K CC 

w/extended basic cassette 
recorder. Joy sticks, dust cover 

PureR.S. 569 

POCKET COMPUTER w/interfoce 

PureR.S. 239 

ATARI 

48K Atari 800, Atari 825 Printer, 

Atari 810 Disk Drive 2125 

APPLE 

48K Apple II & Apple II Disk 

w/controller, D.O.S. 3.3, 

Printer Card and Coble, 

Epson MX80 Printer 2510 

call TOLL FREE 

1-800-343-8124 



Pure Radio Stiock equipment worranteed at any Radio 
Shack store or dealer. Factory warrantees on Apple and 
Atari equipment. Other equipment carries manufacturer's 
warranty or Computer Plus 180 day extended warranty. 
Combined warrantees carry Computer Plus 180 day war- 
ranty or original manufacturer's warranty. 



com 



DEALER INQUIRIES ARE INVITED (61 7) 486-31 93 

Prices subject to change without notice. 
Not responsible (or typographical errors. 

TR$-80 is a registered trademark of Tandy Corp. 




Write for your 
free catalog... 

Dept. D 

245A Great Road 

Littleton, MA 01460 



^130 



r'See List of Advertisers on page 306 



80 Microcomputing, April 1981 • 159 



"Fifteen people (including one human) are needed 
to play a complete round of Simul-80." 



the value in register L (recall that this is the 
"ones" digit of the subtotal pair of regis- 
ters). The result is a new subtotal. 

The accumulator then takes its single- 
digit result (C plus L), and saves that sum in 
L. In the meantime, the carry flag may or 
may not have been set, depending on 
v\/hether or not the total of C -i- L was greater 
or less than nine, if the total vt^as less than 
or equal to nine, no carry would be gener- 
ated, and the program moves directly to ad- 
dress #39, labeled HIBYT. A similar activity 
is performed with the "tens" digit, getting it 
from B, adding H to it, and putting it back in 
H. If once again no carry is generated, the 
program loops back to the address labeled 
NXTINS, and goes through its add/subtract/ 
equals code-checking process once again. 

What happens if a carry is produced? It 
can happen in several ways: if the ones digit 
carries into the tens digit; if the tens digit 
carries into the hundreds digit; and if, when 
the ones digit carries into the tens digit, it 
forces the tens digit to carry into the hun- 
dreds place. In principle, each is handled 
the same way: a carry value of one is added 
to the higher digit. For example, nine plus 
nine equals 18, or nine plus nine equals 
eight-carry-the-one. 

Our registers are only two digits wide. . . 
so how do we get a hundreds place? Simply 
by moving the registers' pointer up one po- 
sition, and stashing the carried value there. 
In other words, if it's too big for the box, get 
another box. This happens in instructions 
found at #44 through #49. 

When the arithmetic is finished, the pro- 
gram will move back to NXTINS. If a code of 
02 is found, it means a jump to position 
SUB. In this case, the accumulator must 
perform subtraction (start at position #52). 
The curious thing is that the carry flag 
serves double duty. . .since we are either 
adding or subtracting (never both at once) 
the flag can also signal a borrow. If the 
result of subtraction ends up being less 
than zero, the accumulator simply bor- 
rows an imaginary one to complete the sub- 
traction, and sets the carry flag. The rest of 
the instructions take it from there, just as 
they do with addition. Follow through ad- 
dresses #56 to #61, #62 to #69, and #75 to 
#80, and you can see that it works. 

In a properly coded program, the com- 
puter will at last encounter code 03, which 
is the equals code and initiates a termina- 
tion sequence to produce a correct answer. 
The jump is made to the position labeled 
END, found at address #90. The value of Lis 
placed intoC via A, thevalueat H is similar- 
ly placed into B. Both sets of pointers are 
moved forward, and the hundreds place is 
transferred from register L to register C. 

The accumulator is cleared to zero at ad- 
dress #98, and that zero is placed into the 8 



Data Bus 




1. During cycle two, go where called, and accept the value given to you. 


2. Perform the following 


actions: 


IF THE VALUE YOU 


THEN PERFORM THIS ACTIVITY: 


RECEIVE IS: 




01 


Get value from B during cycle 




two.Glve 11 lo A during cycle three. 


02 


Get value from during cycle 




twD.Give it to A during cycle three. 


04 


Gel value from H during cycle two. 




Give it to A during cycle three. 


05 


Get value from L during cycle two. 




Give it to A during cycle three. 


to 


Get value from A during cycle two. 




Give it to H during cycle three. 


11 


Get value from A during cycle two. 




Give it to L during cycle three. 


n 


Wait for next cycle two, and get value 




from MEM, Give it to A during cycle 




three. 


13 


Get value from A during cycle two. 




Give it to B during cycle three. 


14 


Get value from A during cycle two. 




Give it to C during cycle three. 


20 


Give your instruction to A during cy- 




cle two. Wait for next cycle two, get 




value from MEM and give it to A dur- 




ing that cycle. 


25 


Give you instruction (25) to A during 




cycle two, and immediately get value 




from H and give it to A during that cy- 




cle. 


26 


Give your instruction (26) to A during 




cycle two, and immediately get value 




from L and give it to A during that cy- 




cle. 


27 


Give your instruction (27) to A during 




cycle two. Wait for next cycle two, get 




value from MEM and give it to A dur- 




ing that cycle. 


28 


Give your instruction (28) to A during 




cycle two, and immediately get value 




from C and give it to A during that cy- 
cle. 
Give your instruction (29) to A during 


29 




cycle two. Wait for next cycle two, get 




value from MEM and give it to A dur- 




ing that cycle. 


30 


Give your instruction (30) to A during 




cycle two, and immediately get value 




from B and give it to A during that cy- 
cle. 
Give your instruction (40) to A during 


40 




cycle two. 


IF NONE OF THE ABOVE 


Do nothing , . . the machine has failed, 




and chaos will reign. 


Instruction Decoder (ID) 




1. During cycle one, accept a 


value from MEM, and check it against the master list 


that follows. 




2. During cycle two, call for the appropriate person as indicated below: 


IF YOU RECEIVE FROM MEM: 


ASK FOR THE PRESENCE OF 




AND GIVE YOUR VALUE TO: 
No one. 


00 


01 


Data Bus. 




Information sheets continue 



160 • 80 Microcomputing, April 1981 



02 


Data Bus. 


03 


Address Bus. 


04 


Data Bus. 


05 


Data Bus. 


07 


Address Bus. 


08 


Address Bus. 


09 


Address Bus. 


10 


Data Bus. 


11 


Data Bus. 


12 


Data Bus. Then wait for the next cycle two 




and call for Data Bus again. 


13 


Data Bus. 


14 


Data Bus. 


20 


Data Bus, Then wait for the next cycle two 




and call for Data Bus again. 


25 


Data Bus. 


26 


Data Bus. 


27 


Data Bus. Then wait for the next cycle two 




and call for Data Bus again. 


28 


Data Bus. 


29 


Data Bus. Then wait for the next cycle two 




and call for Data bus again. 


30 


Data Bus. 


31 


Address Bus. Then wait for the next cycle 




two and call for Address Bus again. 


33 


Address Bus. Then wait for the next cycle 




two and call for Address Bus again. 


34 


Address bus. Then wait for the next cycle 




two and call for Address Bus again. 


40 


Data Bus, 


99 


Call out HALT, 


IF NONE OF THE ABOVE 


Call Address Bus, and give it 34, Wait for 




the next cycle two, call Address Bus 




again, and give it 83. 



Program Listing 3. 


GOTO110 


1 GOTO3920 


2 GOTO40 00 


3 GOTO40 8 


4 GOTO416 


5 GOTO4240 


6 GOTO6280 


7 GOTO4320 


8 GOTO4400 


9 GOTO4480 


10 GOTO4560 


11 GOTO4540 


12 GOTO4720 


13 GOTO4830 


14 GOTO4910 


20 GOTO4990 


25 GOTO5170 


26 GOTO53 6 


27 GOTO5430 


28 GOTO5520 


29 GOTO5630 


30 GOTO5720 


31 GOTO5830 


33 GOTO5930 


34 GOTO6030 


40 GOTO6110 


99 GOTO6180 


100 GOTO3850 


105 REM * COPYRIGHT 1980 BY DENNIS BATHORY KITSZ 


110 OUT254,2:CLS:CLEAR2000: REM OUT254,2 ^ HI SPEED, NORM VIDEO 


120 ONERRORGOTO6 490:DIMINS(3,101) : DIMPR$ (3 , 101 ) :DIMCDS (2, 101 ) 


130 FORX=0TO99:READINS(1,X) :PEXT 


140 FORX=0TO99:READIN$(2,X) -NEXT 


150 FORX=0TO99:READINS(3,X) :NEXT 


160 CLS:PRINT"A SIMULATION OF SIMUL-80" 


170 PRINT: PRINT"DENNIS BATHORY KITSZ" : PRINT"OCTOBER, 1980" 


180 FORX=1TO1000:NEXT:CLS 


Listing continues 



register, which, had the program been long- 
er, might have heid the thousands place. At 
instruction 00, the program finally halts. 
The I/O device may then read the values in 
BC; the final equal sign code will have been 
replaced with the lower two digits of the 
total, and the position foltowing will contain 
the upper digit of the total. The human may 
then read that total from the I/O device; it 
should be the correct answer. 

One additional case needs to be dealt 
with. If an error was found in the coding (ad- 
dress #19), the program wilt move to ad- 
dress #83. Here the B and C register point- 
ers are decremented to a position previous 
to the offending code, and that value is 
changed to 99; the pointer is re-incremented 
to the offending code, and the program 
halts. The I/O device then retrieves the con- 
tents of the BC register pair list. The human 
reading the final list can then see by the 99 
code and the position of the pointer that the 
program did not conclude properly, and that 
an offending code was the cause of the pro- 
gram's halt. 

The Rules of the Game 

At power-up, the program counter (PC) 
should set the flip-book to 01, the accumu- 
lator (A) is zero, the flags (Z and CY) both 
read not set, and all the register (B, C, H, k) 
arrows are in their first position. Memory 
(MEM) sets its card to position 01, to match 
that held by PC. The instruction decoder 
(ID), data bus, and address bus are quiet. 
The computer is now idling. 

The game begins when the human com^ 
pletes coding the addition/subtraction 
problem and hands it to the input/output 
(I/O) device. For this simulation, the I/O 
device acts like a direct memory access 
(DMA) circuit, which is independently capa- 
ble of placing information into memory 
while the microprocessor is halted. The col- 
umn of numbers is split and transferred to 
the B and C registers' wall card. 

If the input was 06 01 17 02 10 03 
(6 + 17-10 = ), the transferred items would 
read: 

e REGISTER C REGISTER 



(tens digit) 


(ones digit) 





6 





1 


1 


7 





2 


1 








3 



When this work is complete, the I/O device tells the clock 
"ready", which allows the processor, whose operation hsd 
been suspended during human input, to continue. 

Critical to the operation of any micropro- 
cessor is the system clock, and this is true 
of the Simul-80 device as well. The clock 
must call out, for all to hear, "Cycle one!" At 



80 Microcomputing, April1981 • 161 




FOR THE TRS-80 MOD I 

DUAICASE* 

UPPER/lowercase, full time from power- 
up; NO software; Standard typewriter 
keyboard operation (shift to UPPERCASE); 
Control characters can be displayed; 128 
Total character set plus full graphics. 

KEYBOARD DEBOUNCE* 

Extra keyboard debounce, full time from 
power-up; NO software. If dirty keys 
are a problem, this is for you. No 
charge. 

BLOCK CURSOR* 

Replaces the underline style cursor di- 
rectly. Easier to locate on a full screen. 
NO distracting blinking. No charge. 

SHORT CASSETTE LEADER* 

For tape based systems. Does NOT 
change baud rate. Only shortens recorded 
leader. Saves four seconds of waiting 
time. Great for data files! No conflict 
with high baud rate tape systems. 
$10.00 extra. 

ELECTRONIC SHIFT-LOCK* 

No extra keys or switches. Simply tap 
either shift key, UPPERCASE lock, normal 
shift unlocks. $30.00 extra. 

SWITCHABLE* 



Offers peace of mind. Toggles between 
original factory operation and "PATCH" 
enhanced. $25.00 extra. 

Call Now (208) 883-0611 

CECDAT, INC. ^62 

p. O. Box 8963 
Moscow, ID 83843 



Name 
Street 



City 



State ZIP 

n Check, Money Order, Bank Draft 
D VISA, MASTERCHARGE, Purchase 

Orders (add 3%) 

Card/PO No. 



Expiration Date 



Today's Date — - 

You must check one: 

n "WEM SIZE" D "MEMORY SIZE" 
THE PATCH $69.97 

TOTAL OPTIONS. . . 

ID Sales Tax 3% (Id Res) 

Ship. & Hand. @ 2.50 ea 

COD ADD $2.00 ea. . . 



TOTAL ORDER -- -.. 

Price valid through April 30, 1981 
■TBS-80 is a trademark of Tandy Corporation. 



"A crewcut is desirable, along with 
a touch of West Virginia twang/' 



190 

200 

210 

220 

230 

240 

250 

260 

27 

280 

290 

300 

310 

320 

330 

340 

350 

360 

370 

37 5 

380 

390 

395 

400 

405 

410 

415 

420 

425 

430 

435 

440 

445 

450 

460 

470 

480 

490 

500 

510 

520 

530 

540 

550 

560 

570 

580 

590 

600 

610 

620 

630 

640 

650 

660 

670 

680 

690 

700 

710 

720 

730 

740 

750 

760 

770 

780 

790 

800 

810 

820 

830 

840 

15 

86 

87 



PRINT"NOW PRINTING INSTRUCTION SET. ..": PRINT 
PORX-0TO47:PRINTIN$(l,Xj " "INS(2,X) , :NEXT 
PRINT:PRINT"PRESS ENTER TO CONTINUE"; 
X=PEEK (144 00) :IPX=1THEN23 0ELSE220 
CLS:FORX=48T099:PRINTIN$(l,X) " "INS (2,X) , ;NEXT 
PRINT;PRINT"PRESS ENTER TO CONTINUE, CLEAR TO REPEAT" 
X=PEEK ( 14400 ) : IFX=1THEN920ELSEIFX=2THEN160ELSE250 
DATA00, 01, 02, 03, 04, 05, 06, 07, 08, 09, 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15 
DATA16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 23, 24, 25, 26, 27 ,28,29,30,31 
DATA32, 33, 3 4, 35, 36, 37, 3 8, 39, 40, 41, 42, 43, 44, 45, 46, 47 
DATA48, 49, 50, 51, 52, 53, 54, 55, 56, 57, 58, 5 9, 5 0,61, 6 2, 63 
DATA64, 6 5, 66, 67, 6 8, 6 9, 7 0,7 1,7 2, 7 3, 7 4, 7 5, 76, 77, 7 8, 7 9 
DATA80, 81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 95 
DATA96,97,98 ,99 

DATA"NOP ","LD A, (B) '',"LD A,[C) ",INC BC PTR,"LD A, (H) 
DATA"LD A, (L) " , **ERROR** , INC HL PTR,DEC HL PTR,DEC BC PTR 
DATA"LD {H),A " , "LD (L),A " , "LD A, " , "LD (B),A " , "LD (C),A 
DATA**ERR0R**,**ERROR**,**ERROR**,**ERROR**,**ERR0R**,"CP A, " 

**ERROR**,**ERROR**,"ADD A, (H) " 
","SUB A, {C} ","SUB A, " 
",**ERROR**,"JP NC, ","JP " 
**ERROR**,**ERROR**,**ERROR**,"CLR A 
**ERROR**,**ERROR**,**ERROR** 
**ERROR**,**ERROR**,**ERROR** 
**ERROR** , **ERROR** , **ERROR** 
**ERROR** , **ERROR** , **ERROR** 
**ERROR** , **ERROR** , **ERROR** 
**ERROR** , **ERROR** , **ERROR** 
**ERROR**,**ERROR**,**ERROR** 
**ERROR**,**ERROR**,**ERROR** 
**ERROR**,**ERROR**,**ERROR** 
**ERROR**,**ERROR**,**ERROR** 
**ERROR**,**ERROR**,**ERROR** 
**ERROR**, "HALT " 



DATA**ERROR**,**ERROR**i 
DATA"ADD A,(L) " , "ADD A, 
DATA"SUB A, (B) ", "JP z, 
DATA**ERROR**,**ERROR**, 
DATA**ERROR**,**ERROR**, 
DATA**ERROR**,**ERROR**, 
DATA**ERROR**,**ERROR**, 
DATA**ERROR**,**ERROR**, 
DATA**ERROR*-*,**ERROR**, 
DATA**ERROR**,**ERROR**, 
DATA**ERROR**,**ERROR**, 
DATA**ERROR**,**ERROR**i 
DATA**ERROR**,**ERROR**, 
DATA**ERROR**,**ERROR**, 
DATA**ERROR**,**ERROR**, 
DATA**ERROR**,**ERROR**i 
DATANO OPERATION - SERVES AS DELAY 
DATALOAD ACC . WITH CONTENTS OF B 
DATALOAD ACC. WITH CONTENTS OF C 
DATAINCREHENT BC POINTER POSITION 
DATALOAD ACC. WITH CONTENTS OF H 
DATALOAD ACC. WITH CONTENTS OF L 
DATANO SUCH INSTRUCTION . . . ERROR 
DATAINCREMENT HL POINTER POSITION 
DATADECREMENT HL POINTER POSITION 
DATADECREMEHT BC POINTER POSITION 
DATALOAD CONTENTS OF H WITH ACC. 
DATALOAD CONTENTS OF L WITH ACC. 
DATALOAD ACC. WITH NEXT VALUE 
DATALOAD CONTENTS OF B WITH ACC. 
DATALOAD CONTENTS OF C WITH ACC. 
DATANO SUCH INSTRUCTION ... ERROR 
DATANO SUCH INSTRUCTION ... ERROR 
DATANO SUCH INSTRUCTION ... ERROR 
DATANO SUCH INSTRUCTION ... ERROR 
DATANO SUCH INSTRUCTION ... ERROR 
DATACOHPARE ACC. WITH NEXT VALUE 
DATANO SUCH INSTRUCTION ... ERROR 
DATANO SUCH INSTRUCTION ... ERROR 
DATANO SUCH INSTRUCTION ... ERROR 
DATANO SUCH INSTRUCTION ... ERROR 
DATAADD CONTENTS OF H TO ACC. 
DATAADD CONTENTS OF L TO ACC. 
DATAADD NEXT VALUE TO ACC. 
DATASUB. CONTENTS OF C FROM ACC. 
DATASUB NEXT VALUE FROM ACC. 
DATASUB. CONTENTS OF B FROM ACC. 
DATAIF Z IS SET THEN LET PC=NN 
DATANO SUCH INSTRUCTION . . . ERROR 
DATAIF CY NOT SET THEN LET PC^NN 
DATAUNCONDITIONALLY LET PC^NN 
DATANO SUCH INSTRUCTION ... ERROR 
DATANO SUCH INSTRUCTION . . . ERROR 

ERROR 
ERROR 
ERROR 



DATANO SUCH INSTRUCTION 
DATANO SUCH INSTRUCTION 



850 DATANO SUCH INSTRUCTION 

DATACLEAR ACCUMULATOR TO ZERO 

DATANO , NO , NO , NO , NO , NO , NO , NO , NO , NO , NO , NO , NO , NO , NO , NO , NO , NO 

DATANO , NO , NO , NO , NO , NO , NO , NO , NO , NO , NO , NO , NO , NO , NO , NO , NO , NO 

DATANO , NO , NO , NO , NO , NO , NO , NO , NO , NO , NO , NO , NO , NO , NO , NO , NO , NO 

DATANO , NO , NO , NO 

DATAPROGRAM HALTS OPERATION 

CLS 



89( 
90( 
91( 
92t 



Program conlmues 



162 • 80 Microcomputing, April 1981 



INCOME TAX SYSTEM 

FOR TRS-80* MODEL I, II or III 



Our system, for the magnificent line of TRS-80 Computers, is doing, 
right now, thousands of lightning-fast, error-free tax returns a day in 
accounting offices nationwide. 

Why not in yours? The investment is minimal. Our system requires no 
special operator training. Runs on your TRSDOS, nothing else to buy. 

Features no other tax system, for any computer, has— 

1. Full interactive user control, in tax-form language only, line-by-line. 

2. Screen display of full 1040 and all schedules, prior to printout. 

3. All formats IRS and State approved. 

4. Schedule amounts automatically entered on Form 1040. 

5. Your Preparer's Information automatically printed at bottom of Page 2, Form 1040. 

6. Built-in Validation Check tests entire system, hardv^are and software. 

7. Special printer adjustment routines: Margin Offset. Text Position, etc. 

8. Fills in pre-printed forms (we supply) or use overlays. Your choice. 

9. AUTOMATICALLY COMPUTES: Tax — Earned Income Credit — Maximum/Minimum Tax ~ 
Least Tax Method —All Percentage of Income Limitations — All Fixed Limitations. 

DOES INCOME AVERAGING IN EIGHT SECONDS! 

10. Full support through the tax season, no charge. 

11. Inexpensive yearly updates in accordance with tax-law changes. 

12. Modular construction — Lets you order the type and size system you need. 

Prices start at $237.95 {1040 & Schedule A) 
25-page Descriptive Manual - $7.50 

(Refundable on order) 

MINIMUM SYSTEM REQUIRED: 
Model I, 48K, 1 Disk Drive 

CONTRACT SERVICES ASSOCIATES 

706 SOUTH EUCLID • ANAHEIM, CA 92802 ''^^ 
TELEPHONE: (714) 635-4055 



'TRSeo is a trademark of Tandy Co'p 



r 



OURS 
WORK! 

ACCOUNTING 
PROGRAMS 

from the company with 

years of experience 

on small computers 

and thousands of customers 



prices resulting from 
volume sales 



PACKAGE OF 
5 PRODUCTS 

PRODUCTS 
EACH 

MANUALS 
EACH 



$395. 
$95. 
$20. 



GENERAL LEDGER 

PAYROLL 

ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE 

A ceo U NTS PA YABLE 

DEPRECIA TION 

for 

TRS-80* 

MODEL I with TRSDOS* 
MODEL a with CP/M + 

OTHER CP/Mt SYSTEMS 



Product Info & 
License I Order 
Form. 




PHONE ^"^ 

(503) 476-1467 

840I\I.W. 6th STREET, SUITE 3 
GRANTS PASS, OREGON 97526 

*Trademark Radio Shack, Div. Tandy Corp. 
^Product Digital Research, Inc. 



930 
940 
950 
960 
970 
980 
990 
1001 



1 

1 

1 

1 

1 

1060 

1070 

1080 

1090 

1100 

1110 

1120 

1130 

1140 

1150 

1160 

1170 

1180 

1185 

1190 

1200 

1210 

1220 

1230 

1240 

1250 

1260 

1262 

1265 

1270 

1280 

1290 

1300 

1305 

1310 

1320 

1330 

1340 

1350 

1360 

1370 

1380 

1390 

1400 

1410 

1420 

1430 

1440 

1450 

1460 

1470 

1480 

1490 

1500 

1510 

1520 

1530 

1540 

1550 

1560 

1570 

1580 

1590 

1600 

1610 

1620 

1630 

1640 

1650 

1660 

1670 

1680 

1690 



PRINT"READY TO ACCEPT SIMUL-80 PROGRAM LISTING ... AN" 
PRINT"ADDRESS WILL PRESENTED; ENTER THE MACHINE CODE." 
PRINT"THE MNEMONIC WILL BE DISPLAYED. TO TERMINATE THE" 
PRINT"LISTING, ENTER 100 INSTRUCTIONS OR TYPE LETTER X." 
PRINT"YOU MAY BEGIN ENTERING INSTRUCTIONS BELOW:" 
PRINTSTRINGS(6 4,95) ; 
PRINT"ADDRESS: CODE: MNEMONIC: DESCRIPTION:" 

PRINT" " 

Q5=INKEYS:FORN=1TO300:NEXT:X=522:Y=1 

A=0:X=X+57:PRINT@X,INS(1,Y) ; :X=X+7 

PRINT@X,CHR${95) ; :AS=INKEY$ 

IFA$=CHR5 [8)THENPRINTiax, " "; 

IFAS=CHRS [8)THENA=A-1:IFA<0THEN107 0ELSEX=X-1:GOTO1030 

GOTO1080 

A=0:GOTO1030 

IFAS=""THEN10 30ELSEIFAS="X"THEN117 0ELSEPRINT@X,A$; 

A=A+1:IFA=2THEN1100ELSEX=X+1:GOTO103 

X=X-1:B9=CHRS (PEEK ( 153 60+X) ) :CS= (CHR$ (PEEK ( 15361+X) ) ) 

DS-^BS+C$:R=VAL(D$) ;FORN=0TO99 

IFIN$(1,N)=D$THENPRINT@X+7,IN$(2,N) " "ELSENEXTN 

PRINT@X+20,INS(3,N) ; 

PR?(l,Y)=D$:PR$(2,y)=INS(2,N) :GOSUB155 

IFX>90 0THENX=52 2:PRINT@X+62, STRINGS (54,32) ; 

Y-Y+1: IFY=101THEN1170ELSE1020 

FORX=1TO5 00:NEXT:CLS 

PRINT"PROGRAM ENTRY IS COMPLETE; A LIST FOLLOWS." 

PRS [1,0)=PRS (1,10 0) :PRS(2,01=PRS(2,100) : PR$ (3 , 0) =PR$ (3 , 100 ) 

FORY=YTO100:PRS(l,y)-" " :PRS (2,y)=" ":NEXT 

PRINT: X=l : FORy-lTO10 

F0RX=XT0X+9:PRINT,INS(1,X) ,PRS(1,X) ,PRS(2,X) ;PRS{3,X) :NEXTX 

PRINT: PRINT 

PRINT"ENTER TO CONTINUE, CLEAR TO REPEAT, " ; 

PRINTCHRS{94) " TO EDIT..." 

Q=PEEK(14400) 

IFQ=1THENNEXTYELSEIFQ=2THEN126 5ELSEIFQ=6 4THEN1350ELSE125 

GOTO1270 

CLS:PRINT:GOTO1200 

CLS:PRINT"THE PROGRAM IS ENTERED AND EDITED." 

PRINT"THE FOLLOWING CHOICES ARE AVAILABLE: " iPRINT 

PRINT"1. COMPLETE RESTART" : PRINT" 2 . RE-EDIT PROGRAM" 

PRINT"3. RUN PR0GRAM":PRINT"4. END SIMULATION" 

PRINT"5. SEND LIST TO PRINTER" 

PRINT: PRINT"PLEASE ENTER THE NUMBER OF YOUR CHOICE" 

AS=INKEY$:IFAS=""THEN132 

X^VAL(A9] :ONXGOTO110, 120 0,166 0,37 7 0,6 400, 127 

GOTO127 

A=0:B=1:K=128:FORC^1TO20 0:NEXTC:QS=INKEYS 

PRINT(aK,CHRS (32) ; : AS-INKEY$ : IFAS= " "THEN137 0ELSE13 80 

PRINT§K,CHRS(14 3) ; :GOTO136 

IFAS=CHR$( 13 )THENCLS: PRINT: PRINT :NEXTy 

IFA$=CHRS (10)THENK=K+6 4:GOTO136 

PRINT@K,AS; : K=K+1 : A=A+1 : IFA-2THEN1410 ELSE1360 

D=PEEK[15358+K) : E=PEEK ( 15359+K) 

N-0:F$-CHR$(D1+CHRS[E) :F=VAL(F$) 

G-VAL ( CHR$( PEEK ( 1537 4+K))+CHRS (PEEK [ 1537 5+K)) ) :PR$(1,G)-F$ 

IFIN5(1,N)-PRS(1,G)THEN1450ELSEN=N+1:IFN=100THEN14 50ELSE14 4( 

IFF=12ORF-20ORF=27QRF=29ORF-31ORF-33ORF=34THEN14 90ELSE 

PRS (3,G)="" 

PRS (2,G)-INS(2,N) :A-0:K=K+6 2:B=B+1:IFB>10THEN148 0ELSE136 

CLS: PRINT: PRINT: NEXTY 

PR$(2,G3=IN$(2,N) :K=K+2 

AS-INKEVS:IFA$-""THEN15 00 ELSEPRINT@K, AS ; : K=K+1 

AS=INKEYS:IFAS=""THEN1510 ELSEPRINT@K, AS ; :K=K+123 

PRS ( 3, G)=CHRS( PEEK ( 15236 +K) ) +CHR$ (PEEK ( 15237 +K) ) :A=0 

PRS(1,G+1)-PRS(3,G) :PRS(2,G+1)-" " : PRS (3 ,G+1) =" " 

B-B+2:IFB>10THEN1480 ELSE1360 

IFR=12ORR=20ORR-27ORR=29THEN157 

IFR^31ORR=33ORR=34THEN157 ELSERETURN 

A-0 

AS=INKEYS: IFAS=CHRS ( 8) THENPRINT@X+A+3 , " " 
IFAS-CHRS(8)THENA=A-1:IFA<0THENA=0:GOTO1580 
IFAS=""THEN15 8 ELSEPRINT@X+A+3 , AS ; 
A=A+1: IFA>1THEN1620 ELSE1580 

PRS(3,Y)-CHRS(PEEK(153 6 3+X))+CHRS(PEEK(15 36 4+X)) 
PRINT@X+7+LEN(PRS(2,Y) ) ,PRS (3,Y) ; 

PRS(1,Y+1)=PRS(3,Y) :PRS(2,Y+1) = " " : PRS (3 ,y+l) -"" 

Y=Y+1:RETURN 

CLS:PRINT"THE SIMULATION OF THE PROGRAM WILL BEGIN." 

FORX=1TO15 00:NEXT:CLS 

PRINT@0, "HUMAN! ENTER YOUR SIMPLE MATH PROBLEM " 

PRINT"REMEMBER: SUBTOTALS OR TOTALS > AND < 999" 



Program continues 



164 • 60 Microcomputing, April 1981 



By Richard Wilkes 





superscripts 



Now you can easily print 

BOLDFACE, underlined text , 

slashed 0'Sr special characters, 

subscripts (A*"^ X log [An-A„])and more! 



n 



With this enhancement to Radio Shack's Mode! I 
Scripsit,* you will turn a good word processing 
system into a great one. Superscript adds many of 
the features that Fort Wortii left out, including: 

Custom print drivers for: 

Diablo (serial or parallel) 

NEC Spinwriter (serial or parallel) 

RS Line Printer IVVCentronics 737 

RS Daisy 11* 

Standard serial and parallel printers 

User-defined custom drivers (serial or parallel) 

You can call up the disk directory or kill files without 
leaving Scripsit— and without losing your text! Pause 
the printout to insert text from your keyboard or change 
type wheels, then resume printing where you left off. 

Using any printer with backspace capability, you 
can underline text and produce computer-type 
slashed zeros. And on Diablo, Daisy II and NEC 
printers, you can superscript, subscript, underline, 
print boldface and select 10- or 12-pitch. With the 
Line Printer IV/737, you can underline, print elonga- 
ted boldface, select 10 or 16.5 pitch, and use pro- 
portional spacing (unjustified). 

The keyboard driver is now modified to correct for 
repeating key hangups. You may specify spacing 
requirements to eliminate awkward spacing of criti- 
cal text. And, with Superscript, you can now enter 
special characters (brackets, braces, etc.) that are 
not found on the TRS-80* keyboard. 

All these capabilities, and more, are available when 
you add Superscript to your Model I Scripsit pro- 
gram. Available for just $29.95 on disk, including 
easy instructions for patching to Scripsit and an 
enhanced lowercase driver. 



t^34 




Acorn 

Software Products, Inc. 



634 North Carolina Avenue, S.E., Washington, D.C. 20003 



SYSTEM 
SAVERS 

By Tom Stiboll 




If you ever type "SYSTEM" on your 
TRS-80* this two-program package will 
make life easier for you. 

One of the programs, FLEXL, lets you 
make backup copies of any system for- 
mat tape. Using yourown recorder usual- 
ly means easier loading than with 
machine-duplicated original tapes, and 
you will be able to store your original 
safely away. Copies made using FLEXL 
display the filename of each program as 
it loads, making file searches easier. 

Disk drive owners can use TDtSK to save 
any system format tape onto disk. 
"Editor/Assembler", "Air Raid" and 
other programs cannot normally be 
foaded to disk, but with TDISK, they can. 
It will even load non-contiguous tapes. 
Why put up with slow tape loading? 
TDISK files will load from disk in 
seconds. 

Get this two-program package now for 
only $14.95. Just one of Acorn's fine utili- 
ty programs. 

• trademark ot Tandy Corp. 



These and other popular Acorn programs 
are available now at fine computer stores. 
Ask for thenn. 



DEALER INQUIRIES INVITED 



^See List of Advertisers on page 306 



80 Microcomputing, April 1981 • 165 



FILETRAN 

Transfers your 

TRS-80 Software 

to CP/M 



• Machine language COM FILE 
directly compatible with your 
CP/M system. 

• Automated terminal configurator. 

• Memory displayed in both HEX 
and ASCII. 

• Any disk Sector-Selected and 
displayed in both HEX and ASCII. 

• Transfers both data and program 
files by file name byte by byte. 

• Newly created files scanned for 
potential errors between level II 
BASIC and MBASIC 5 or 
later. 

• CP/M files scanned for any 
selected string, 

• Searches any program for all 
occurrences of any string. 

• Generates a variable cross refer- 
ence. Invaluable feature for any 
system level conversion and 
debugging. 

• Displays both CP/M & TRSDOS 
directories. 

HLETRAN Disk and Manual TRS-80 
I or II $99 

Transfer either way from CP/M 
TRSDOS for Model I $149 

Manual alone (Price credited to 
purchase) $20 

Add $2 shipping and 6H sales tax m 

California. 

Order FILETRAN Today 

DFILETRAN Disk and Manual 
|_:2-Way Xfer feature for Model I 
UManual alone 
DSend descriptive literature 

My check is enclosed for S__ ^ 

Name 

Street . 

City 

State ___- Zip 

DVISA UM/C 



4 digits above name 



CardK 

Signature- 



Sei;d to 



BUSINESS 
PRODUCTS 



609 Livermore Ave. 
Livermore, CA 94550 ,^382 
(415)449-4412 



1700 PRINT"USE NORMAL ARITHMETIC SEQUENCE, I.E., 6+5-3=" : PRINT 

1710 PRINT"ENTER THE PROBLEM BELOW (7 OPERATIONS) ;" :PRINT: X=512 

1720 A$=INKEY$:Q-PEEK(X+153601 :QS=CHRS(Q) 

1730 PRIMT@X,QS; :AS=inKEy$:IFA$=""THENl740 ELSE1750 

1740 PRINT@X,CHR$(143) ; :AS-INKEYS:IFAS-""THEN1730 ELSE1750 

1750 IFAS=CHR$ (13)THEN1790 ELSEIFA$^CHRS { 8) THEK1760 ELSE17 80 

1760 X-X-1: IFX<512THENX=512 

1770 QS=" ":PRINT@X," ";:GOTO1730 

17 80 QS = " " :PRINT(ax,AS;STRINGS(6 0,32) ; ; X=X+1 :GOTO17 3 

1790 PRIKT@X,CHRS(93) ; :X-512 

1800 Ag=A$+CHR$(PEEK(X+15360) ) 

1810 IF[PEEKCX+15360)<42)OR(PEEK(X+15360) >63)THEN1820 ELSE1840 

1820 PRINT" "CHRS(93)CHR$ (93) "ERROR IN CODING AS MARKED" 

1830 PRINT@X+6 4,CHRS(91) ; :GOTO16 80 

184 X-X+1:IFPEEK(X+1536 0)=61THEN1880 

1850 IFPEEK(X+15360)=93THEN1900 

186 IFPEEK(X + 15 36 0)=32THENX = X4-1ELSE1B00 

1870 GOTO1860 

1880 AS-A$+"=" 

1890 IFLEFT$ tA$,l)^""THENA$=RIGHT5(A$, (LEN(A$)-1) ) :GOTO189 

1900 CLS:PRINT"THE PROBLEM IS AS FOLLOWS: " :PRINT: PRINTAS : PRINT 

1910 PRINT"AND IS CODED AS FOLLOWS: ": PRINT: H=LEN (AS) 

1920 CD$(l,l)^"03";B=2:FORX^H-lTOlSTEP-2 

193 IFX^1THEN203 0ELSEIFASC(MID$ [AS,X-1,1) ) <48THEN1960ELSE194 

1940 CD$(1,B)=MIDS(AS,X-1,2) :X=X-1:IFX=1THEN2040 ELSE1970 

1950 GOTO1980 

1960 CD${1,B)="0"+MID$(AS,X,1) 

197 IFMID${AS,X-l,l)="+"TeENCD$(l,B+l)="01" 

19 80 IFMIDS(AS,X-l,l)="-"THENCD$(l,B+l)-"02" 

1990 IFMIDS(A$,X-1,1)="="THENCD$(1,B+1)="03" 

2000 B=B+2:NEXTX:IFB>16THEN2010 ELSE2040 

2010 FORX-1TO500:NEXT;CLS:PRINT"CALCULATION TOO LONG..."; 

2020 PRINT"7 OPERATIONS { + ,-,-) MAX. ": FORX = 1TO500 -.NEXT: GOTO1660 

2030 CDS(1,B) -"0"+LEFTS(A$,l) 

204 J=1:F0RX=B-2T01STEP-1:CD${2,J}=CDS(1,X) : PRINTCD$ ( 1 , X) " "; 

2050 J=J+1:NEXTX: PRINT: PRINT: PRINT 

2060 PRINT"CHECK THE PROBLEM AGAINST THE RULES FOR CODING." 

2070 PRINT"IF THERE ARE ANY DISCREPANCIES, RECODE THE PROBLEM." 

2080 PRINT"ERROR-CHECKING IS DELIBERATELY LEFT INCOMPLETE." 

2090 PRINT;PRINT"PRESS ENTER TO CONTINUE, CLEAR TO RECODE..." 

2100 Q=PEEK (14400 ] :IFQ=lTHEN2i20 ELSEIFQ=2THENCLS :GOTO1690 

2110 GOTO2100 

2120 CLS:PRINT"INSIDE IS THE DORMANT SIMULATOR " 

2130 EORX=1TO400:NEXT:OUT254,6 
2140 REM * SIMULATION BEGINS 

215 IX=0:IY=0:DAS=" DATA " :ADS=" ADDRESS " :VL=0 

216 CLS:FORY=0TO47:SET(0,Y) :SET(13,Y) :SET(84,Y) : SET (127 ,Y) :NEXT 
2170 SET(1,0) :SET(2,0) :SET(11,0) :SET{12,0) :PR1NT@2, "B C"; 

2180 PRINT@50, "PROGRAM"; 

2190 FORX=84TO95:SET(X,0) : NEXT: FORX=118T0127 :SET(X,0) :NEXT 

2200 FORX=0TO13:SET(X,47) .-NEXT: F0RX=84T0127 :SET(X,47) :NEXT 

2210 FORY=0TO20:SET(16,Y) :SET(29,Y) :NEXT:PRINT@10,"H L"; 

2220 SET (17 ,0) : SET (18,0) : SET (27,0) : SET (28,0) 

2230 FORX=16TO29:SET(X,20) :NEXT 

2240 FORY=27T034;SET(16,Y) :SET(29,Y) :NEXT:PRINT(a5e6, " Z "; 

2250 FORY^39T047:SET(16,Y) :SET(29,Y) :NEXT:PRINT@842, " CY"; 

226 SET (17 ,27] : SET (18, 27) : SET ( 27 , 27 ) : SET (28, 27) 

227 SET (17 ,39) : SET (18, 39) : SET (27, 39) : SET (28, 39) 
2280 FORX=17T028:SET{X,34) :SET(X,47) :NEXT 

2290 FORY=0TO12:SET(32,Y) :SET{81,Y) :NEXT 
2300 PRINT@23, "ACCUMULATOR"; : 
2310 FORX-32T081:SET(X,12) :NEXT 

23 20 FORX=32TO41:SET(X,0) : NEXT : F0RX=7 2T081 : SET (X, ) :NEXT 
2330 F0RY=15TO21:SET(44,X) :SET{81,Y) :NEXT 

2340 FORX=44T081:SET{X,21) :NEXT: PRINT(a351 , "ID" ; 
235 FORX=44T058:SET(X,15) :NEXT: F0RX=6 8T081 : SET (X, 15 ) :NEXT 
2360 F0RY=39T047;SET(44,Y) :SET{61,Y) :SET(65,Y) :SET{81,Y) :NEXT 
2370 F0RX=44T061:SET(X,47) : NEXT: F0RX=65T081 : SET (X , 47) :NEXT 
2380 FORX-44T049:SET(X,39) :NEXT: FORX=58T061 : SET (X, 39) :NEXT 
2390 F0RX=65T068:SET(X,39) :NEXT: F0RX=7 8T081 : SET (X, 39) :NEXT 

24 00 PRINTia85 8,"PC"; :PRINTia8 67 ,"MEH"; 
2410 FORY-24TO3 0:SET(6 5,Y) :SET(81,Y) :NEXT 

2420 FORX^65TO81:SET(X,30) : NEXT: PRINT@546 , "CLOCK"; 

2430 SET(66,24) : SET (8 0, 24) :PRINT(a66 2, "BUS"; 

24 40 BC=66 :HL=7 4:AC=152;PR=108:ID-410:CL=612 

24 50 ZP=650:CY=906:PC=922:ME=932:BU=596 

2460 QQ=1;GOSUB2650 :GOSUB2490 :GOSUB2540 ;GOSUB2600 

2470 GOTO6240 

2490 REM*SUBROUTINE TO SET UP INPUT REGISTER AND CLOCK 

250 F0RX=1T0J:PRINT@(BC+(X-1) *6 4) ,LEFT$ (CD$ (2,X) , 1 ) ; 

2510 PRINT@(BC+2+(X-l) *64) ,RIGHT$ (CD$ ( 2 ,X) ,1) ; iNEXTX 

Program conlinues 



166 • 80 Microcomputing, April 1981 




More CFR Spectaculars!!! 



ASCII Parallel Input 

''SELECTRIC Typewriter/Printer 

TRS-80 COMPATIBLE 



Only 

.^^^^ ^699001 

TYPE tLEMENT *^^E.^^^^ 
"ir INCL UOEO 

• CDmpatihle w/Prinler Cable or Expansion Interlace •CoriBlele S fieaily For Use 

• Relurbished Seleclric Printer >Corresp. lOlllcel Code 

• Parallel Input. 15" Frame. 132 Cols. •Data IncliitJed 

• Uppers Lower Case Typewriler/Prinler •Fully Formed Characters. Approi 15 CPS 

Add S20 00 tor Hanaiing 8 PacKaging Pay Shipping When Delivered 

I This Month's Specials 

SHUGART 901 8' Floppy Disk Drive 

Used, wdole untested. Data 5 Schematics included 2/*499.0G 

SHUGABT SA400 S'V Min, Floppy ""' '"""""^ 

Used wtiole, uniesied Data S Schematics included 2/*299.00 

CDC9400 (WPl BR-803) 8" Floppy Drive 

Sott Sectored Used, whoie. untested Data 5 Schematics 

mcluded 2/'399.00 

12" VIDEO MONITOR Motorola #XW-351 J"- smp,„,„g 

80x24 or 1Sx64 Display Requires only Composite Video input and 

110/230 VAC, 50/60 Hz Tested, functional & guaranteed Data 

and schematics included '95.00ea. 

9" VIDEO MONITOR Molorola #XM-227 ''■'"■' ^''™'"^' 

Same characteristics as above 12" video Tested, lunctiorial 

and guaranteed. Data 8. Schematics Included '79.00ej. 

^ Call For Our Bargain-Packed PERIPHERAL FLYER!!! ^ 

W Prices Are Subject To Change On All Items ^ 





t;^CFR 



Associates, Inc. 



MAIL ORDERS: 

Box 144, Newton. N.H. 

038S8 



^ PHONE ORDERS: 

j-i 617/372-8536 
ISorii/, No Colled Calls) 
Maslercharge & VtSA Welcoiiie 



,^316 
WAREHOUSE: 
18 Granite St. 
Haverhill, Mass. 01830 



FIXED ASSET ACCOUNTING 

Stop paying high professional fees for clerical work. This extremely 
flexible system will maintain all records which are related to fixed assets 
and depreciation. 

■ Any method; straight line, declining balance, ADR, sum of the 
years digits 

* Projects depreciation for current & future years 

■ Complete audit trail with detailed fixed asset ledger, acquisi- 
tion and disposal reports 

' Computes investment tax credit and additional first-year 

depreciation 
" Provides reports summarized by general ledger account, asset 

group, department, and more 

System requirements are 32K and two or more disk drives for Model I, 
64K with one or more disc drives for the Model II, and 32K with at least 
one disk drive for the Model III. All versions require Disk Basic and will 
run under either TRSDOS or NEWDOS. 

FAAS-1 For Model I S 1 49 

FAAS-2 For Model II $189 

FAAS-3 For Model III S 149 



CASH FLOW PROJECTION 

Get control over your personal finances. This easy-to-use system main- 
tains a detailed analysis of your future cash requirements and estimated 
income, tracking the information you need to schedule payments, avoid 
minimum balance fees and forecast the amount of your uncommitted 
funds at any point in time for at least a year into the future. The tape 
versions require 1 6K & either Level II or Model '" " ■ '^■ 



■ tape 
vciarvjiia ici^uiic i fix oi cilmci ucvci 11 ui Fviuuci III uasic. Disc versions re- 
quire 32K, Disc Basic, at least one drive and will run under TRSDOS or 
NEWDOS. 



Tape Versions 
TCASH-1 For Model I , , , S 19.95 
TCASH-3 For Model III .. $ 19.95 



Disk Versions 
DCASH-1 For Model I . . . S 24.95 
DCASH-3 For Model III . , S 24,95 



C.O.D. S 2. BO ADDITIONAL CONN. RESIDENTS PLEASE ADD SALES TAX 

THE SYSTEMWORKS ^473 
P.O. Box 359 Flood Road Marlborough, Conn. 06447 




Dept.C .-' Box 8?? ./" Ko. Hollywood, Ca. 91603 ./ 213-764-3131 



Word Processing 

^ SU:BSCIgIF>T 5.0 »79.95 

With our software, your TRS-SO^Model I or III 
and LIKE PRIMTER IV ar CENTRONICS " 737 can easily 
produce right-justified, p rop C3*^t:ic3n a.1 spaced 
documents with this typ^^^t look. 

EPSON '1>I3C — SO owners can underline and use all 
1 2 fonts with this professional quality software. 

With SELECTRICS and most other printers, you can 
take advantage of our 100+ pages of excellent 
documentation and 90+ functions, includingi 

multiple top and bottom titles 

line split, joirti and duplicate 

global search and change 

visible control words 

very large documents 

block move and copy 

right-justification 

table of contents 

form letters 

underlining 

cen tering 

autosave 

super^^,.._ index , printers) 

scripts,^, ^1 some^ 

^'"^5ub^'='''P'^^ 

Version 5.0 incorporates all features of our earlier 
PROP, SUBEDIT, SUBSCRIPT, and MININIT components, 
and adds several user-requested new features. It is based 
on IBM's highly-regarded CMS Time-Sharing system, so if 
you've been looking for "mainframe" quality Word 
Processing, you've just found it. 



V,so« 



#•** 



V\^^ 



9VV 



.\ft\c': 



VI 



% 



'<^rnc 



# DVORAK: 

Keyboard translator with press-on labels! 519.95 

Typing Tutor (requires a translator)! tI9.95 

Special! Both DVORAK programs! $34.95 

Software Speedups 

FA.STEF£ «29.95 

Analyses executing BASIC programs, then identifies a 
simple program change to improve their execution speed, 
HQ hardware changes are involved, works with packages 
as well as your own code and can reduce run-times by 
1 O — SOI^t Example! "move selection" in "Othello" 
dropped from 48 to 32 seconds. This will be one of your 
most valuable utilities! 



« 19,95 



Models I and III, tape or disk! 
Models I and III, 32-48K disk! 
Model I! 



FASTER, DVORAK 
SUBSCRIPT 
COMPRESS, XTEND40 



\« 



Makes many Model I BASIC programs faster and 
30-60% smaller by removing blanks and selected remarks 
at your option. Processes 800 multi-statement lines in 3. 
seconds, needs only 270 bytes, 

♦ 3CTEtIP-aO *14.95 

Quickly upgrades Model I 35-track disks to 40 tracks 
with your 40-track drives and Operating System. 

OI?r3EK>IJJG 



Tape versions run on 16-48K Level II, Disk versions run 
with TRSDOS"'2.3, NEWDOS, NEWDOS/SO' and Model III 
TRSDOS 1.1 S' up. 

Please add $3.00 for postage & handling, and 6% tax in 
Calif. Checks, C.O.D.'s ok. 
Spring Special! We pay handling on orders over $25.00. 

SOlSCtJS: Model I orders over $50.00 will include a 
diskette "re-labeller" program F!REIE ! 



J 



^See List of Advertisers on page 308 



80 Microcomputing, April1981 • 167 



pQ^t CATALOGUE 

^ WITH EVERY ORDER! 

SCRIPMOD 

By TERRY FIVEASH 



Scripmod Features 

• Allows you to use all those neat things 
your printer does from Scripsit! 

• For use with any smart printer. 

• Does nol require special drives for 
your printer. 

« Use with LP IV, DW II, IDS 440, IDS 
460, NEC, DIABLO, QUME, and 
more! 

UNDERLINING, SUPERSCRIPT, 
SUBSCRIP, BOLD TYPE, PITCHES. 

YOU CAN EVEN UNDERLINE SPACES! 



This Program is a must for 

every Scripsit user. 

Scripmod is supplied on disc 

with full documentation. 

$39.95 



Print Central 

A utility for those with smart printers. 
To send a control code to your printer, 
simply press the clean key and the ap- 
propriate letter key and see instant 
execution. Any code from 1 to 31 may be 
sent. 

MODEL I — $24.95 




so KISMET 

By Wendell Routon 
Super version of this 
old game lor your 
Model I or Model III 
TRS-8D Grapfilcs, 16K 
Level II Minimum. 

S14.95 



THE BLACK BOX 
By Ken Hayes 
Shoo! rays through black 
box, Fn search ol hidden 
stars. Watch outi 
They're not always 
where they seem Model 
I or III, 16K Level M Min- 
imun J14,95 





VIDEO SCREEN FILTER 

Hard acrylic plastic screen 
that's easy to Inatalt— easy 
on your eyes. 

GS 1 - Model I. .$14,95. 
GS2- Model II. Ill .$14 95 
GS3-Leedex 100 .$14,95 
Special Size $16,95 



THE TEMPLE OF HAH 

By Dan Case 
Rescue the fair prin- 
cess from the clutches 
of the people of Rah 
before it's too latel 
Super adventure with 
tounti'. For Model I or 
III. 16K Level II mini- 
mun, $14.95 

-^- 



VISA — MASTERCARD ! 

Add 3% 



VISA' 



Oklahoma Residents add 2% tax. 
C.O.D.'s WELCOME! 




PRODUCTS CO 

414 South Oak 
Sapulpa, Okla. 74066 

[918] 224-9588 



2520 

2530 

2540 

2545 

2550 

2555 

2560 

2570 

2580 

2590 

2600 

2610 

2620 

2630 

2640 

2650 

2660 

2670 

2680 

2690 

2700 

2710 

27 20 

27 3 

2740 

2750 

2760 

277 

27 80 

27 90 

2800 

2810 

2820 

2830 

2840 

2850 

2860 

2870 

2880 

2890 

2900 

2910 

2920 

2930 

2940 

2950 

2960 

2970 

2980 

2990 

3000 

3010 

3020 

3030 

3040 

3050 

3060 

3070 

3080 

3090 

3100 

3110 

3120 

3130 

3140 

3150 

3160 

3170 

3180 

3190 

3200 

3210 

3220 

3230 

3240 

3250 

3260 

3270 

3280 

3290 

3300 



POKE1536 0+6 4,94:PRINTiaCL,"l"; 

RETURN 

REM*SUBROUTINE TO SET UP PROGRAM 

IFQQ>-10 0THENQQ-QQ-10 

FORX=QQTOQQ-i-13:Xl=X:Qi=QQ:IPXl>=100THENXl=Xl-10 0:Ql=Ql-ll 

PRINT@(PR+{X1-Q1) *64) ,INS(1,X1) " "; 

PRINTPR5 (1,X1) ; : PRINTg (PR+8+ (Xl-Ql ) *6 4 ) ,PRS(2,X1) ; 

PRINT" "PR$ (3,X1) ; :NEXTX 

POKE15360+106 ,94 

RETURN 

REM* SUBROUTINE TO SET UP OUTPUT REGISTER AND PC 

FORX=7 4TO6*6 4STEP6 4:PRINT@X,"0 0"; :NEXTX 

PRINT@ZF,"NOT"; :PRINT@CY, "NOT"; 

POKE1536 0+7 2,94:PRINTiapC, "01"; 

RETURN 

REM*SUBROUTINE TO WRITE BLANK SPACES 

PRINT@AC, STRINGS (10, 32) ; :PRINT@ID," " ; :PRINT@CL," "; 

PRINT@ZF," "; :PRINT@CY," " ; : PRINT@PC, " "; 

PRINT@ME," "; iPRINTiasU," 

RETURN 

REM * BC TO BUSREM*BUS TO BC 

FORX=14T046:SET(X,23) :NEXT: FORY=23T026 :SET(46,y) iNEXT 

F0RX=14T046 : RESET (X, 23} :NEXT 

FORY=23T'026 : RESET ( 46, Y) :NEXT 

RETURN 

REM * BUS TO BC 

FORY=26T023STEP-l:SET(46,Y} :NEXT 

FORX=46T014STEP-l:SET(X,23) ;NEXT 

FORY-26T023STEP-1: RESET ( 46, y) :NEXT 

FORX=46T014STEP-l : RESET (X, 23) :NEXT 

RETURN 

REM * HL TO BUS 

SET (21, 21) : SET {21, 22) : FORX=21T046 : SET (X, 23 ) :NEXT 

FORY=23T026:SET(46,Y) :NEXT 

RESET (21, 21) : RESET (21, 22) : FORX=21T046 : RESET (X, 23 ) :NEXT 

FORY=23T026:RESET{46,Y) :NEXT 

RETURN 

REM * BUS TO HL 

FORY=26r023STEP-l:SET{46,Y) :NEXT 

F0RX=46T021STEP-1:SET(X,23) : NEXT: SET ( 21 , 22) : SET (21, 21) 

FORY=26r023STEP-l: RESET ( 46, Y) :NEXT 

FORX-46T021STEP-1 : RESET (X, 23) :NEXT 

RESET (21, 22) : RESET ( 21 , 21) : RETURN 

REM * A TO BUS 

F0RY=13T023:SET[36,Y) :NEXT: FORX^36T046 : SET (X , 23 ) :NEXT 

FORY-23T026 :SET(46,Y) :NEXT 

FORY=13T023: RESET ( 36, Y) :NEXT 

FORX=36T046 : RESET (X, 23) :NEXT 

FORY=23T026: RESET ( 46, Y) :NEXT 

RETURN 

REM * BUS TO A 

FORY=26T023STEP-l;SET(46,Y) :NEXT 

F0RX=46T036STEP-1:SET(X,23) :NEXT 

FORY=23T013STEP-l:SET(36,Y) :NEXT 

FORY=26T023STEP-l: RESET ( 46, Y] :NEXT 

FORX-46T036STEP-1 : RESET (X, 23) :NEXT 

FORY=23T013STEP-l: RESET ( 36, Y) :NEXT 

RETURN 

REM * MEM TO PC S BACK 

SET(72,37) :FORX=72T052STEP-l:SET[X,36) :NSXT: SET (52 , 37) 

RESET(72,37) : FORX=72T052STEP-l :RESET [X, 36 ) :NEXT 

RESET(52,37) :SET(52,37) 

FORX^52T072:SET(X,36) ;NEXT: SET(72 ,37 ) :RESET ( 52 , 37 ) 

FORX=52T072:RESET{X,36) :NEXT: RESET(72 , 37 ) ;RETURN 

REM * A TO CY & BACK 

FORY=13T023;SET(36,Y) :NEXT:SET (35 , 23 ) :SET(34,23) 

FORY=23T042:SET(3 3,Y) :NEXT: SET (32 , 42 ) : SET (31, 42) 

SET (30,42) :FORY=13T023: RESET (36 ,Y) :NEXT 

RESET(35,23) :RESET (34 , 23 ) 

FORY=23T042: RESET ( 33, Y) :NEXT: RESET (32 , 42 ) 

RESET (31, 42) : RESET (30 , 42 ) : RETURN 

REM * CY TO A 

SET(30,42) :SET(31,42) 

SET (32, 42] :FORY=4 2T023STEP-l:SET(33,Y) ;NEXT 

SET (3 4, 23) : SET (35, 23) : FORy=23T013STEP-l : SET (36 , Y) :NEXT 

RESET (30, 42) : RESET (31 , 42) :RESET (32 , 42) 

FORy=42T023STEP-l : RESET ( 33, y) : NEXT: RESET (34 , 23 ) 

RESET(35,23) : FORY=23T013STEP-l : RESET ( 36 ,Y) :NEXT 

RETURN 

REM * A TO Z & BACK 

FORy=13T023:SET(36,Y) :NEXT-. SET (35 , 23 ) :SET(34,23) 



Program continues 



168 • 80 Microcomputing, April 1981 



Why use their flexible discs: 

Ampex, Athana, BASF, Caelus, Control Data, Dysan, 

IBM, Inmac, K-Line, Maxell, Nashua, Scotch, 

Shugart, Syncom, 3M, Verbatim or Wabash 

when you could be using 

MEMOREX 

for as low as $1.99 each? 

Find the flexible disc you' re now using on our cross reference list... 
then write down the equivalent Memorex part number you should be ordering. 



P'OHlAl FklhllV 


PraaL.cl D«i«]rlE]Tlan 


f-'Tr!^, 


100 price 
Be-alteW 


.™., 


..... 


B«Sf 


C..IJI 


C u>v 


IBU 


,..„. 


Ux.ll 


H,„.. 


S-" 


3hu»n 


=...„ 


v-..^ 


w.„„ 


.^ 


=ir 


::::::::: r 


iB»' CDiij»idfi> (zM H.s. 15 sacurx^ 

leWCemy-lftlflfSIJB.S. ailCiHDh 
CPr MOO Corr.R*tlBln 


::E 


£ 19 

J.55 
3.3S 
!.19 
;.I9 
ZI9 
2.19 
3.3S 
2.50 
2 79 


..,:,.. 


:E 


„., 


«;., 


:z: 


;:::::: 


r: 


.hJ.. 


..... 


::E: 


...■,0, 


;E 


E;E 


:;;:;;;: 


z: 


..;. 


:r:r.:::: 


ahgfl*rl CUmDJIiBH. 3^ hard lucK.. 


S 


2.9S 
3.99 
2.9S 
3.99 
3.20 


- 


..™. 


.™ 


- 


-- 


- 


.,:.» 


-;- 


- 


,.,., 


..".3 


,.;. 


...:„„ 


..._.,=. 


™,« 


.«;. 


::::r::::7 


E:EiHE5:::;:: 


:::: 


3.B4 
3.S-1 
3S4 
3.34 




„.. 


:::: 


- 


z:: 


;;r: 


.»« 


'™::r 


- 


,«., 


.;.c 


::;" 


::;:r 


:;::;;;; 


,..;. 


„.;,. 


::::::::::::::: 




i:™ 


a.49 
3.49 
3.49 
3,49 
3.49 
3.49 
3.49 
3,75 




zz 


;:::: 




r;: 


;r:; 


E:: 


...:.. 


- 


;::::n 


.,:,., 


::: 


":::::: 


E:::';;: 


'z:: 


:i: 


irSrr'- 


..V, ,..,.„.„ 


3..,«X. 


2 9S 


- 


.™., 


- 


c... 


™,v 


- 


.™= 


- 


=..,e. 


.„.. 




,™» 


™..™ 


.,.„„ 


7„0 




\ir^" """" 




3.03 


1.99 
1 99 
1.99 
2.19 
2.19 
2.19 


- 


"f"" 


iz 


- 


- 


- 


:::: 


.;, 


:;:: 


7... 10 


:;;:;:; 


'"" 


"o«!-°o 


:;;»;;; 


'!'! 


"!!" 


5'. ^Ingrti-HflB^ud 


is-!™!!!" 


«i' 


2 24 

2 24 
2.24 


_ 


- 


!«« 




X!o 


- 


_ 


- 


- 


- 


- 


- 


:;:;: 


- 


^ 


_ 


'-.„r°'-"""" 


,.„.,» .„™ 


E:: 


2.74 
S74 


- 


- 


"'i; 


- 


:EE 






..:;= 




:t: 


^>.:« 


- 


^""" 




- 


- 



Memorex Flexible Discs. ..The Ultimate in Memory Excellence 



Quality 

Memorex means quality producls Ihal you can depend on. 
Quality control at Memorex means starting with the best 
materials available. Contmual surveillance throughout the 
entire manufacturing process. The benefit of Me morex's years 
of experience in magnetic media production, resulting, for 
mstance. in proprietary eoalmg formulations. The most sophis- 
ticated testing procedu res you'll fmd anywhere in the business. 

100 Percent Error Free 

Each and every lulemorex Flexible Disc is certified to be 100 
percent error tree. Each track of esch flexible disc is tested. 
Individually, to Ivlemorex's stringent standards of excellence. 
They test signal amplitude, resolution, low-pass modulation, 
overwrite, missing pulse error and extra pulse error. They are 
lorgue-tesled, and competitively tested on drives available 
from almost every major drive manufacturer in the industry 
including drives that l^lemorex manufacturers. Rigid quality 
audits are built into every step of the manufacturing process 
and stringent testing result in a standard of excellence that 
assures you, our customer, of a quality product designed for 
increased data reliability and consistent top performance. 

Customer- Oriented Packaging 

ti,1emorex's commitment to excellence does not stop with a 
Quality product They are proud of their flexible discs and they 
package them with pride. Both their packaging and their 
labeling have been designed with your ease of identification 
and use m mind. The desk-top box containing ten discs is 
convenient tor filing and storage. Both box labels and jacket 
labels provide full information on compatibility, density, sec- 
toring, and record length. Envelopes with multi-language care 
and handling instructions and and color-coded removable 
labels are included. A write-prolecl feature is available to 
provide data security. 

Full One Year Warranty— Your Assurance of Quality 

Memorex Flexible Discs will be replaced free of charge by 
Memorex if they are found to be defective in materials or 
workmanship within one year of the date of purchase. Other 
than replacement, Memorex will not be responsible for any 
damages or losses {including consequential damages! caused 
by the use of Memorex Flexible Discs, 



Quantity Discounts Available 

Memorex Flexible Discs are packed 10 discs to a carton and 10 
cartons to a case. Please order only in increments of 100 units for 
quantity 100 pricing We are also willing to accommodate your 
smaller orders. Quantities less than 100 units are available in 
increments of 10 unils at a 10% surcharge Quantity discounts 
are also available. Order 500 or more discs at the same time and 
deduct 1 %; 1 ,000 or more saves you 2%; 2,000 or more saves you 
3%, 5,000 or more saves you 5% and 1 0,000 or more discs earns 
youa7%discoiintoff our super lew quantity 100 price Almost all 
Memorex Flexible Discs are immediately available from CE. Our 
warehouse facilities are ecuipped to help us get you the quality 
product you need, when you need it. If you need further assistance 
to find the flexible disc that's right for you, call the Memorex 
compatibility hotline. Dial 800-538-8080 and ask for the flexible 
also hotline extertion 0997, In Cali'nrnia dial 800-672-3525. 

Buy with Confidence 

To gel the fastest delivery from CE of your Memorex Flexible 
Discs, send or phone your order directly to our Computer 
Products Division. Be sure to calculate your price using the CE 
prices in this ad. Michigan residents please add 4% sales tax. 
Written purchase orders are accepted from approved govern- 
ment agencies and most well rated firms at a 1 0% surcharge 
tor net 10 billing. AH sales are subject to availability. All sales 
are final. Prices, terms and specifications are subject to 
change without notice. Out of slock items will be placed on 
backorder automatically unless CE is instructed differently 
International orders are invited i^iith a £20.00 Surcharge for 
special handling in addition to shipping charges. All shipments 
are F.O. B.Ann Arbor, Mictiigan, No COD's please. Non-certified 
and loreign checks require bank clearance 

Mail orders to: Communications Electronics. Box 1002, 
Ann Arbor, Michigan 48106 U,SA, Add S5 00 per case or 
partial-case of 100 8-inch discs or $6,00 per case of 100 S'a- 
Inch mini-discs for U.P.S. ground shipping and handling in the 
continental U,S,A, If you have a Master Charge or Visa card, 
you may call anytime and place a credit card order. Order toll- 
free in the United Stales. Ca!l 800-521-4414 If you are 
outside the U,S. or in Michigan, dial 313-994-4444 Dealer 
Inquiries invited All order lines at Communications 
Electronics are staffed 24 hours. 
Copyright '1 981 Communications Electronics' 



, I ■I'l'IH' 




Order Toil-Free! 
(800) 521-4414 




For Data Reliability — Memorex Rexible Discs 

COMMUNICATIONS 
ELECTRONICS" 



a 



Computer Products Division 

854 POoenix Q Box 1 002 a Ann Arbor, Michigan 481 06 U,S.A. 
Call TOLL-FREE (800) 521 -441 4 or outtida U.S.A. (313) 904-4444 




SPECTACULAR 
OFFERS :^ 



BASF "FLEXVniSK" t 

iuperiot Quality data 

storage medium, , 

Certified and guaranteed 'i ^^* 

100% errot free. \~,^ ml 

SINGLE SiDED-SINCLE DENSITY 

5V4" or 8" Diskettes 10/524 

SVi" or 8" Vinyl Storage Pages 1 0/S5 

MAXELL- DISKL I I LS 
The besi quality 
diskette money tan buy 
Approved by Shuyari 
and IBM. 

Sold onii in bo.e; oftO "IKT" l^*^' 

5", 1 side $3.30 

S", 1-side $4.25 

5", 2-side S3,90 

8", 2-side $5.60 

ALL MAXELL DISKETTES ARE DOUBLE DENSITY 

LIBRARY CASE... 

3-rini5 binder album. 

Protects your valuable 

programs on disks 

Fully enclosed and 

protected on all sides. 

Similar to Kas-sette storage box 

Library 3-Ring Binder $6.50 

5Vt" Mint Kas- sette/10 S2.49 

8" Kds-sette/10 $2.99 





DISKETTE DRIVE HEAD CLEAMNC, KIIS 
Prevent head crashei, and 
insure eflitient, error- 
free operation. 

5V4" or 8" 



.$19.50 



SFD CASSETTES 

C-10 Cassettes 10/ $7 J 

(All cassettes include box & labels} 

Get 8 cassettes, C-10 sonic and 
Cassette/8 library album for 

only $8,00 

lAs illuf.t(rfiedl 




HARDHOLE 

Reinloicing ring o! 

tough mylar protects 

disk from damage 

8" Applicator $4 514" Applicator S3 

50/8" Hardholes $8 S'/i" Hardholes 




VISA • MASTEKCHAHGK • .MONFY ORUFRS 
CERTIFIED CHECK • HOR PERSONAL CHECKS 
ALLOW TWO WEEKS • C.O.D. REQUIRES A 10% 

DEPOSIT • CAL, RES, ADD 6% SALES I AX 

MIN $2 SHIPPING & HANDLING • .MINI.MLJM 

ORDER $10 • SATISFACTION GUARANTEED 

OR I ULL RLI L,ND 

Write f(n our Ire*.- (..ualof^ 



ABMr 

PRODUCTS 

631 B ST. 

SAN DIEGO, CA 92101 

(714)235-6602 



3310 
3320 
3330 
3340 
3350 
3360 
3370 
3380 
3390 
3400 
3410 
3420 
3430 
3440 
3450 
3460 
3470 
3480 
3490 
3500 
3510 
3520 
3530 
3540 
3550 
3560 
3570 
3580 
3590 
3600 
3610 
3620 
3630 
3640 
3650 
3660 
3670 
3680 
3690 
3700 
3710 
3720 
3730 
3740 
3750 
3760 
3770 
37 80 
3790 
3800 
3810 
3820 
3830 
3840 
3850 
3860 
3870 
3880 
3890 
3900 
3910 
3920 
3930 
3940 
3950 
3960 
3970 
3980 
3990 
4000 
4010 
4020 
4030 
4040 
4050 
4060 
4070 
4080 
4090 
4100 
4110 



FORY=23T031:SET{33,Y} :NEXT: SET (32 ,31 ) : SET (31, 31) 

SET(30,31) :FORY-13T023:RESET{36,Y) :NEXT 

RESET (35, 23) : RESET (34 , 23 ) :FORY=23T031 : RESET {33 ,Y) ;NEXT 

RESBT[32,31) : RESET (31 , 31 ) :RESET (30 , 31 ) ;RETURN 

REM * Z TO A 

SET (3 a, 31) : SET (31, 31); SET (32, 31) 

FORY=31T023STEP-l:SET(33,Y) :NEXT:SET (34 , 23 ) ;SET{35,23) 

FORY=23T013STEP-l:SET(36,Y) :NEXT 

RESET(30,31) :RESET(31,31) :RESET (32 , 31 ) 

FORY=31T023STEP-l : RESET ( 33, Y) : NEXT: RESET (34 ,23 ) 

RESET (35, 23) : FORY=23T013STEP-l : RESET [36 ,Y) :NEXT 

RETURN 

REM * MEM TO ID 

SET(72,37) :FORX-72TO60STEP-1:SET{X,36) :NEXT 

FORY=36TO22STEP-1:SET[6 0,Y) : NEXT: RESET (7 2 , 37 ) 

FORX=7 2TO6 0STEP-1: RESET (X, 36) :NEXT 

FORY=36TO22STEP-1:RESET(6 0,Y) : NEXT [RETURN 

REM * ID TO BUS 

FORY=22T026:SET(46,Y) : FORN=1TO20 :NEXTN,Y 

PORY=22T026 : RESET { 46 , Y) ; FORN=1TO20 : NEXTN, Y 

RETURN 

REM * MEM TO BUS 

SET(72,37) :FORX-72T046STEP-l;SET(X,36) :NEXT 

FORY=36T033STEP-l:SET(46,Y) :NEXT 

RESET{72,37) : FORX=72T046STEP-l : RESET (X, 36 ) jNEXT 

FORY=36T033STEP-l: RESET [ 46, Y) :NEXT 

RETURN 

REM * BUS TO PC 

FORY=33T036:SET(46,Y) :F0RN=1T05 : NEXTN, Y 

FORX=46T052:SET(X,36) ; F0RN=1T05 :NEXTN,X! SET ( 52 , 37 ) 

FORY-33T036: RESET ( 46, Y) : F0RN=1T05 : NEXTN, Y 

F0RX=46T052;RESET(X,36) : F0RN=1T05 : NEXTN, X: RESET ( 52 , 37 ) 

RETURN 

REM * Z TO BUS 

FORX=30TO39 : SET (X, 31 ) : F0RN=lT05 : NEXTN, X 

FORX=30TO39:RESET(X,31) :F0RN-1T05 : NEXTN, X 

RETURN 

REM * CY TO BUS 

FORX=3 0TO33:SET(X,42) :FORN=1T03 : NEXTN, X 

FORY=42T031STEP-l:SET(33,Y) :NEXT 

F0RX=33TO3 9:SET(X,31) : F0RN=1T03 : NEXTN, X 

FORX=30TO33:RESET(X,42) : F0RN=1T03 :NEXTN,X 

FORY=42T031STEP-l: RESET ( 33, y) :NEXT 

FORX=33T039:RESET(X,31) .■F0RN=1T03 : NEXTN ,X 

RETURN 

GOTO3760 

PRINT: PRINT "PRESS "CHRS (34) "Q"CHR$(34) ; 

PRINT" TO END PROGRAM, CLEAR TO RECOVER" 

Q=PEEK[14400) :IFQ=2THEN1270 ELSE 

Q-PEEK( 143 40) : IFQ=2THEN3 810 ELSE37 90 

CLS:PRINT"THIS PROGRAM WAS PART OF SIMUL-80," 

PRINT"A GAME CREATED BY DENNIS BATHORY KITSZ" 

END 

REM * EXECUTION SUBROUTINES BEGIN HERE 

REM * 00 * NOP 

PRINT@CL,"1";;GOSUB6300:GOSUB3080 : PRINT@HE, "00 " ; 

GOSUB3430 :PRINT@ID," NOP "; 

PRINT@CL,"2";:FORN=1TO100:NEXT 

PRINT@CL,"3";:FORN^1TO100:NEXT 

QQ=QQ-t-l!GOSUB2540 

RETURN 

REM * 01 * LD A, (B) 

PRINT@CL,"1"; :GOSUB6 300:GOSUB3080 :PRINT@ME, "01"; 

:PRINT@ID," LD A, (B) " ; 

:PRINT@CL,"2"; : PRINT@BU ,DA$ ; 

:GOSUB27 : VL=PEEK (1536 0+BC+IX) " 

3"; :GOSUB3000 : PRINT@AC,CHRS (VL) ; 



GOSUB3430 

GOSUB3480 

GOSUB27 50 

PRINT@CL, 

QQ=QQ+1:GOSUB2540 

RETURN 

REM * 02 * LD A, (C) 

PRINT@CL,"1"; : GOSUB6 3 00 :GOSUB30 80 :PRINT@ME,' 

GOSUB3430 :PRINT@ID," LD A,(C) "; 

PRINT@CL,"2"; : PRINT@BU ,DA$; 

GOSUB34 80 :GOSUB27 : VL-PEEK ( 153 60+BC+IX+2 j 

PRINT@CL,"3"; :GOSUB3000 : PRINT@AC, CHRS (VL) ! 

QQ=QQ+1:GOSUB2540 

RETURN 

REM * 03 * INC BC PTR 

PRINTgCL,"l"; : GOSUB6300 :GOSUB3080 :PRINT@ME,' 

GOSUB3430 :PRINT@ID, "INC BC PTR"; 

PRINTiaCL,"2"; : PRINT@BU , AD5 ; 



12"; 



IS"; 



Program continues 



170 • 80 Microcomputing. April 1981 



WHY IS THE MICROCONNECTION 
A MODEM AND MUCH MORE? 



TM 



Because it can dial the phone and 
answer it too, transcribe transmis- 
sions, decode busses, run printers, 
receive/send radio transmissions, 
answer/originate, and direct-connect 
to the phone system. Take a look 
at all the softw^e support That's 
why if s a modem and much more. 




MODEMS.... 



...AND MUCH MORE: 



MICROCONNECTION 

For Model I or III, decodes the TRS^ buss and 
creates RS232 port. Eliminates need for expansion 
box and/or RS232 board. Provides serial printer 
output Requires software written for Port 208. 
Requires adapter cable for Model I1I--S249.00 
RS232CONNECnON 

Works with virtually any computer or terminal having 
RS232 serial I/O port Replaces obsolete acoustic 
coupled modems. Compatible with all TRS^ ter- 
minal software. Requires RS232 cable-S199.50 
COLORCONNECnON 
Converts RS Color Computer into a timeshare 
terminal. Provides serial printer output Does not 
require additional memory or extended 
basic-S 199.50 
AUTOCONNECTION 

This option permits modems (except color) to 
answer the telephone and/or dial numbers 
automatically. Supplied with dialer demonsh^tion 
program— S79.95 option 
EUROPEANCONNECnON 
This option modifies above units for European 
Standards— S20.00 option 
MODEL m ADAPTER 
Cable converts Model lU 50 pin buss to 40 pins 
used by Model I peripherals— S39.95 
RS232 CABLE 

Four foot ribbon cable terminate with 25 pin male 
DB25 connectors— S24.95 



AUTOMATED SMART TERMINAL PROGRAMS 
WRITTEN BY DICK BALCOM 

All smart terminal programs feature manual or auto- 
matic upload/download, two user defined messagas 
plus auto "who are you" interrogation, autoprompt 
message entry, transfers EDTASM and Orchestra 80 
files formatting of line length, speed selection, upper 



lower case drivers. autt)repeat key, "beep" fijnction 
for keysfroke entr>', buffered print output with page 
and perforation skipover, compatible with SCRIPSIT 
and PENCIL, built-in text generator for those who 
do not have a word proce.ssor. 



DISK 

SiVlART80D 

The LEADING smart terminal program for Mtxiel I 

and at a popular price. Requires one drive and 

3248K. Compatible with all major disk operating 

systems including double density— S79.95 

SMART DID 

The FIRST smart terminal program for the Model 

UI. Offers popular features of SMART80D plus 

several new features associated with the 

Model III-S99.95 

SMART/BAS 

A simple basic smart terminal disk program that can 

be user modified. Adaptable for cassette based 

Level 11 systems— S 19.95 

CASSETTE 

SMART80C 

For Model I, additional features include ASCII-token- 
ASCn conversion for transferring basic programs. 
For Level II, 1648K systems. Specify if for 
MICROCONNECTION or RS232 version-S 79.95 
SMART80E 

The first and only smart teiminal program for the 
Exatron "Sbingy Floppy", similar to 
SMAR1^0C-S79.95 



SMART fflC 

The first cassette smart terminal program fi)r 
the Model 111. All the power of SMART80C 
plus numerous other features. Specify it for 
MlCRfXONNECTlON or RS232 versi(>n-S99.95 

HOST PROGRAMS 

MESSAGE 80 By Richard Taylor 

Now you can operate your own bulletin board, 

either public or private, widi MESSAGE 80 and the 

AUTOCONNECTION. Require TRS^O, 2 disk 

drives. 48K and RS232CONNECTION (with the 

AUTOCONNECTION option)-S 149.95 

MIMI-MSG 

Even if you only have a Level II, 16K keyboard, you 

can operate your own bulletin board! Requires 

TRS80 keyboard and MICROCONNECTION with 

AUTOCONNECTION option)-S49.95 

SUPERHOST 

Allows other computer operatoi's complete access 

to your system after password validation. 

Numerous features— S29.95 



.^K. .^K. 


■ 


MasterCard 


VISA 


^^^^^^ 


^ 



To order your MICROCONNECTION or for more information, write or phone: 



BT Enterprises 

171 Hawkins Rd, Centereach. NY 11720 
{516)981-8568 (800)645-6038 
Computer 300/1200 {516)588-5836 



Level IV Products Inc. 

32238 Schoolcraft, Suite F4, Livonia, MI 48154 
1{313)52S^200 (Mich only) 
1(800)521-3305 (Elsewhere) 



Microperipheral Corp. 

2643 151st PI. N.E., Redmond, WA 98052 

(206)881-7544 



1^306 



the micropenpherai corporation 



>^Soe List ot Advertisers on page 306 



80 Microcomputing, April 1981 • 171 



4120 


GOSUB3480 :GOSUB2750 ; POKE ( 15360+BC+IX-2) , 149 : IX=IX+64 




4130 


POKE ( 1536 0+BC+IX-2) , 94 ; PRINTiaCL, "3"; 




4140 


QQ=QQ+1:GOSUB2540 




4150 


RETURN 




4160 


REM * 04 * LD A, (H) 




4170 


PRINT@CL,"1"; :GOSUB6 3 00 :GOSUB3 080 ! PRINT@ME , "04 " f 




4180 


GOSUB3430 iPRINT@ID," LD A,(H) "; 




4190 


GOSUB34 80 : PRINT@CL , "2 " ; : PRIKT@BU ,DAS ; 




4200 


GOSUB287 :GOSUB2810 : VL=PEEK ( 15360+HL+IY) 




4210 


PRINT@CL,"3"; ;GOSUB300 : PRINT@AC ,CHR$ (VL) ; 




4220 


QQ=QQ+1:GOSUB2540 




4230 


RETURN 




4240 


REM * 05 * LD A, [L) 




4250 


PRINTiaCL,"!"; :GOSUB6300 :GOSUB3080 : PRINT@ME , "05" ; 




4260 


GOSUB3430 jPRINTgID," LD A, (L) " ; 




427 


GOSUB3 480 ;PRlNTiaCL,"2"; ; PRINT@BU ,DAS ; 




4280 


GOSUB2870 !GOSUB2810 :VL=PEEK (15360+HL+IY+2) 




4290 


PRINT@CL,"3"; :GOSUB3 00 ; PBINT@AC ,CHR$ (VL) ; 




4300 


QQ=QQ+1:GOSUB2540 




4310 


RETURN 




4320 


REM * 07 * INC HL PTR 




4330 


PRINT@CL, "1"; : GOSUB6 3 00 :GOSUB308 : PRINT@ME , "07 " ; 




4340 


GOSUB3430 :PRINT@ID, "INC HL PTR"; 




4350 


PRINT@CL, "2"; : PRINT^BU , AD$; 




4360 


GOSUB34e0 :GOSUB2870 : POKE (15 36 0+HL+IY-2) , 14 9 : IY=IY+6 4 




4370 


POKE { 1536 0+HL+IY-2) , 94 : PRINT@CL , "3" ; 




4380 


QQ=QQ+1:GOSUB2540 




4390 


RETURN 




4400 


REM * 08 * DEC HL PTR 




4410 


PRINTiaCL,"!"; :GOSUB6 30 :GOSUB30 80 :PRINT@ME, "08"; 




4420 


GOSOB3430 :PRINT@ID, "DEC HL PTR"; 




4430 


PRINT@CL, "2"; : PRINT@BU , AD$ ; 




4440 


GOSUB3 4 80 :GOSUB287 : POKE ( 153 6 0+HL+1Y-2) , 14 9 : IY-IY-6 4 




4450 


POKE ( 1536 0+HL4IY-2) , 94 : PRINT@CL , "3"; 




4460 


QQ=QQ+1:GO£UB2540 




4470 


RETURN 




4480 


REM * 09 * DEC BC PTR 




4490 


PRINT@CL,"1"; :GOSUB6300:GOSUB3080 :PRINT@ME, "09" ; 




4500 


GOSUB3430 :PRINTiaiD,"DEC BC PTR"; 




4510 


PRINT@CL,"2"; : PRIHT@BU , ADS; 




4520 


GOSUB34 80 :GOSUB27 5 : POKE (1536 0+BC-fIX-2) , 14 9 : IX=IX-6 4 




4530 


POKE(153 6 0+BC+IX-2) , 94 : PRINT@CL, "3" ; 




4540 


QQ=QQ+1:GOSUB2540 




4550 


RETURN 




4560 


REM * 10 * LD (H) ,A 




4570 


PRINT@CL,"1"; :GOSUB6 300 :GOSUB308 :PRINT@ME, "10"; 




4580 


GOSUB3430 :PKINT@ID," LD (H),A "; 




4590 


PRINT@CL,"2"; :PRINT@BU,DA$; 




4600 


GOSUB3480 :GOSUB3000 :GOSUB2930 : PRINTOCL, "3" ; 




4610 


VL=PEEK(15360+AC) :GOSUB2870 : POKE (15360+HL+IY) ,VL 




4620 


QQ=QQ+1:GOSUB2540 




4630 


RETURN 




4640 


REM * 11 * LD (L) ,A 




4650 


PRINT@CL, "1"; :GOSUB6 300:GOSUB3 080 :PRINTC^ME, "11"; 




4660 


GOSUB3430 :PRINT@ID," LD (L),A "; 




4670 


PRIHT@CL,"2"; : PRINT^BU ,DA$ ; 




4680 


GOSUB3480 :GOSUB3000 :GOSUB2930 : PRINT^CL, "3" ; 




4690 


VL=PEEK(1536 0+AC) :GOSUB287 : POKE (1536 +HL+IY+2) ,VL 




4700 


QQ=QQ+1:GOSUB2540 




4710 


RETURN 




4720 


REM * 12 * LD A,NN 




4730 


PRINT@CL,"1"; : GOSUB6 3 00 ;GOSUB3 080 : PRINT^ME , "12"; 




4740 


GOSUB3430 : PRINT@ID , "LD A, "; 




4750 


PRINTgCL , "2 " ; : PRINT@BU ,DAS ; 




4760 


GOSUB34 80 :VL=VAL(CHR$( PEEK (1536 0+PR+67) ) +CHR$ (PEEK (1536 


+PR+1+67) ) ) 


4770 


PRINT@CL,"3"; ; FORN=1TO500 :NEXT: PRINT@CL, "1 " ; :GOSUB3 080 




4780 


PRINT?ME,STRS(VL) ; :GOSUB34 30 : PRINTS (ID+6 ) ,STRS(VL) ; 




4790 


PRINT@CL,"2"; :GOSUB3520 :GOSUB3000 : PRINT@CL , "3 " ; 




4800 


PRINT@AC-1,STR$(VL) ; 




4810 


QQ-QQ+2:GOSUB2540 




4820 


RETURN 




4830 


REM * 13 * LD (B) ,A 




4840 


PRINT@CL,"1"; :GOSUB6 30 :GOSUB30 80 : PRINT@ME , "13" ; 




4850 


GOSUB3430 :PRINT@ID," LD (B),A "; 




4860 


PRINT@CL, "2" ; : PRINTOBU ,DAS ; 




4870 


GOSUB3480 ;GOSUB3000 :GOSUB2930 : PRINT@CL , ''3" ; 




4880 


VL=PEEK(15 36 0+AC) :GOSUB27 50 : POKE ( 153 6 0+BC+ IX) ,VL 




4890 


QQ-QQ+1:GOSUB2540 




4900 


RETURN 




4910 


REM * 14 * LD (C) ,A 




4920 


PRINT@CL, "1"; :GOSUB6 3 00 :GOSUB308 ; PRINT@ME , "14 " ; 






Program continues 



172 • 80 Microcomputing, April 1981 



KING OFTHE HILL! 



fei^?®*'- 



We"ve taken artistic license with our rllustration in order to make a point: 
".* '"HESS is the most powerful microcomputer chess program on the mari*.et. 
lone. 

Proof? All you want and then some. For example. MVCHESS was the winner of 

t "Fifth West Coast Computer Fair". At the "Third World Computer Chess 

>. I Tipfonshtp" in Unz, Austria, it was the highest finishing micro., in addition to 

■ )ing the special Blitz Tournament (5 to l}again5tsixtopplayers, Add tothisits 

-'■•!. F rating of 1565, and you know you're dealing with the King of the Hill. 

You'll find MYCHESS is the perfect companion or opponent whether you're an 
^■- meed player, or starting your first game. For it lets you set the difficulty of the 
^rtitie from level J to 9, And. you can change levels of play as you go ... or even 
change sides. Want to set time limits for moves? MYCHESS can do it. Want to save 
^.' i' • ' ■ ■ ter?MYCHESS will store up to6games. And, for added interestJtwiH 
• ,•■'■ i-'.K- the upcoming line of play. 

I', ■ ■ aplayer.you'llappreciatetheMYCHESSchallenge.lfyou'reabeginner. 

f • earning from a master. Other way, when it comes to supenor che^. 

. ■ ,. love ... to MYCHESS- Available for the TRS-80* wth 32K., tor $34.95 

■ . •' ^k. documentation and backing by Programma International i^ple** 

',< .1- . ■ . i.ng soon. 



Can you beat 

MYCHESS 



MKt' 




l\4Y( "} 1 1 '^^ ^^ 




2908 N. Naomi Street 
Burbank,CA 91504 (213)954-0240 

'TRS-80,d Tandy Corp. (lacfenwrk. ■ "AppIe.anApi^Cariputer.Inc, iraclemark. 



J 



SCHOOLMASTER 

Record Keeping Made Easy! 

■ Analyzes grade assignments 

■ Keeps a cumulative grade list 

■ Maintains current averages 

■ Prints class lists; progress reports 

SCHOOLMASTER is de'ilgned to 
replace or supplement most of (he functtotis 
of the gradehook. In addition, it serves the 
function of anaiysLs of scores and grades, 
and automates the process of producing 
individual progress reports. Requires 32K 
disk syslem; is compalible with .NEWDOS. 
NEWr)OS/80 and TRSDOS. $24.95 on 
disk.. Manual alone, 81. (H). 



D Please send Schoolmaster (o: 

A'a m e, : 

A ddress: ___________________ 

City: 

State, Zip: 



1806 Ada Street 

LansinR. MI +8910 

Ph. (517) 487-3358 or 

(517) 485-0344 



A liii S2 .(X) far crush- proof box and postage; SI fiO for 
COD. 4% for Master Charge or Visa. PO's welr.iimf. 




'80 SHROUDS' 




engineered 
'^^0^ module of 
structurally molded 
fiberglass 
Fits under 80-monitor 
coming soon-MDX-SHROUD 
SYRACUSE R&D CENTER 
Box 125, Dewitt, N.Y. 13214 

^r loth year in R&D" ^358 



4930 
4940 
4950 
4960 
4970 
4980 
4990 
5008 



5010 
5020 
5030 
5040 
5050 
5060 
5070 
5080 
5090 
5100 
5110 
5120 
5130 
5140 
5150 
5160 
5170 
5180 
5190 
5200 
5210 
5220 
5230 
5240 
5250 
5260 
5265 
5270 
5280 
5290 
5300 
5310 
5320 
5330 
5340 
5350 
5355 
5357 
5360 
5370 
5380 
5390 
5400 
5410 
5420 
5430 
5440 
5450 
5460 
5470 
5480 
5490 
5500 
5510 
5520 
5530 
5540 
5550 
5560 
5570 
5580 
5590 
5600 
5610 
5620 
5630 
5640 
5650 
5660 
5670 
5680 
5690 
5700 



GOSUB3430 :PRINT@ID," LD (C),A "; 

PRINT@CL , " 2 " ; : PRINTOBU , DAS ; 

GOSUB3480 :GOSUB3000 :GOSUB2930 ; PRINTiaCL, "3" ; 

VL=PEEK{I5360+AC) :GOSUB2750 : POKE (15360+BC+IX+2) ,VL 

QQ=QQ+1:GOSUB2540 

RETURN 

REM * 20 * CP A,NN 

PRINT@CL,"1";:GOSUB630 0!GOSUB3080 :PRINT@ME, "20"; 

GOSUB3430 :PRINT@ID," CP A, 

PRINT@CL, "2"; : PRINTgBU ,DA$ ; : PRINTgCL , "3" ; 

GOSUB3480:GOSUB30 00: PRINTS (AC+4) ,"CP"; ;PRINT@CL, "1"; :GOSUB3080 

VL=VAL(CHR&{PEEK(153 6 0+PR+67) ) +CHR$ (PEEK ( 1536 0+PR+67+1) ) ) 

PRINT@CL,"2"; :PRINT@ME,STRS (VL) ; : GOSUB343 : PRIHTia (ID+6) ,STR$(VL) 

PRINT@CL,"3"; :GOSUB35 20 :GOSUB3 00 

PRINTia(AC+6) ,STRS (VL) ; 

IPVL=VAL(CHRS ( PEEK { 1536 0+AC) ) ) THEN5110 

IFVL>VAL(CHR$ (PEEK (1536 0+AC) ) )THEN513 

IFVL<VAL(CHR$ (PEEK (1536 0+AC) ))THEN5150 



"SET"; :GOSUB314 :PRINT@CY, "HOT" 
"; :QQ=QQ+2:GOSUB2540 : RETURN 
"NOT"; :GOSUB314 :PRINTgCY, "SET" 
"; :QQ=QQ+2:GOSUB25 4 : RETURN 
"NOT";:GOSUB3140 : PRINT@CY, "NOT" 
"; :QQ=QQ+2:GOSaB2540 : RETURN 



GOSUB3290 :PRINT@ZF, 

PRINT@(AC+2) , " 

GOSUB3290 : PRINT@ZF, 

PRINT@(AC+2) , " 

GOSUB3290 :PRINT@ZF, 

PRINT@(AC+2) , " 

REM * 25 * ADD A, (H) 

PRINT@CL, "1"; : GOSUB6 3 00 :GOSUE3 080 :PRINT@ME, "25"; 

GOSUB3430 iPRINTglD," ADD A, (H) 

PRINTSCL, "2"; : PRINT@BU ,DA$; 

GOSUB3480 :GOSUB2870 :GOSUB2810 :GOSUB3000 

PRINT@(AC+4) ,"+"; :VL^VAL (CHR$ (PEEK ( 1536 0+HL+IY) ) ) 

PRINT@(AC+6) ,STR$(VL) ; 

TT-VL+VAL(CHR$ (PEEK ( 1536 0+AC) ) ) : PRINT@CL, "3" ; 

IFTT=0THEN5280 

IFTT>10THENTT=TT-10:GOTO5310 

IFTT-10THENTT=0:GOTO535 5 

IFTT<10THENPRINT(a(AC-l) , STR$ (TT) ; :GOTO5340 

PRINT@AC, "0";:GOSUB3290 : PRINTgZF, "SET" ; 

GOSUB314 :PRINTeCY, "NOT" ;: PRINTS (AC+1 ) , " 

QQ^QQ+1:GOSUB2540 :RETURN 

PRINT@(AC-1) ,STR$(TT) ; :GOSUB329 : PRINTOZF, "NOT" ; 

GOSUB3140 :PRINT@CY, "SET"; ; PRINT@ (AC+1 ) ," "; 

QQ=QQ+1:GOSUB2540 :RETURN 

GOSUB3290 :PRINT@ZF, "NOT"; :GOSUB3140 : PRINT§CY , "NOT" ; 

PRINTS (AC+1) , " ";;QQ=QQ+1:GOSUB2540 : RETURN 

PRINT@AC, "0"; : GOSUB3290 : PRINT@ZF , "SET"; :GOSUB3140 : PRINTgCY , "SET"; 

PRINTS (AC+1) , " ";:QQ=QQ+1;GOSUB2540:RETURN 

REM * 26 * ADD A, (L) 

PRINTSCL,"1"; :GOSUB6300 :GOSUB3080 :PRINT@ME, "26"; 

GOSUB3430 iPRINTglD," ADD A, (L) "; 

PRINT@CL,"2"; : PRINTSBU ,DAS ; 

GOSUB3480 :GOSUB287 :GOSUB2810 :GOSUB3 000 

PRINTS (AC+4) , "+"; : VL=VAL{CHRS (PEEK ( 1536 0+HL+IY+2) ) ) 

GOTO523 

REM * 27 * ADD A,NN 

PRINTSCL, "1"; :GOSUB6300:GOSUB3080 :PRINTSME, "27"; 

GOSUB3430 :PRINTSID," ADD A, "; 

PRINTSCL, "2"; : PRINTSBU ,DAS ; 

GOSUB3480 :GOSUB3 00 : PRINTS (AC+4 ) ,"+"; :GOSUB3080 

VL=VAL(CHRS (PEEK ( 1536 0+PR+67) ) +CHRS (PEEK ( 15360+PR+67 +1 ) ) ) 

PRINT@ME,STR$(VL) ; :GOSUB343 : PRINTS ( ID+7 ) ,STR$(VL) ; 

PRINTSCL, "3" ;:GOSUB3520 :GOSUB3 00 

QQ=QQ+1:GOTO5230 

REM * 28 * SUB A, (C) 

PRINT@CL/'l"; :GOSUB6 300 :GOSUB30 80 :PRINT@ME, "28"; 

GOSUB3430 rPRINTSID," SUB A,(C) "; 

PRINTSCL , " 2 " ; : PRINTgBU , DAS ; 

GOSaB3480 :GOSUB2750 ;GOSUB2700 :GOSUB3000 

PRINTS (AC+4) , "-"; :VL-VAL(CHRS(PEEK(15360+BC+IX+2)) ) 

PRINTS(AC+6) ,STRS(VL) ; 

TT^VAL(CHRS (PEEK (153 6 0+AC) ) )+10-VL 

IFTT=10THENTT=0:GOTO5280 

IFTT<10THEN5310 

IFTT>10THEHTT=TT-10: PRINTS (AC-1) ,STR$(TT) ; :GOTO53 40 

REM * 29 * SUB A,NN 

PRINTSCL, "1"; !GOSUB6300:GOSUB3080 :PRINT@ME, "29"; 

GOSUB3430 :PRINTSID," SUB A, "; 

PRINTSCL, "2"; : PRINTSBU ,DA$ ; 

GOSUB3480 :GOSUB3 00 : PRINTS (AC+4) ,"-"; :GOSUB30 80 

VL=VAL(CHRS(PEEK(1536B+PR+67) ) +CHRS (PEEK ( 1536 0+PR+67 +1) ) ) 

PRINTiaME,STRS(VL) ;:GOSUB34 30 : PRINTS ( ID+7) ,STR$(VL) ; 

PRINTSCL, "3"; ;GOSUB3520 :GOSUB3 00 



Program continues 



174 • 80 Microcomputing, April 1981 




Be a computer Picasso . . . 
Disney . . . DaVlnci . . . 
On your TRS-80* 



Introducing 

Programma^s Hi-Resolution 

80-GRAnX^'' 

For sheer fun and flexibility nothing compares with Programma's 
exclusive SaCrafix for your Model I or Model ill TRS-80. With its 
greater high-resolution capability, it outgraphics the Commodore 
CBM/PET*, and even Apple II*. In short, anything they do. you can 
now do better. 

As for effective resolution, imagine this . . . 80-Grafix gives your 
TRS-80 an effective screen of 384 x 1 92 (vs normal 1 28 x 48) , . . 
while the CBM/PET is 80 x 50, and Apple 11, 280 x 1 92. And that's 
only the beginning. 

Black & White. Or Vice- Versa. (Jse the standard white on black, 
or for variety, call up Inverse Video as the need demands. 

Lower Case. Free. INo need to spend extra. 80-Grafix includes 
two sets of lower case characters. Plus Character Generator software 
so you can create your own set of up to 64 original characters. 

Great Graphics. Here's unlimited fun. Pick a subject. Draw it. 
Sketch it. Design it. Change it. You're limited only by your own 
imagination. 

Games People Play. 80-Grafix lets you develop your own soft- 
ware to create fantastic new real-time games to amuse, amaze or 
challenge. Or, order our ready-to-go software. It adds a new dimen- 
sion to 80-Grafix without any extra programming on your part. 

Easy Does It. It's simple to hook up 80-Gr3fix inside your TRS-80 
case . . . takes just a few minutes. While this voids Radio Shack's 
warranty, it's a minor inconvenience compared to the usefullness 
and excitement you gain. 

The Rush Is On. Frankly, this is one of the hottest items 
we've offered. Don't miss out. At your dealer now, or order 
direct for immediate delivery. (Specify version for Model I or 
Mo^el 111.) Introductoty Price: $1 49.95 plus ^4.50 shipping. 
Includes free lower case and demo programs. (Visa & 
Mastercharge accepted. Calif, residents add 6% sales tax.) 
Dealer inquiries invited. 



1^21 



PROGRAMMA 

Programma International Inc. 

2908 No. rSaomi Street. Burbank, CA 91504 

(213)954-0240 



80-Gfatis 1'^ a trademark oi Piogi 
Apple II i5atrademari(of AppleCc 



mma International, he • TRS-80 is a trademark of Tandy Corporation 

npiiter. Inc. •Commodore CBM/FETisa trademark of Commodorelnternational Ltd. 



■ See List of Advertisers on page 306 



80 Microcomputing, April 1981 • 175 



5710 PRINTS {AC+6) ,STRS(VL) ; : QQ=QQ+1 :GOT057 90 

5720 REM * 30 * SUB A, (B) 

5730 PRINT@CL,"1"! :GOSUB6300:GOSUB3080 :PRINT§ME , "30" ; 

5740 GOSUB3430 :PRINT@ID," SUB A, (B) "; 

57 50 PRINT@CL,"2";:PRINTiaBU,DA$; 

5760 GOSUB3480 :GOSUB2750 :GOSUB2700 :GOSUB3000 

577 PRINTS (AC+4) ,"-"; :VL=VAL (CHR$ (PEEK ( 153 6 0+BC+IX) ) } 

57 80 PRINT@(AC+6) ,STR$(VL) ; 

57 90 TT=VAL{CHR${PEEK(153 6 0+AC)) )+10-VL 

5800 IFTT=10THENTT=0:GOTO5280 

5810 IPTT<10THEN5310 

5820 IFTT>10THENTT=TT-10:PRINT@(AC-1) ,STRS[TT) ; :GOTO53 40 

5830 REM * 31 * JP Z,NN 

5840 PRINT@CL,"1"; :GOSUB6300 ;GOSUB3560 : PRINT@ME, "31" ; 

5850 GOSUB3430 : PRINT@ID, "JP Z, "; 

5860 PRINT@CL,"2"; : PRINT@BU ,AdS; 

5870 GOSUB3640 ;GOSUB3580 : IFCHR$ (PEEK (15360+ZF) ) ="S"THEN5890 

5880 QQ^QQ+2:GOSUB2540 :RETURN 

5890 GOSUB3480 :GOSUB3580 

5900 VL=VAr,(CHR$ (PEEK ( 1536 0+PR+67) ) +CHRS {PEEK (1536 0+PR+67 +1) ) ) 

5 910 PRINT@CL,"3"; : PRINT@ ( ID+7) ,STR$(VL) ; : QQ=VL :GOSUB2540 
5920 PRINT@PC,INS(1,VL) ; :RETURN 

5930 REM * 33 * JP NC,NN 

5940 PRINT@CL,"1";:GOS[)B6300:GOSUB3560 : PRINTiHE , "33 " ; 

5950 GOSUB3430 : PRIHTgID, "JP NC, "; 

5960 PRINT@CL,"2"; : PRINT@BU , ADS ; 

5970 GOSUB3680 :GOSUB3580 : IFCHR$ (PEEK ( 15360+CY) ) ^"N"THEN5990 

5980 QQ=QQ+2:GOSUB2540 :RETURN 

5990 GOSUB3480 :GOSUB3580 

6 000 VL=VAL(CHRS (PEEK (1536 +PR+67) ) +CHRS (PEEK ( 15360+PR+67+1) ) ) 
6 010 PRINT§CL,"3"; : PRINT@ ( ID+7 ) ,STR$(VL) ; ; QQ=VL:GOSUB25 4 
6020 PRIKT@PC,IN$(1,VL) ; :RETURN 

6030 REM * 34 * JP NN 

6040 PRINT@CL,"1"; :GOSaB6300;GOSUB3560 : PRINT@HE, "34 " ; 

6050 GOSUB3430 : PRINTglD, "JP 

6 06 PRINT@CL,"2"; : PRINT@BU , AD$ ; 

6070 GOSUB3480 :GOSUB3580 

6080 VL=VAL{CHRS [PEEK {15360+PR+67))+CHRS (PEEK (15360+PR+67+1))) 

6 90 PRIWTOCL, "3"; : PRINTg { ID+7 ) ,STRS(VL) ; : QQ=VL:GOSUB2540 

6100 PRIKT@PC,IN$(1,VL) ; rRETURN 

6110 REM * 40 * CLR A 

6120 PRINT@CL,"1"; :GOS[;B6300:GOSUB3080 : PRINT@HE , "40 "' ; 

6130 GOSUB3430 : PRINTilD, "CLR A "; 

6140 PRIMTgCL, "2"; : PRINT@BU ,DA$ ; 

6150 GOSUB3480 :GOSUB3000 : PRINTiAC , "0" ; 

616 GOSUB3290 : PRINT@ZF, "SET" ; :GOSUB3140 :PRINT@CY, "HOT"; 

6170 PRINT@CL, "3"; :QQ=QQ+1:GOSUB2540 :RETURN 

6180 REM * 99 * HALT 

6190 PRINT@CL,"1"; :GOSUB6300:GOSUB3080 : PRINT@ME, "99 "; 

6200 GOSUB3430 : PRINT@ID, "HALT " ; 

6 210 PRINT@CL,"2"; : FORX=1TO40 :NEXT 

6 2 20 PRINT@CL,"3"; : FORX=1TO40 :NEXT 

6 23 PRINT@CL,"1"; : FORX-1TO40 ; NEXT 

6 23 5 Q=PEEK( 14 40 0) : IFQ=64THENOUT254 , 2 :GOTO1270 :ELSE6210 

6 24 Q=PEEK( 14400) : IFQ=2TBENOUT254 ,2 :GOT0127 

6 250 PF^VAL(CHRS ( PEEK ( 1536 0+PR+3) ) +CHRS (PEEK(15360+PR+4) ) ) :FF=FF+1 

626 ONFFGOSUB100,1,2,3,4,5,6,7 ,8,9,10,11,12,13,14,6,6,6,6,6, 

20,6,6,6,6,25,26,27,28,29,30,31,6,33,34,6,6,6,6,6,40,6,6,6,6, 

6,6,6,6,6,6,6,6,6,6,6,6,6,6,6,6,6,6,6,6,6,6,6,6,6,6,6,6,6,6,6, 

6,6,6,6,6,6,6,6,6,6,6,6,6,6,6,6,6,6,6,6,6,6,6,99 

6270 GOTO6240 

6280 CLS:PRINT"MEMORY SIZE? "CHR$(95); 

5285 AS=INKEYS 

6290 AS=INKEYS:IFAS=""THEN6290 ELSECLS:GOTO2140 

63 00 VL=VAL(CHRS (PEEK ( 1536 0+PR) ) +CHR$ (PEEK (1536 0+PR+l ) ) ) 

6310 PRINTiapC,INS(l,VL) ;:RETURN 

6 400 PT=PEEK[ 14 312) : IFPTO6 3THEN6 430ELSE6 410 

6 410 FORX=0TO9 9:LPRINTINS(1,X) ,PRS(1,X) ,PRS (2,X) ;PRS(3,X) :NEXTX 

6420 GOTO1270 

6430 PRINT"PRINTER NOT READY" :FORX=1TO300 : NEXT:GQT0127 

6490 RESUME1270 



this point, piayers refer to their respective 
instruction sheets and perform ali actions 
required under cycie one. This is the begin- 
ning of the frenzy, because the clock is the 
referee and will decide when cycle two is to 
begin... each person must complete the 



required actions during a given clock cycle 
or risk being pulled out and replaced wth a 
faster integrated circjit! 

Similarly, the clock will call out cycles 
two and three. The program counter is ad- 
vanced or changed only at the beginning of 



each cycle one, and the set of three cycles 
is repeated until a halt is called. The I/O 
device then retrieves the new list of digits 
from the B and C registers, and returns 
them to the human for an evaluation. 

No one during the course of play will have 
any idea vifhat the total result will be, and in 
fact, Simul-80 may be performed with each 
player in a separate room . . . with the clock 
using an intercom to be heard! If the entire 
game is done in a single room, everyone 
should be encouraged to read their instruc- 
tions aloud, just to add to the confusion. 

Programming in Simul-80 

Demonstration programs of many sorts 
can be written in the Simui-80 language. 
Merely with the instructions given, it is 
possible to do simple multiplication and di- 
vision, simulate a screen display or printer 
routine, etc. The absence of subroutines 
can be a bit of a hindrance, but blank 
spaces have been left in the Simul-80 in- 
struction set for your own expansions of the 
commands. The most conspicuous ab- 
sence is a stack pointer, which is a register 
whose job is to keep track of the program 
counter's last position whenever it runs off 
to a subroutine somewhere else in memory. 
If you need one, create it. 

", , , each person must 

complete the required 

actions during a given 

ciocii cycie or risi< being 

puiled out and replaced 

with a faster 

integrated circuiti" 

Programmers new to machine language 
often ask, "Why did you increment that 
pointer? Why did you assign that pair of 
registers to hold a subtotal? Why did you 
add this first and that second?" The answer 
is straightforward: The choice is arbitrary, 
but often influenced by a search for the sim- 
plest program or the greatest speed. In 
BASIC, why is the most used variable 
named X? Convention, perhaps, or what it 
suggests to a user. 

Machine language is just as arbitrary, 
which is why such a mythical processor as 
the Simul-80 could be invented at all. It is 
limited to only 26 instructions, but repre- 
sents the essential process by which all 
microprocessors do their work. . .one step 
at a time, with signals of all sorts flying 
everywhere. 

r^lachine language is easy in principle: 
The drudgery of it does not imply difficulty. 



176 • 80 Microcomputing, April 1981 




only drudgery. Every action must be 
accounted for; every step has an effect 
equal to any other. 

Simulation of Simul-80 is possible in ad- 
vance... for those who actually wish to 
write a program for group simulation. List- 
ing 3 is a complete program for use on the 
TRS-80 in order to v\/atch the activities of a 
dozen on-screen players. Using the Simul- 



80 listing and the instructions provided, the 
BASIC program in Listing 3 will add a col- 
umn of five numbers in about three minutes, 
displaying the activities of each step; it is 
designed to execute on a 16K, Level II 
machine. 

I am anxious to hear from any clubs or 
classes that attempt to play Simul-80, 
whether they have been successful or not. 



AD 


INST 


AD 


INST 


AD 


INST 


AD 


INST 


AD 


INST 


01 


01 


21 


03 


41 


10 


61 


10 


81 


34 


02 


10 


22 


02 


42 


33 


62 


33 


82 


05 


03 


02 


23 


26 


43 


05 


63 


70 


S3 


09 


04 


11 


24 


11 


44 


07 


64 


07 


84 


12 


05 


03 


25 


33 


45 


05 


65 


05 


85 


09 


06 


02 


26 


39 


46 


27 


66 


29 


86 


13 


07 


20 


27 


04 


47 


01 


67 


01 


87 


14 


08 


01 


28 


27 


48 


11 


68 


11 


88 


03 


09 


31 


29 


01 


49 


08 


69 


08 


89 


99 


10 


21 


30 


10 


50 


34 


70 


04 


90 


05 


11 


20 


31 


33 


51 


05 


71 


30 


91 


14 


12 


02 


32 


39 


52 


03 


72 


10 


92 


04 


13 


31 


33 


07 


53 


05 


73 


33 


91 


13 


14 


52 


34 


05 


54 


28 


74 


05 


94 


07 


15 


20 


35 


27 


55 


11 


75 


07 


95 


05 


16 


03 


36 


01 


56 


33 


76 


05 


96 


03 


17 


31 


37 


11 


57 


70 


77 


29 


97 


14 


18 


90 


38 


08 


58 


04 


78 


01 


98 


40 


19 


34 


39 


01 


59 


29 


79 


11 


99 


13 


20 


83 


40 


25 


60 


01 


80 


08 


00 


99 


Program Listing 4. 


This is the add subtract progra 


7J to be filled 


in on the MEM wheel 


shown in Fig 


. 1. The first column is the 


memory 


address, the second column the \ 


memory contents. 



















For those who want to escape the typing, I 
have a tape available.H 



The following are directions for 
each playing position, to be printed 
on cards and distributed to each 
player prior to beginning the game; 

PLAYER CARDS 

Clock 

1. Wait for I/O to say READY. 

2. Begin counting aloud, CYCLE 
ONE, CYCLE TWO, CYCLE THREE. 
(Wait 15 seconds between cycles at 
first, but speed up as players im- 
prove.) 

3. When HALT is called, stop 
counting after your final "cycle 
three." 



Program Counter (PC) 

1. Increase the value displayed by 
your flip-booi< by one each time CY- 
CLE ONE is called, unless— 

2. The address bus gives you a new 
value. Display this with your flip-book 
instead, and continue as usual from 
there. 

3. No actions are taken during 
cycles two or three. 



Memory (MEM) 

1. During cycle one, read the new 
value held up by PC. 

2. Immediately check for a corre- 
sponding value on your memory 
card, and write it down on a slip of 
paper. 

3. Give that value to ID, unless the 
address bus or data bus requests it. 

4. No actions are taken during 
cycles two or three. 



Registers (B, C, H, L) 

1 . Perform no actions during cycle 
one. 

2. During cycles two and three, 
allow your pointer to be moved by the 
address bus as necessary, and/or ac- 
cept (and write in place) or give the 
data value pointed to by your wall 
card's pointer. 

Flags (Z AND CY) 

1. During cycles one and two, hold 
aloft the side of your card given to 
you by A. 

2. Give your cards to A during cycle 
three. 



30 Microcomputing, April 1981 • 177 



GENERAL 



A no nonsense glossary of misunderstood micro jargon. 



The 

Unexpurgated 

Version 



David D. Busch 
515 E. Highland Ave. 
Ravenna, OH 44266 

New or future TRS-80 owners feel lost 
sometimes when they make their first 
cautious visits to local users groups. The 
carefully learned technical terms of the 
neophyte's vocabulary sometimes have dif- 
ferent meanings in the real world. 

The beginner really needs an unexpurgat- 
ed introduction to the real meanings of 
widely used TRS-80-related words and 
phrases. With apologies to several of com- 
puterdom's most powerful vendors, here is 
the first true TRS-80 glossary for beginners. 

ATTRIB— Rarely used DOS command. Its 
chief value is making those programs that 
the programmer is ashamed of, but isn't 
ready to KILL, invisible on the directory. 

BUFFER— Used under Disk BASIC, a 
storage place for information that should 
be lost during power failures, or when a 
diskette is removed before a disk file is 
CLOSEd. Should not be confused with Buf- 
fered Cable or Buffered Aspirin, both of 
which cure different kinds of headaches. 

DISK CONTROLLER— IC chip designed 
to keep dust out of socket until user can in- 
stall double density or data separator ac- 
cessories. Also provides application for 
BREAK key on power-up {non-disk users on- 
ly). 

DISKETTE, PREMIUM QUALITY— A stan- 
dard 5 1/4-inch diskette. 

DISKETTE, DOUBLE DENSITY— A stan- 
dard 5 1/4-inch diskette. 

DISKETTE, DOUBLE DENSITY, DUAL- 



SIDED— A standard 5 1/4-inch diskette, 
priced $3.00 higher. 

DISK DRIVES NO. 1160, 1161— These are 
nearly identical mini-disk drives with differ- 
ently numbered black and silver stickers on 
the bottom. The 1 160 comes with an expen- 
sive connecting cable, a DOS reference 
guide, a free DOS diskette, and a69<t: DIP re- 
sistor. The 1161 costs the same, but be- 
cause of the heavy labor cost of removing 
the resistor— the cable, reference book, 
and diskette are deleted as well. 

DOS— An elegant hiding place for ma- 
chine language bugs. Also an exercise for 
advanced programmers. Sometimes used 
to refer to any of several Disk Operating 
Systems. 

EXTERNAL DATA SEPARATOR— A total- 
ly valueless device, thoughtfully excluded 
from the TRS-80 by Tandy. Needlessly com- 
plicates I/O operation of the disk drives by 
providing disk read reliability. 

EXPANSION INTERFACE— Elevates the 
CRT screen to convenient level. Also con- 
tains vast amounts of empty space for in- 
stallation of retrofixes. Comes already 
equipped with essential items (see SCREEN 
PRINTER PORT, DISK CONTROLLER) and 
may be purchased with rarely needed lux- 
ury items, at additional cost (see MEMORY). 

KEYBOARD {bounce version only)— The 
keyboard was designed by a one-fingered 
typist who never really gave keys a workout 
until 80,000 computers had been sold. 

LIVE CHASSIS GAME— one of the origi- 
nal computer games for the TRS-80. The ob- 
ject isfortheexperimenterto nullify the iso- 
lation of the CRT chassis from the rest of 



the computer, or himself. Some elements of 
skill and chance are involved, as the odds 
are only 50/50 in favor of electrocution. 

LOWERCASE— Optional feature, useful 
only to TRS-80 owners who can read or 
write. 

PRICE REDUCTION, RAM CHIPS-Free 
enterprise miracle, made possible by high 
TRS-80 sales volume, which decreases per- 
unit cost to end user. 

PRICE INCREASE, LEVEL II ROM CHIPS 
—Another miracle, made possible by same 
factors as above, coupled with the addi- 
tional rationale that nobody else sells 
these. 

PRINTER— The most important TRS-80 
peripheral after disk drive. Issues printout 
that the operator can use to prove to others 
that the computer actually does something. 

RETROFIX— Free hardware modification 
made to correct most recent improvement 
to computer design. Sometimes added to 
correct problem caused by last retrofix. 

TANDY— A company skilled in marketing 
leather craft goods. 

TRS-80— Pioneering personal computer. 
Not named, as widely believed, after the 
Z-80 microprocessor: The numeral was 
derived from the year 1980. This was origi- 
nally intended as the year in which all hard- 
ware bugs in the Model I would be elimi- 
nated, hence mandating its replacement 
with the Model III. 

TRSDOS 2.0— Legendary disk-operating 
system, never actually used by anyone who 
lived to tell about the experience. Replace- 
ment for TRSDOS 1.0, which was written in 
Tiny BASIC.B 



178 • 80 Microcomputing, April 1981 



APPLICATION 



Run this interview program at your next one and your guests will agree. 

This Ain't No Party! 



Stewart E. Fason 

Via La Selva 

Palm Beach. FL 33480 



Humor, it's been said, is trag- 
edy plustiming. Remember 
that blind date years ago when 
you got fixed up with a reai dog? 
Or the time the paint can over- 
turned on your new carpet? 
Whiie we didn't laugh at our 
foibles then, they seem funny 
now. Disasters with which peo- 
ple identify can add fun and 
laughter to a program which 
would otherwise be only mildly 
interesting. 

Use Program Listing 1 at your 
next party. Your guests will love 
it. 

Computers have received so 
much publicity that the layman 
thinks they do anything. He is, 
for the most part, unaware of the 
limits, and you can take advan- 
tage of such naivete by the rec- 
ognition routine in lines 2180 to 
2200 to 2400. 

This program asks for a first 
name. You, the programmer, 
have entered something about 
every guest with IF A$ = "name 
of guest" then PRINT "some- 
thing unique about him". 



Depending on the memory 
available, you may accommo- 
date up to 100 or so guests. 

When someone responds to 
"WHAT IS YOUR NAME?" and 
the computer responds with 
something unique, the guest be- 
gins to think that the computer 
knows something about every- 
one. Line 2240 takes care of any- 
one you didn't expect. 

• Lines 2130-2190 are great 
fun. The guest thinks something 
has really gone wrong. When the 
computer returns to normal, he 
is thinking, "This thing has its 
bad times too." You can use this 
routine to advantage in many 
programs. 

• 410-880: These marvelous 
random number generators do 
away with predictability. The 
RND coupled with the IF THEN 
ELSE statements are one of the 
most powerful combinations in 
fun and games programming. 

• 240-390: The day of reckon- 
ing .. . much laughter follows. 

• 20-30: Rather than using 
FOR NEXT loops for a delay 
while the computer is supposed 
tobethinking, why not draw ran- 
domly selected lines across the 
screen? 

• 890-940: While computers 
think fast, don't let the players 
think that if is easy. Make things 
seem difficult. . .make them 
think it's really working hard. 



Keybounce Fix 

We know that KBFIX resides 
from 32712-32767. We could ex- 
amine each byte with T-BUG, 
but how about using PEEK to 
see what gives. Then, when we 
know the code, why not use 
POKE to put it in memory using 
BASIC? 

This got me to thinking. I load- 
ed KBFIX then entered the fol- 
lowing: 10 FOR I = 32712TO 
32767:A = PEEK(I): Print I, A: 
NEXTI. The codes showed up 
and they were entered into a 
data statement, then a FOR 
NEXT loop, READ, POKE, and 
darned if it didn't work. Con- 
sidering we have to get out of 
the program in order to execute 
KBFIX, it would be nice to delete 
the tines once the POKEing is 



finished. Hence, the DELETE 
command. 

Here is the result which you 
can use in any BASIC program 
to forever do away with key- 
board bounce. It will even work 
with programs which require 
loading some machine lan- 
guage routine first, provided the 
routine doesn't occupy 32712- 
32767. You can find out by load- 
ing your routine, then using the 
PEEK routine above. 

Operation 

Load your program. Then type 
in the two-line KBFIX routine. 
RUN and in a second you get the 
READY?. Type SYSTEM ENTER, 
/32713 ENTER, and KBFIX is op- 
erational, lines one and two are 
gone and you are in business. ■ 



Program Listing 1. Psychiatry/Astrology Program 

10 CLEAR:CLS:GOTO950 

20 PRINT:HH=RHD(5) :IFHH=1THENYYS="1" ELSEIFHH=2THENYYS= 

"#"ELSEIPHH = 3THENYYS = ''$"ELSEIFHH = 4THEKYYS = ''%"ELSEI 

FHH=5THENyYS="*" 
30 P0RI = 1T06 4 : PRINTYYS ; : FORU = 1TO20 : NEXTU : NEXTI ! RETURN 
40 CLS:PRINT:PRINTCHRS(23)"HI THERE '';S1S 
50 PBIHT:PRINT"IF YOU HAVE PROBLEMS WITH 
60 PRINT"SEX, MONEY, HEALTH, OR YOUR JOB 
70 PRIKT"I CAN HELP. 

80 PRINTiPRINT"! WILL ASK QUESTIONS. YOU 
90 PRINT"ANSWER Y FOR YES OR N FOR NO 
100 PRINT"REMEMBER TO PRESS 'ENTER AFTER 
110 PRINT-EACH KEYBOARD ENTRY. 

120 PRINT:PRINT!lNPUT"READY ? pRESS ' ENTER" ;: CLS 
130 PRINT:PRINT:PRIHT:PRINT"HELLO THERE. ..WHAT IS YOUR 

FIRST NAME ?": PRINT : PRINT: INPUT"D0N ' T FORGET TO PR 

ESS 'ENTER' AFTER TYPING YOUR NAME . " ; A$ : GOSOB2210 

Program continues 



80 Microcomputing, April 1981 • 179 



140 FORI=1TO2000:NEXT 

150 CLS:PRINT:PRINT:PRINT:PRINT"i CAN HELP YOU SOLVE ¥0 

UR PROBLEMS " ;AS; ". 
160 PRIHT"raY EXPERTISE IS LIMITED TO FOUR CATAGORIES. 
170 PRINT: PRIHT"!. SEX 2. HEALTH 3, MONEY 4. J 

OB 
180 PRINT:PRINT:PRINT"TOUCH THE NUMBER DO YOU CHOSE ";A 

$ 
190 GOSUB226 : IFCS = "l"THeNB=lELSEIFCS = ''2"THENB=2ELSEIF 

CS = "3"THENB=3ELSEIFCS=''4"THENB=4ELSECLS: PRINT :PRIN 

T"WHY WON'T YOU CHOSE 1,2,3 OR 4 " ; A? ; " TRY AGAIN. 

":GOTO190 
200 1FB=1THENGOSUB40 ELSEIFB=2THENGOSDB56 ELSEIFB=3 

THENGOSUB6 80 ELSEIFB=4THEKG0SUB7 80 
210 FORI=1TO500:NEXTI 
220 PRINT:PRINT"WANT SOME MORE ADVICE ";A$;" ?" : : -esiiiST" 

TOUCH Y OR N" 
230 GOSUB2260 : IFCS = ''N"THEN240 ELSEIFC$ = " Y"THENl5 EL 

SEPRINT:PRINT"TOUCH Y OR N ";AS:GOTO230 
240 CLS:PRINT:PRINT:PRINT:PRINT:PRINT''TELL HE ";AS;" HO 

W DO YOU RATE MY ADVICE ON A SCALE OF 
250 PRINT"! TO 10 ? 
260 INPUTC:CLS 
270 IFC<4THENCLS:PRINT"AS 1 THOUGHT " ; AS ; " YOU CAN' 

T HANDLE THE TRUTH. ": PRINT"YOU 'VE BEEN SPOILED BY 

THOSE PATRONIZING PROPONENTS OF" : PRINT" PERSPICACIT 

Y WHO ONLY TELL YOU WHAT YOU WANT TO HEAR.":GOTO 3 

00 
280 IFC>6THENPRINT"AH YES ";ASr" YOU RECOGNIZE REAL TAL 

ENT. " :PRINT:PRINT"SOHE OF THESE TURKEYS AROUND HER 

E DON'T APPRECIATE ME":GOTO 300 
290 PRINT:PRINT"I'M TELLING YOU...i DON'T GET NO RESPEC 

T,,.THE LIFE OF":PRINT"OF A COMPUTER AIN'T EXACTLY 
EASY YOU KNOW. ..AT LEAST YOU " : PRINT"DIDN ' T RATE M 

E A 1 LIKE SOME OF THESE INSENSITIVE DUMMYS. 
300 GOSUB 20 :PRINT"ACCORDING TO MY TIME CLOCK YOU OW 

E ME S25.00 FOR THERAPY. 
310 PRINT:PRINT"YOU MAY LEAVE IT NEXT TO MY KEYBOARD.": 

GOSUB20 
320 PRINT;PRINT"SAY ";A$;" DID YOU LEAVE THE MONEY ? EN 

TER Y OR N. " :GOSUB2260 
330 IFCS="Y"THENCLS:PRINT:PRINT:PRINT:PRINTCHR$(23) "LIA 

R. .CHEATER. . SWINDLER" : PRINT: PRINT : FORI^1TO1300 : NEX 

T:PRINTAS; :PRINT" SHAME ON YOU ....": PRINT : PRINT"TR 

YING TO CHEAT ME."iGOTO 390 
340 IFCS<>"N"THENPRINT"LET'S TRY AGAIN ";AS;" TOUCH Y 

R N" :GOTO320 
350 CLS:PRINT:PHINT:PRINT:PRINT"YOU'RE HONEST " ; A? ; " BU 

T I'D RATHER HAVE THE CASH.... 
360 PRINT:PRINT"i'LL SETTLE FOR SI. 00 CASH " ; AS 
37 FORI=1TO15 00:NEXT:CLS:PRINTCHRS(23} 
380 PRINT: PRINT: PRINT :F0R1^1T025:PRINT"CHEAP SKATE", "CHE 

APSKATE", "CHEAP SKATE", "CHEAP SKATE" :NEXTI 
390 FORI^1TO2000:NEXT I :CLS : PRINT: PRINT: PRINT: PRINT"NOW 
LET ME TALK TO SOMEONE ELSE. " : FOR1=1TO800 :NEXTI : G 

OTO10 
400 GOSUB 890 
410 CLS:A=RND(131 :PRINT 
420 IFA=13THENGOSUB2130 :GOTO160 
430 IFA=12THENPRINT"Y0U SHOULD DRINK A TOAST TO YOUR SP 

OUSE AND LOVER "iGOSUB 20 : PRINT: PRINT" AND 

HOPE AND PRAY THEY NEVER MEET ! 
440 IFA=7THENPRINT''WITH YOUR BODY, YOU SHOULD BE A CENT 

ERFOLD MODEL" :PRINT:PRINT:GOSUB 20 :PRINT"FOR TH 

E FAMOUS MAGAZINE " : FORI = 1TO1000 : NEXT: PRI 

NT:PRINT" 'THE AMERICAN FARMER' 

450 IFA=8THENPRINT"WITH YOUR TALENT, YOU SHOULD SPEND M 

ORE TIME IN BED.":GOSUB 20 : PRINT: PRINT"SO WHY D 

ON'T YOU GO HOME NOW AND GO TO BED ! 
460 IFA^STHENPRINT-IF YOU FIND OUT YOUR DAUGHTER IS A 

HOOKER YOU MIGHT":GOSUB 20 : PRINT : PRINT"SU 

GGEST SHE CHANGE HER GRIP. 
470 IFA=10THENPRINT"YOU HAVE THE REPUTATION OF BEING A 

REAL SWINGER ":GOSUB 20 :PRINT:PRINT 

"BUT THEN SO DO BABOONS AND MONKEYS ! 
480 IFA=llT[iENPRINT"YOU'RE NOT AS GOOD AS YOU ONCE WUZ . 

BUT":GOSUB 20 : PRINT : PRINTAS ; " YOU'RE 

AS GOOD ONCE AS YOU EVER WUZMI 
490 IFA=1THENPRINT"G0 TAKE A COLD SHOWER " ; AS ; " AND THE 
URGE WILL GO AWAY !":GOSUB 20 : PRINT : PRINT"UNTI 

L YOU DRY OFF ! 
500 IFA=4THENPRINT"W0W ";AS;" I FIND YOU SUPER SEXY.... 

..":GOSUB20 :PRINT"YOU REALLY TURN ME ON.. .SO YO 

U SHOULD BE PLEASED ":GOSUB20 :PRINT"THAT SO 

MEONE FINDS YOU DESIRABLE!!! 
510 IFA=5THENPRINTAS; ", TOMORROW YOU WILL MEET A TALL D 

ARK MEMBER" :PRINT''OF THE OPPOSITE SEX.":GOSUB 20 
:PRINT"IT WILL BE LOVE AT FIRST SIGHT. .,.": GOSUB 

20 :PRINT''PROVIDED YOU LIKE 800 LB, GORILLAS. 
520 IFA=6THENPRINT"WH0 ARE YOU KIDDING ";AS;" YOU GET M 

ORE BY ACCIDENT. " :PRINT''THAN MOST PEOPLE GET ON PU 

RPOSEL " iGOSUB 20 :PRINT"WHICH MUST BE SOME KIND 

OF MIRACLE! ! 
530 IFA=2THENPRINT:PRINT:PRINT"dR. RUBIN SAID, 'USE IT 

OR LOSE IT" .":GOSUB20 : PRINT: PRINT"I SUGGEST YOU 
THROW IT AWAY ! ! 
540 IFA=3THENPRINT"Y0U HORNY RASCAL ";A5!" YOU SHOULD B 

E THE ONE GIVING ADVICE. 
550 FORI=1TO500:NEXTI:RETURN 
560 GOSUB 890 
570 CLS:A=RND{9) 



580 
590 



610 



630 

640 

650 

660 

670 
680 
6 90 



73t 
741 



750 

760 



77( 

781 
7 9( 



82[ 
83( 



840 
850 



87E 



89( 

901 
911 
921 



93t 



94t 
95( 



PRINT: PRINT :IFA=8THENGOSUB2130 :GOTO160 

IFA=6THENPRINT"GIVE UP DRINKING AND SEX IMMEDI 

ATELY !":GOSUB 20 : PRINT: PRINT" YOUR HEALTH WORRI 

ES WILL BE OVER BECAUSE" : GOSUB 20 :PRINTjPR 

INT"THEN YOU HAVE LITTLE WORTH LIVING FOR... SO YOU 
WON ' T CARE ! ! 

IFA=7THENPRINT''THEY SAY THAT THE GOOD DIE YOUNG.... 
...":GOSUB 20 :PRINT: PRINT"MY DATA INDICATES THA 
T YOU SHOULD LIVE TO BE AT LEAST 95 1 ! 1 

IFA=9THENPRINT"GIVE UP SMOKING, DRINKING, AND SEX I 
MMEDIATELY.":GOSUB20 ;PRINT"YOU STILL WON'T LIVE 

TO BE 90 ":GOSUB20 :PRINT"B 

UT IT WILL SEEM LIKE IT! ! 11 1 

irA=lTHENPRINT"CONSIDERING THE WAY YOU CARRY ON ".-A 
$:PRINT!GOSUB 20 : PRINT''YOU ' RE LUCKY TO STILL BE 
ALIVE 

IFA=2THENPRINT"D0N'T BUY ANY LONG PLAYING RECORDS " 
;ASr" .":GOSUB20 : PRINT : PRINT" MAKE SURE YOUR INS 
URANCE IS PAID":GOSUB20 : PRINT:PRINT"CHECK OUT W 
HAT YOUR SPOUSE HAS BEEN FEEDING YOU 

IFA=3THENPRINTCHRS(23] :PRINT"IF I'VE TOLD YOU ONCE" 
!GOSUB20 :PRINT"I'VE TOLD YOU 1000 TIMES" :G0SUB2 

:PRINT"QUIT EATING YELLOW SNOW " ;AS 
IFA=4THENPRINT"LAY OFF BOOZE S SEX FOR 24 HOURS ";A 

5:G0SUB 20 :PRIHT" ...IF THAT IS POSSIBLE." 
IFA=5THENPRINT"SM0KE A JOINT EVERY 4 HOURS AND CALL 

ME MONDAY. 
FORI=lTO500:NEXTl! RETURN 
GOSUB 890 
CLS:A=RND(8) : PRINT : PRINT : IFA=8THENGOSUB213 :G0T016 


IFA=lTHENPRINT"niARRY SOMEONE RICH ";AS;" OR STOP EA 

TING. . . " :GOSUB 20 : PRINT: PRINT"ONE WAY YOU HAVE 

ALL YOU WANT ": FORI = 1TO1000 : NEXT: PRINT : PRI 

NT"THE OTHER, YOU WON'T NEED SO MUCH. 
IFA=2THENPRINT"Y0U LOOK WELL SUITED TO A LIFE OF CR 

IME ";AS:GOSUB20 :PRINT: PRINT" YOU HAVE THE SHIFT 

lEST EYES I'VE EVER SEEN ";AS 
IFA=4THENPRINTAS;", SOMEDAY YOU WILL BE WORTH A MIL 

LION " : GOSUB 20 : PRINT: PRINT: PR 

INT" YEN 

IFA=5THENPRINT"SPEND IT NOW! IT WILL BE WORTHLESS 

NEXT YEAR.":GOSUB 20 : PRINT : PRINT" I REALIZE THAT 
I MAY BE TOO OPTOMISTIC. 
IFA=6THENPRINTAS; :PRINT" MY RECORDS SHOW THAT YOU H 

AVE SUCCESSFULLY (THUS FAR) ": PRINT : PRINT"CHEATED T 

HE IRS OUT OF MORE THAN S20,000, IN TAXES !":GOSUB 
20 :GOSUB 20 :CLS : PRINTCHRS ( 23) : PRINT@400 , "CO 

NGRATULATIONS" : FORI=1TO1000 :NEXT:CLS 
IFA=7THENPRINT"IF YOU FIND YOU CAN'T TAKE IT WITH Y 

OU ";A$:GOSUB20 :PRINT"THE ANSWER IS SIMPLE";:FO 

RT=1TO800:NEXTT:PRINT" REFUSE TO GO! 1 1 1 " 
IFA=3T1IENPR1NT"WHY DO YOU INSIST ON PLEADING POVERT 

Y WHEN WE ALL KNOW" : PRINT : PRINTAS ; " IS WORTH ONE M 

ILLION DOLLARS ":GOSUB 20 : PRINT : PRINT: PRIN 

T" DEAD OR ALIVE. 

FORI=1TO400:NEXTI: RETURN 
GOSUB 890 

A=RND[9) : PRINT :IFA=7THENGOSUB2130 :GOTO160 
IFA^8THENPRINT"WHAT DO YOU KNOW ABOUT WORK ";AS:G0S 

UB20 :PRINT"YOU GET TIRED JUST WATCHING OTHERS W 

ORK ! ! " 
IFA=9THENPRINT"W0RK??? ";AS;:PRINT" YOU DON'T EVEN 

KNOW THE MEANING" :PRINT"OF THE WORD. " : GOSUB20 :P 

RINT"IN FACT, I'M NOT AT ALL SURE YOU CAN SPELL IT 

1 ! " 

IFA=1THENPRINT"WH0 ARE YOU KIDDING ";AS;" YOU HAVEN 

'T WORKED IN YEARS. 
IFA=2THENPRINT"i THINK YOU WOULD DO BETTER SELLING 

USED CARS ";AS:GOSUB20 :PRINT:PRINT"FACE FACTS, 

YOU'RE A NATURAL CON ARTIST" : PRINT" AND HAVE A TOTA 

L DISREGARD FOR THE TRUTH! 
IFA=3THENPR1NT"IF LOOKS MEAN ANYTHING " ; AS ; " YOU'RE 

IN A LOT OF TROUBLE 111 
IFA=4THENPRINT"QUIT NOW ";AS;" AND BECOME A BEACH B 

UM. " :GOSUB20 : PRINT: PRINT: PRINT"! MEAN. . . " ; : FORI 

=1TO500:NEXTI:PRINT"YOU ARE NEVER GOING TO AMOUNT 

TO MUCH ANYWAY." 
IFA=5THENPRINT"DEMAND A RAISE OR ELSE !r':GOSUB20 
:PRINT:PRINT:PRINT"THEN START LOOKING FOR ANOTHER 
JOB ";AS;"." 
IFA=6THENPRINT"IF YOUR BOSS GIVES YOUR ANY CRAP, TE 

LL THE S.O.B, TO GO JUMP" : PRINT: PRINT" IN THE DAMM 

LAKE... YOU WILL BE REMEMBERED AS ONE COURAGOUS" :G0 

SUB 20 :PRINT:PRINT" EX-EMPL 

OYEE 
FORI=1TO500:NEXTI : RETURN 
K=RND(21 
IFK=1THEN 930 
IFK=2THEN 920 
CLS:PRINTCHRS(23) : PRINT@400 , "I ' M THINKING" :FORP=1TO 

400:NEXTP:FORO=1TO7 :S=RND{85 0) : PRINTAS, "THINK": FOR 

G=1T0I66 :HeXTG:CLS:NEXTO:G0TO 940 
CLS:F0RI=1T06:PRINTCHRS(23] :PRINTia400, "I'M THINKING 

":FORT=1TO200:NEXTT:CLS:NEXTI 
RETURN 
DATA "A Q U A R I U S" , "- ------ -","P ICES 

","- - - - - -","A IRE S","- - - - -","T A U R U 

S","- - - - - -","G E M I N I","- - - - - -","C A 

Program continues 



180 • 80 Microcomputing, April1981 



COLLEGE BOARDS 



for TRS-80 
PET, APPLE 

The best way to sharpen your skills for the College Boards is to work on actual examinations. 
Each of these program sets confronts the user with a virtually limitless series of questions and answers 
Each program is based on past exams and presents material of the same level of difficulty and in the 
same form as used in the College Board examination. Scoring is provided in accordance with the 
formula used by College Boards. 

SAT, PSAT, N.M.S.Q.T., set includes 7 programs covering Vocabulary, Word Relationships, and 
Mathematics. Price $79.95 

EDUCATOR EDITION - SAT, PSAT Includes all of the above programs plus detailed solutions and 
explainations for each problem plus drill exercises. SAT set includes 14 programs. $149.95 

GRADUATE RECORD EXAMINATION set includes 10 programs covering Vocabulary, Word Rela- 
tionships, Mathematics, Logical Diagrams, Analytical Reasoning. $139.95 
EDUCATOR EDITION - Graduate Record Exam Set includes 20 programs. $199.95 

SWORD OF ZEDEK 

Fight to overthrow Ra, The Master of Evil. !n this incredible adventure game, you 
must confront a host of creatures, natural and supernatural. To liberate the King- 
dom, alliances must be forged and treasures sought. Treachery, deceit and v^itch- 
craft must be faced in your struggles as you encounter wolves, dwarves, elves, 
dragons, bears, owls, ores, giant bats, trolls, etc. Each of the 12 treasures will en- 
hance your power, by making invisible, invulnable, more eloquent, more skillful in 
combat etc., etc., as you explore the realms of geography both on the surface and 
underground. Dungeons, temples, castles, mountains etc., are all a part of the 
fantastic world of Ra, Each game is unique in this spectacular and complex world 
offantasy, $24.95 




KRELLGAMEPAK 
Incredible bargain, 15 unique 
and challenging games!!! 



SUPER STAR BASEBALL 



Hostage 
Prime Time 
The Black Death 
Star Clipper 
Bulls & Bears 
Banzai 
Banzai II 



Primary Fight 

Black Gold 

Wordsworth 

Hard Scrabble 

Bible Quode 

Shakespeare Quode 

Bill of Rights Quode 



ALL TIME 

SUPER STAR BASEBALL 

Sample Lineup 



SUPER STAR BASEBALL 
Sample Lineup 



B, Ruth 


T, Williams 


D. Parker 


1, Rice 


L. Gehrig 


). Foxx 


W. Stargell 


H. Aaron 


|. DiMaggio 


H, Cteenberg 


W. Mays 


L. Brock 


J. Jackson 


R. Hornsby 


P. Rose 


R. Carew 


G. Sisier 


H.Wilson 


O. Cepeda 


H. Killebrew 


S. Muiial 


B.Terry 


C. Yazslremsk 


R.Allen 


T Cobb 


M. Mande 


W. McCovey 


R, Ledore 


W, Mays 


H, Aaron 


R. lackson 


R.Zisk 


C. Young-P 


W. lohnson-p 


C. Brett 


B. Mad lock 






R. Cuidry-P 


T. Seaver-p 



Super Banzai JRS-80 only, $39.95 



TIME TRAVELER 

The best of the adventure games. Confronts player with complex decision situa- 
tions and the demand for real time action. Using the Time Machine, players must 
face a challenging series of enviornments that include; the Athens of Pericles, 
Imperial Rome, Nebuchadnezzar's Babylon, Ikhnaton's Egypt, Jerusalem at the 
time of the crucifixion, The Crusades, Machiavelli's Italy, the French Revolution, 
the American Revolution, and the English Civil War. Deal with Hitler's Third Reich, 
Vikings, etc. At the start of each game players may choose a level of difficulty... 
the more difficult, the greater the time pressure. To succeed you must build 
alliances and struggle with the ruling powers. Each game is unique. $24.95 



Performance h based on the inter- 
action of actual batting and pitching 
data. Game can be played by one 
or two players with the compuler 
aciing as a second player when de- 
sired. Players select rosters and line- 
ups and exercise strategic choices in- 
cluding hit and run, base stealing, 
pinch hitting, intentional walk, etc. 
Highly realistic, there are two 
versions. ALL TIME SUPER STAR 
BASEBALL, and SUPER STAR BASE- 
BALL featuring players of the current 
decade. Each includes about .iO 
players allowing nearly an infinite 
number of roster and lineup possi- 
bilities. 

SU.93 




^375 



*ALL PROGRAMS AVAILABLE FOR 
TRS-80, APPLE II & PET 

*Programs for APPLE or TRS-80 are on 
disk or cassett, please specify. 

All programs requite 16K*TR5-80 programs require LEVEL II 8AStC*APPLE programs require Applemit BASIC 



KRELL SOFTWARE 

Send check or money order to 
21 Milbrook Drive, Stony Brook, NY 1 1 790 

(516)751-5139 



^See List of Advertisers on page 306 



80 Microcomputing, April 1981 • 181 



I R G " , " - - 
R P I 0" , "- 

u s" ,"---- 



NCER","---- --" 

960 DATA"L E 0","- - -","V I R G 0","- - - - -","L I 

R A", "- - - - -","S C 
970 DATA"S AGITTARI 

."CAPRICORN","---------" 

980 CLS:PRINTCHRS(23) " WELCOME 

990 PRINT:PRINT" TO DR. H IMMELSTEIN' E 

1000 PRINT:PRINT" PSYCHIATRIC/ASTROLOGY CLIHIC 

1010 PRI[JT:PRINT"THOUSANDS BAVE COME FROM FAR AND 

1020 PRINT"WIDE TO SEEK MY ADVICE 

1030 PRINT:PRINT"YOU WILL BE ASKED QUESTIONS. 

1040 PRINT"AFTER RESPONDING, YOU MUST THEN 

1050 PRINT-PRESS THE LARGE WHITE BUTTON 

1060 PRINT"MARKED ' ENTER' ... PRESS IT NOW !": INPUT 

1070 CLS:PB1NT:PRINT:PRINT:PRINT:PRINTCHRS(23)"Y0U CATC 

H ON FAST STRANGER. " :FORI=1TO1500:KEXT:PRIKT:CLS:P 

RINTCHRS(23] 
1080 PRINT"PLEASE FOLLOW MY INSTRUCTIONS" : PRINT" CAREFUL 

LY 

1090 PRINT: PRIHT"NOW FOR YOUR HOROSCOPE AND 

1100 PRINT"OTHER SURPRISES 

1110 PBINT;PRINT"NOTICE. .AFTER EACH KEYBOARD 

1120 PRINT"ENTRY, YOU MUST PRESS THE LARGE 

1130 PRINT"WHITE BUTTON MARKED 'ENTER' 

1140 PRINT:PRINT"NOW TYPE IN YOUR BIRTHDAY .": PR1NT"PLEA 

SE NOTE: MAY 9TH WOULD" : PRIKT"BE ENTERED AS 0509 N 

OT AS 59." 
1150 PRINT: PRINT"DATE MUST BE 4 DIGITS MO ./DAY " : INPUT"T 

YPE DATE, THEN PRESS ENTER" ;BB 
1160 IFBB>1231 OR BB<101THENCLS : PRINT" INVALID DATE ENTR 

Y, TRY AGAIN. '':PRINT:PRINT"I WANT MONTH & DAY ONLY 

1":GOTO 1150 
1170 IFBB<0120THENS^12:GOSUB 1300 :GOTO 2080 
1180 IFBB<0219 THEN S=1;G0SUB 1300 :GOTO 1400 
1190 IFBB<0321THENS=2:GOSUB 1300 : GOTO 1470 
1200 IFBB<420THENS=3:GOSUB 1300 
1210 IFBB<0521THENS^4;GOSUB 130t 
1220 IFBB<0621THENS=5:GOSUB 130[ 
1230 IFBB<0723THENS=6:GOSUB 130t 
1240 IFBB<0a23THENS=7:GOSUB 130t 
1250 IFBB<0923THENS=8:GOSUB1300 
1260 IFBB<1023THENS=9:GOSUB 130t 
1270 IFBB<1122THENS=10:GOSUB 13t 
1280 IFBB<1222THENS=ll:GOSUB 13t 
1290 S=12:G0SUB 1300 :GOTO 2080 

1300 PRINT:PRINT 

1310 F0RI=1T0S 

1320 READS1S:READS2$ 

1330 NEXTI 

1340 CLS: 

1350 PRlNTTAB(19i ;"Y OUR SI 

1360 PRINTTAB( (80--LEN (SIS) )/2-91 fSlS 

137 PRINTTAB( ( 80-LEN (S2S) )/2-9) ;S2S 

1380 PRINT 

13 90 RETURN 

1400 PRINT"YOU HAVE AN INVENTIVE MIND 

TO BE PROGRESSIVE. 
1410 PRINT"YOU LIE A GREAT DEAL. ON THE OTHER HAND YOU 

ARE INCLINED TO BE 
1420 PRINT"CARELESS AND IMPRACTICAL CAUSING YOU TO MAKE 

THE SAME MISTAKES 
1430 PR1NT"0VER AND OVER AGAIN. pEOPLE THINK YOU ARE S 

TUPID I ! [ 
1440 rORI=lTO4200:NEXTI:PRIKTTPRINTTAB(22}"TBEY ARE RIG 

HT 1 " 
1450 PRINT: PRINT"SOME FAMOUS ONES ARE: PAUL NEWMAN, TH 

OHAS EDISON, " :PRINT"FRANKLIN ROOSEVELT, GEORGE BU 

RNS, CLARK GABLE, AND GALILEO 

GOTO 2120 

PRINT"YOU HAVE A VIVID IMAGINATION AND OFTEN THINK 
YOU ARE BEING 

PRINT"FOLLOWED BY THE 'CIA' OR 'FBI'. YOU HAVE MI 

NOR INFLUENCE OVER 



:GOTO 15 40 
1 :GOTO 1600 
1 :GOTO 1660 
i :GOTO 17 20 
I :GOTO 17 80 

:GOTO 1840 
I :GOTO 1900 
10 :GOTO 1970 
10 :GOTO 2020 



G N IS 



AND ARE INCLINED 



1460 
1470 

1480 

1490 
1500 
1510 
1520 



i53i; 

154t 



1550 
1560 



157( 
1581 



1590 

1600 

1610 
1620 



PRINT"YOUR ASSOCIATES AND PEOPLE RESENT YOU FOR YO 

UR FLAUNTING OF YOUR 

PRINT"POWER, YOU LACK CONFIDENCE AND ARE GENERALL 

Y A COWARD. 

PRINT"YOU ARE A WEIRDO, BUT MAY POSSESS GREAT ARTI 

STIC TALANT. 

PRINT:PRINT''FAMOUS PISCES: EINSTEIN, CARUSO, CHOPI 

N, MICHELANGELO," :PRINT"VICTOR HUGO, RUDOLPH NURE 

YEV, RENOIR, AND LIZ TAYLOR. 

GOTO 2120 

PRINT"YOU ARE THE PIONEER TYPE AND HOLD MOST PEOPL 

E IN CONTEMPT. 

PRINT"YOU ARE QUICK TEMPERED, IMPATIENT, AND SCORN 

FUL OF ADVICE. 

PRINT"YOU VASTLY OVERESTIMATE YOUR ABILITIES IN 

FACT, ALL 
PRINT"THINGS CONSIDERED, YOU ARE A REAL CREEP I I 
PRINT: PRINT"FAMOUS AIRES: MARLON BRANDO, HARRY HO 
UDINI, NIKITA KRUSHCHEV" :PRINT"PETER USTINOV, CHA 
RLES CHAPLIN, AND BETTE DAVIS. 
GOTO 2120 

PRIfJT"YOU ARE PRACTICAL AND PERSISTENT, YOU HAVE 
DOGGED 

PRINT"DETERMINATION AND WORK LIKE HELL. mOST PEOP 
LE THINK YOU 

PRINT"ARE STUBBORN AND BULL HEADED. ... THEY ARE RIG 
HT ! 



1630 PRINT"YOU ARE NOT EXACTLY PHI BETA KAPPA MATERIAL 
1640 PRINT:PRINT"FAMOUS BULLS: WILLIE MAYS, SHAKESPEARE 

, HARRY TRUMAN" ;PRINT"BARBARA STREISAND, ORSON WEL 

LS, AND ADOLPH HITLER ! 
1650 GOTO 2120 
1660 PRINT"YOU ARE A QUICK AND INTELLIGENT THINKER. pE 

OPLE LIKE YOU 
1670 PRINT"BECAUSE YOU ARE BISEXUAL. hOWEVER , YOU ARE 

INCLINED TO EXPECT 
1680 PRINT"TOO MUCH FOR TOO LITTLE. THIS MEANS YOU ARE 

CHEAP ! 
1690 PRINT"GEHINIS ARE KNOWN FOR COMMITTING INCEST. 
1700 PRINT: PRINT"FAHOUS GEMINI'S: BOB HOPE, AL JOLSON , 
ERROL FLYNN":PRINT"JOHN KENNEDY, JOHN DILLINGER, 

JUDY GARLAND S CHARLIE BROWN . 
1710 GOTO 2120 
1720 PRINT-YOU ARE SYMPATHETIC AND UNDERSTANDING OF OTH 

ER PEOPLE'S 
1730 PRINT"PROBLEMS. THEY THINK YOU ARE A SUCKER. YOU 

ARE ALWAYS 
1740 PRINT"PUTTING THINGS OFF. THAT'S WHY YOU WILL NEV 

ER MAKE ANYTHING 
1750 PRINT"OF YOURSELF. mOST WELFARE RECIPIENTS ARE CA 

NCER PEOPLE. 
1760 PRINT: PRINT"FAMOUS CANCER'S: JULIUS CEASAR, HENRY 

THE 8TH, REMBRANDT" :PRINT"GINA LOLLOBRIGIDA, PHYLL 

IS DILLER, AND MILTON BERLE 
1770 GOTO 2120 
1780 PRINT"YOU CONSIDER YOURSELF A BORN LEADER. OTHERS 

THINK YOU ARE 
1790 PRINT"PUSHY. MOST LEO PEOPLE ARE BULLIES. YOU AR 

E VAIN AND 
1800 PRINT"DISLIKE HONEST CRITISM, YOUR ARROGANCE IS D 

ISGUSTING. 
1810 PRINT"LEO PEOPLE ARD KNOWN THIEVES. 
1820 PRINT:PRINT"FAMOUS LEO'S: NAPOLEON BONAPARTE, FIDE 

L CASTRO, MAE WEST" : PRINT"MUSSOLINI , LUCILLE BALL, 
JULIA CHILD, AND EDDIE FISHER. 
1830 GOTO 2120 
1840 PRINT"YOU ARE THE LOGICAL TYPE AND HATE DISORDER. 

THIS NITPICKING 
1850 PRINT"IS SICKENING TO YOUR FRIENDS. YOU ARE COLD 

AND UNEMOTIONAL 
1860 PRINT"AND SOMETIMES FALL ASLEEP WHILE MAKING LOVE. 

1870 PRINT"VIRGOS MAKE GOOD BUS DRIVERS... 

1880 PRINT: PRINT"FAMOUS VIRGO'S: LAURENN BACALL , INGRI 

D BERGMAN, SID CAESAR" : PRINT"HENRY FORD II, SOPHIA 
LOREN, PETER SELLERS. 
1890 GOTO 2120 
1900 PRINT"YOU ARE ARTISTIC AND HAVE A DIFFICULT TIME W 

ITH REALITY. 
1910 PRINT"IF YOU ARE A MAN, YOU ARE MORE THAN LIKELY A 

QUEER. 
1920 PRINT"CHANCES FOR EMPLOYMENT AND MONITATY GAIN ARE 

EXCELLENT. 
1930 PRINT"mOST LIBRA WOMEN MAKE GOOD PROSTITUTES. ALL 

LIBRAS 
1940 PRINT"DIE OF VENERIAL DISEASE 1 ! 

1950 PRINT: PRINT"FAMOUS LIBRA'S: CHARLES BOYER, TRUMAN 
CAPOTE, FRANZ LIS ZT" : PRINT"GEORGE GERSHWIN, CHAFL 

TON HESTON, AND BRIGETTE BARDOT. 
1960 GOTO 2120 
1970 PRINT"YOU'RE SHREWD IN BUSINESS AND CANNOT BE TRUS 

TED. YOU WILL 
1980 PRINT"ACHIEVE THE PINNACLE OF SUCCESS BECAUSE OF Y 

OUR TOTAL LACK 
1990 PRINT"OF ETHICS. SCORPIOS SELDOM DIE A NATURAL DE 

ATH. 
2000 GOSUB20 :PRINT"FAMOUS SCORPIOS: LUCKY LUCIANO, A 

L CAPONE, NATHAN DETROIT. 
2010 GOTO 2120 
2020 PRINT''YOU ARE OPTOMISTIC AND ENTHUSIASTIC. YOU HA 

VE A RECKLESS 
2030 PRINT"TENDENCY TO RELY ON LUCK SINCE YOU LACK TALE 

NT. THE 
2040 PRINT"MAJORITY OF SAGGITARIANS ARE DRUNKS OR DOPE 

FIENDS. 
2050 PRINT"PEOPLE LAUGH AT YOU FREQUENTLY. 
2060 PRINT:PRINT"FAMOUS ONES: BEETHOVEN, WINSTON CHURCH 

ILL, MARK TWAIN" :PRINT"WALT DISNEY, FRANK SINATRA, 
MARIA CALLAS, S BETTY GRABLE, 
207 GOTO 2120 
2080 PRINT:PRINT"YOU ARE QUIET AND DEPENDABLE. AT LEAS 

T THAT IS THE":PRINT"IMPRESSION YOU WISH TO GIVE W 

HILE YOU ARE CLIMBING TO THE TOP. 
2090 PRINT"CAPRICORN'S ARE BASHFUL AND DIFFICULT TO SE 

DUCE ":PRINT"THEY THINK THEMSELVES TO BE FANT 

ASTIC LOVERS 

2100 FORI=1TO2900:NEXT:PRINT:PRINT" A 

MINORITY OPINION 
2110 PRINT: PRINT'TAMOUS GOATS: RICHARD NIXON, JOAN OF 

ARC, LOUIS PASTEUR" :PRINT"HUMPHREY BOGART , HOWARD 

HUGHES, AND ALBERT SCHWEITZER. 
2120 PRINT:PRINT:INPUT"READY FOR MORE ADVICE, PRESS 'EN 

TER' . " ; :GOTO 40 
2130 EE=RND(2) :IFEE=1THEN2180 ELSECLS : F0R0=1T05 : F0RI=12 

6T017 5!XX=RND(999) :XYS=CHRS(I) : PRINT^XX , XYS :NEXT1 : 

NEXTO 

Program continues 



182 • 80 Microcomputing, April 1981 



Computer experts 
(the pros) usually have big 
computer experience. 
That's why when they shop 
system software for Z80 
micros, they iook for 
the big system features 
they're used to. And that's 
why they iil(e Multi-User 
OASIS. You will too. 



DATA INTEGRITY: FIIE& 
AUTOMATIC RECORD LOCKING 



The biggest challenge 
for any multi-user system 
is co-ordinating requests 
from several usei 
to change tl; 
at the sar 





probleni 
or even 
iestTT)yed dali^fen b 
"stagggj^^ J 

jres 
lese^OW^ms, 
(ample: normally 
iserscan viewa 
particular record at the 
same time. But, if that 
record is being updated 
by one user, automatic 
record locking will deny al 
other users access to the 
record until the up-date is 
completed. So records 
are always accurate, 
up-to-date and integrity 
is assured. 

Pros demand file & 
automatic record locking. 
OASIS has it. 



SYSTEM SECURITY: 
LOGON, PASSWORD 
& USER ACCOUNTING 



Controlling who gets on 
your system and what they 
do once they're on it is the 
essence of system security. 



(THEN COMPARE.) 



Without this control, 
unauthorized users could 
access your programs and 
data and do what they like. 
A frightening prospect 
isn't it? 

And multi-users 
can multiply the problem. 

But with the Logon, . 
Password and PriAlegB 
Level featwes of Muiti-Uger 
manager 
each user 
[s and file 
(S'sed — 
for what purpose'" 
"Securit^^urther 
enhancedlwte^ 

^P^uli'that 
;eepa history 
serhas been 
. when and 
f how long. 
Pros insist on these 
security features. 
OASIS has them. 



memory is needed. Even 
if you have more than 64K, 
your pay-off is cost savirig 
and more efficient use 
of all the memoi^ou h 
availabl^^^fe^e it 
se£;^ce^ore users 

Sound Itke a pro feature'^ 
It IS And OASIS has It 




AND LOTS MORE... 





EFFICIENCY: 
RE-ENTRANT BASIC 



A multi-user system 
is often not even practical 
on computers limited 
to 64K memory, 

OASIS Re-entrant 
BASIC makes it practical. 

How? 

Because all users use a 
single run-time BASIC 
module, to execute their 
compiled programs, less 



■lulti-User OASIS supports 
any^l6^r|ijnals 
n in^^ little as 
ry. Or, with 
^n^wjtchlng, as much 
s 784K. 
Multi-Tasking lets each 
user run more than one 
job atthe same time. 

And there's our BASIO- 
a compiler, interpreter and 
debugger all in one. 
An OASIS exclusive. 

Still more: Editor; Hard 
& Floppy Disk Support: 
Keyed (ISAM), Direct & 
Sequential Files; Mail-Box; 



Scheduler; Spooler; 
all from OASIS, 

Our documentation is 
recognized as some of the 
best, most extensive, in the 
industry. And, of course, 
there's plenty of 
application software. 

Put it all together and it's 
easy to see why the real 
pros like OASIS, Join them. 
Send your order today. 




OASIS IS AVAILABLE FOR 

SYSTEMS Alios. Compucorp. Cromemcq„ 
Delia Produgis, Digilal Group. OigitaJ, 
Microsysiems: Dynahyle: Godboul: 
Index. Iniersystems. 
SD Syster 
Graphic: Vorm 




PLEASE SEND ME: 



OPEHAIING SYSTEM 

(Includes. 
EXEC Language, 
File Mariagemerii; 
User Accounting, 
Device Drivers; 
Print Spooler; 
General Te 



Edii 



etc) 



BASIC COMPILER/ 
INTERPRETER/DEBUGGER 



RE-ENTRAP4T BASIC 
COMPtLEh/ INTERPRETER/ 
DEBUGGER 



DEVELOPMENT PACKAGE 

iMaciO Assemble,'. 
.irVa^e Ea'tcr; 
Dfibjgger) 



DIAGNOSTIC i 
CONVERSION UTILITIES 

'.Mt'mory lest, 
Assemtily [.angiiayc 
Converlers; File 
Recovery, Disk Test, 
F.le Copy trora 
other OS. etc ) 



COMMUNICATIONS 
PACKAGE 

(lermmal Emulator 
File Send & Rece.vi 



PACKAGE PRICE 

;aii of Aoove) 
SINGLE, USER 
MULTI-USFR 



FILE SORT 



COBOL-ANSI '74 



$17.50 
17 50 



Orde' OASIS fro-1 

Phase One Systems, Inc. 

7700 Edgewater Drive, Suite 830 

Oakland, CA 94621 

"elpphone (4:5) 562-8085 
TVVX 9-0-366-7139 

NAME 



STREET (NO BOX 


=\ 


CITY 




STATE 
AMOUNTS 


ZIP 



(Attach system descr.pt, on; 

add S3 for shipping; 

California residents add sales tax) 

n Check enclosed C VISA 

a UPS CO, D. G Mastercharge 

Card Number 

Expiration Date 

Signalure 



MAKES MICROS RUN LIKE MINIS 



2140 CLS:PRINTCflR$(231 :PRINT:PRINT:PRINT"SORRY ".-A? 

2150 PRINTiPRINT"! MUST HAVE FLIPPED OOT 

2160 PRINT: PRINT"ALL IE WELL NOW, LET'S GET" 

2170 PRINT"6ACK TO YOUR SESSION. " :FORI=1TO1700:NEXT:CLS 

; RETURN 
2180 PBINT!PRINT:PRINT"SORRY " ! A$ ; " SOMETIMES I GET ANX 

lOUS" :FORI=1TO700:NEXTI:PRINT:PRIKT"IN FACT, I FEE 

L SOMETHING COMING ON NOW, . . . " : FORI=1TO600 :NEXTI : P 

RINT:PRINT"OH DEAR ! 1 !! 1 !!!!!!!!!![!!!! 1 !! U 1 !!!! ! 

! 1 !! 1 ! 1 ! !":FORI^1TO600:NEXTI 
2190 FOR I=1TO800:OUT255,8:OUT255,0:NEXTI:PRINT:PRINT"W 

HEW! SAY "jAS;" DO YOU HAVE SOME VALIUM?? I DO G 

ET SHAKY":PRINT"FROM TIME TO TIME, ALL IS WELL NO 

W. BACK TO THE SESSION" : RETURN 
2200 REM RECOGNITION ROUTINE, MUST BE TAILORED TO YOUR 

NEEDS 
2210 CLS: PRINT: PRINT: PRINT: IFAS= "JOHN 
THE GROCERY BUSINESS mR. JONES? 
2220 IFAS= "LARRY "THENPRINT: PRINT "AREN 

WHO HOOKED ONE OF HY COLLEAGUES UP ":PRINT"IN YOU 

R CAR?????'':RETURN 
2230 IFA$="HARRY" THEN PRINT"ARE YOU STILL FOOLING AROU 

KD WITH SARAH?" :RETURN 

2240 PRINT"YOUR FILES HAVE BEEN TURNED OVER TO THE CIA 
"fAS;" AND I":PRINT"CANNOT COMMENT. " :RETURN 

2250 REM LIVE KEYBOARD ROUTINE 

2260 CS=INKEYS:DD=DD+1:IFDD=60THENPRINT"QUIT WASTING TI 
ME ";AS:DD=0:FORO=1TO500:NEXTU:GOTO2260 ELSEPRINTg 
935, "MAKE SELECTION" : FORY=1TO50 : NEXTY : PRINT@935 , " 
":IFC$=""THEN226 ELSEDD=0 : RETURN 



THEN PRINT''HOW'S 
: RETURN 
T YOU THAT WEIRDO 



Program Listing 2. KBFIX Routine 

1 DATA 255,175,17,10,0,205,11,0,25,34,22,64,205,97,27,195.25,26,33,54,64,1, 

1,56,22,0,10,95,174.115,163,32,8,20,44,203,1,242,226,127,201,95,197, 
1,220,5,205,96,0,193,10,163,200,195,251,3 

2 FOR 1 = 1 TO 56: READ A: POKE I + 3271 1,A: NEXTiPRINT "TYPE SYSTEM 
ENTER /32713 ENTER": DELETE 1-2 




ZIP UP YOUR 
MOPEL I 



SPEED-UP UNIT - an easy to install electronic device that enables programs 
to run 2 to 3 times faster. It's ttie fastest and finest quality speed-up unit 
on the market. 

• guaranteed to double processing speed- no additional 
purchases required. 

• programs will run up to 3 times faster (5.3 mhz) by adding 
a Z80B microprocessor and delay line - not supplied. 

• returns automatically to normal speed during disk and 
cassette operation - no software patches required. 

• keyboard power-on light changes color to Indicate operating 
speed. 

$45.00 



VIDEO I. Reverses the video display to provide black characters and 
graphics on an all white screen for a mucti easier to read presentation. 
Software controlled. Cures pulling and distortion problems commonly ex- 
perienced with Tf1S-80 monitors. For use with TRS-80 monitors only. 
Assembled. 

$24.00 



"SATISFACTION GUARANTEED" 



Add S2.00 postage & handling - California residents add 6% sales tax 
-Foreign orders add 15%. 



ARCHBOLD ELECTRONICS 

10708 Segovia Way Rancho Cordova, CA 95670 

(916)635-5408 

Dealer inquiries invited 



HI-RESOLUTION 
GRAPHICS FOR TRS-80 




INTRODUCING: 

E/RAM 



E/RAM Graphics is a unique hardware/software package, which wilt integrate high- 
speed, high resolution graphics into any Level II TRS-80 system. E/RAM hardware is a 
fuliy plug-compatibie box. which inslalis in miniiles. and requires absolutely no 
modifications to the TRS-80 system E/RAM software is a compact, relocatable set of 
utilities wfiicti provides the user with easMy accessible graphics functions For instance- 
the user pokes the end point coordinates of a line into certain locations, does a USR call, 
and an optimized dot-raster line is automatically drawn or the screen at very highspeed 
(less than 10 milli-seconds tor a medium length line). 

E/RAM does not require the purchase ol an additional monitor CRT. The high-resolution 
graphics video is syncronized with the TRS-80 video and appears on the screen with the 
normal TRS-80 display. Alphanumencs, TRS-80 graphics, and E/RAM high-resolution 
graphics may be displayed simultaneously or individually 

E/RAM hardware contains its own 6144 byte video memory, which provides a true 256 x 
192 matrix of indBpandent graphic elements (E/RAM is NOT a programmable character 
generator type graphics system. Character generator systems have serious limitations 
in full screen graphics applications.) 

E/RAM will operate with or without an expansion interface, and with any standard 
memory configuration (4k through 48k) 

E/RAM is fast "E/RAJi/" is an acronym for Extended Random Access Memory, a very 
short description of the Patent-Pending method of I/O employed by this device, which 
gives it memory-mapped speed without interfering with the memory space used by the 
TRS-eO. 

The installation of E/RAM will not affect 
normal operation of the TRS-80. High 
resolution ON/OFF is under program or 
manual control (a switch is provided) An 
expansion card edge connector is provided 
so that other peripherals may be used on 
the TnS-80 bus, 

E/RAM software package is compact (less than 1000 bytes), fast, easy to use, and very 
flexible. A relocating loade' is provided. The user can delete unneeded routines it more 
memory space is requireo. Lines can be drawn as fast as 13 per second using BASIC USR 
calls, and as fast as 200 per second using assembly language programs. 

Routines usable through USR ot BASIC, and of course an assembler CALL are: 

INIT - Sets up display 

PLOT - Plots a point 

READ - Reads a point from the screen 

BLACK - Sets drawing mode to black (off) 

WHITE - Sets drawing mode to on 

CLEAR - Clears the higti-resolution graptiics screen 

LINE - Draws a Ime 

As an example, after the utilities package is loaded and you desire to draw a line, the 
lollowing sequence of BASIC instructions could be executed: 

U-USR(O) Return the communications area 

POKE U*1,X0 Provide the beginning X coordinate 

POKE U*3,V0 Provide the beginning V coordinate 

POKE U+5,X1 Provide the ending X coordinate 

POKE U*7,Y1 Provide the ending Y coordinate 

V=USR(4) Draw the line (Current speed is 

approximately 13 vectors/second) 

The complete E/RAM package is available for only $349,95, and includes case, power 
supply, cables, software cassette, and complete documentation. 

To order, or for further details, write or call: 

VERN STREET PRODUCTS THE COMPUTER STORE 




Si "^ 
■ !^ ja Iff 



We handle a full line 
ot Radio Stiack products 



t^A32 



4949 South Peoria Ave 

Tulsa, Okia 74105 

(918) 747-2550 



Send $10.00 for a set ot tlie manuals provided (applicable towards purchase) 

Dealer inquiries are invited. 

Terms: COD Welcome, check, money order. Master Charge, or Visa 

Delivery Stock to 60 days. 

E/RAM was designed, and is manufactured by KEYLINE COMPUTER PRODUCTS, INC. 

13 East 6th Street, M/C 200, Tulsa, Oklahoma 74119. 

'TRS-SO is a registered trademark ot Radio Shack, a Tandy Corporation, 



184 • 80 Microcomputing, April1981 



LOWEST PRICES 

ON THE 



PSn "' ONTHE jj jjj^ 

American 
Electronics 




Computers 
For Business, Learning and Entertainment 



INCORPORATED 



Radio /haok 

AUTHORIZED SALES CENTER 



i 




For More Information Call 

TOLL FREE ORDER NUMBER 

800-531-7466 

Texas & Principal NUMBER 

512-581-2765 

Telex Number 767339 

Dept. 80, 1117 Conway 

Mission, Texas 78572 



GET BUGS KICKED IN YOUR FACE? 



Ok, so you've tried running marathons on your TRS-80 keyboard. And your 
workout even included lilting codeoffofthe printed page. But your fingers are 
worn out and your programs are still weak. Let Charles Cload and his 
Dynamic CLOAD method show you the easy way to build strong software 
libraries! 

Once a month, a 30-minute cassette filled with programs to painlessly 
exercise your TRS-80 and your mind arrives by First Class Mail. Clyde C. 
writes, "I used to be a 98-error programmer. But thanks to the CLOAD method 
now have a large numt>er of bug-free, ready-to-load games, tutorials, and 
practical programs." 

Mo heavy workouts. Just get a subscription to CLOAD Magazine and 

you're on your way to happy, healthy computing. 

PRICES 

1 year subscription S42.OO 

6 month subscription ^23.00 

Single copies S4.50 

Anthology- volume 1 5J0.00 

Anthology- volume 2 5 ] 5.OO 

The Fine Print: 

Overseas rates slightly higher— please write for them. 

Back issues available— ask for our list' 

TRS-80 is a trademark of Tandy Corporation 

California residents add 6% to single copies and anthologies. 

Programs are for Level li 1 6K and occasionally for disks. 

'24 Level I back issues also available. 
Mastercard/Visa Welcome. Also Cash & Gold. 



^32 



MAGAZINE INC. ©1981 

P.O. Box 1267 Goleta, CA93116 (805)964-2761 




APPLICATION 



Data base management at 1 7/8 inches per second. 



Sans Disks 



Stewart F. Hunter 
15510 Murray Hill 
Detroit Ml 48227 



Data base management witti- 
out the use of disks is at 
best a compromise. However, if 
you insist on expioring this area 
and have no inciination to make 
the investment in disk memor- 
ies, this program may be just 
what you are looking for. 

Applications 

The program creates and 
maintains a coiiection of data 
for name and address lists, hob- 
by coiiections, program direc- 
tories, small inventories, etc. All 
data is saved on and loaded 
from cassette. Because of the 
tape format and machine lan- 
guage subroutines used for sav- 
ing and loading, data loading is 
much faster than it would be us- 
ing Level II tape load instruc- 
tions. 

Level II BASIC and 16K mem- 
ory are the minimum require- 
ments. If a line printer is on line 
(in selected state), output from 
the program will be directed to 
it. Otherwise it will appear on 
the video display. All instruc- 
tions and prompts will appear 
on the display. 



Organization 

The data base is organized in- 
to fields and records. Each rec- 
ord consists of one or more 
fields. The type of information 
contained in each field is de- 
fined by the user. Field length 
and name are also user-defined. 
Data exceeding the defined 
length is truncated. The maxi- 
mum field length that can be 
assigned is 255 characters. The 
field names can be from one to 
16 characters and the type of in- 
formation stored in a field may 
be alphabetic or numeric. The 
number of fields per record and 
the number of records is limited 
by the amount of available 
memory. 



Machine Language Subroutines 

The program POKEs two ma- 
chine language subroutines into 
reserved memory. The first 
handles input and output of the 
data base to tape; the second is 
a swap subroutine used by the 
sorting section of the program. 
The program automatically re- 
serves memory space for these 
subroutines. The response to 
the MEMORY SIZE? prompt is to 
hit the ENTER key. 

Program Use 

Refer to Fig. 1. When the pro- 
gram runs initially, it asks NEW 
DATABASE? If you are creating 
a data base for the first time 
answer YES. If the data base is 



IF EXPLONflTIONS ARE NEEDED TVPE ? IN RESPONSE TO QUESTIONS. 

NEU DflTfi BASE? V ^S 

INPUT DflTH DESCRIPTION. 

(FIELD Nfirc. FIELD SIZE. FIELD TVPE. SEPERRTED BY COMMOS) 

? HflME.20,RLPHB 

? flMiR£5S.15,RLFHfl 
? TEL. HO.,?,IMTEfie:R 
? EHD,END,"EH[r 

ENTER DfiTfl RECORDS. 

NflfE < 20 CHfiRBCTERS> ■= ? JOHN SMITH 
ADDRESS <- 15 CHflRRCTERS) ■= ? 16£2 Tffff-LE DR . 
TEL. NO. < 7 CHflRftCTERS) = ? ?yS»9e9 

NONE < 20 CHRRRCTERS) = ? END 
COMMflNO? 

Fig. 1. User resporyses are underlined. 



loaded from tape answer NO. If 
the answer is NO, the prompt 
COMMAND? is displayed, after 
which you may use the LOAD 
command to read in a data base 
from tape. If the NEW DATA 
BASE? prompt is answered YES 
the user will be prompted for the 
entry of the data base. 

First the field specifications 
must be entered. Suppose that 
we are creating a file of names, 
addresses and telephone num- 
bers. We will have to describe 
the layout of each of these 
items. The next prompt we en- 
counter is INPUT DATA DE- 
SCRIPTION (FIELD NAME, 
FIELD SIZE, FIELD TYPE). This 
means to enter information for 
one item (field) of data that will 
appear in each record. 

In the example we are using 
we might respond: NAME, 20, 
ALPHA. This means the first 
field of each record will be titled 
NAME, the field will contain a 
maximum of 20 characters, and 
the field will store alphabetic 
characters. For numeric charac- 
ters enter the word INTEGER or 
REAL. REAL denotes floating 
point values. After the ENTER 
key is hit we will likewise be 
prompted for each additional 
field. When no more fields are to 
be specified, type END, END, 
END to terminate the field de- 
scriptions. 



186 • 80 Microcomputing, April 1981 



The next prompt is ENTER 
DATA RECORDS. Type in the 
vaiue for each field of each rec- 
ord. The name of the field will be 
displayed along with the maxi- 
mum number of characters that 
may be entered for that field. 
Following the displayed equals 
sign, type the value of that field 
for that particular record. Re- 
member to enter only alphabetic 
information for fields that were 
defined as alpha and numeric in- 
formation for numeric defined 
fields. 

After the value for the last 
field of the last record is entered 
type END. Data entry will be ter- 
minated and the COMMAND? 
prompt will be displayed. A brief 
explanation of all prompts will 
be displayed by answering the 
prompt with ?. 



^7he data base 

is organized into 

fields and records. 

Each record 

consists of one 

or more fields." 



Commands 

There are 10 commands al- 
lowed by the program: 

• LOAD— Reads in a data base 
that has been saved on tape. Put 
the tape recorder in the play 
mode with the tape positioned 
at the start of the data before 
entering this command. 

• SAVE— Saves the data base 
currently residing in memory to 
tape. Set the recorder to the 
record mode before entering 
this command. 

• NAMES— Prints a list of field 
names and descriptions previ- 
ously selected by the user. 
These field names and descrip- 
tions are saved to and loaded 
from the tape along with the 
data base. 

• SELECT— Produces a print- 
out of the entire data base, field 
by field and record by record. 

• SELECT IF— Prints records 
having fields that match the cri- 
teria given in the command. For 



example, SELECT IF NAME = 
JOHN SMITH. Three operators 
in addition to the equals sign 
may be used. They are >, <, and 
<>. These operators work for 
either alpha or numeric fields. 

• DELETE IF— Works the same 
as the SELECT IF command but 
deletes the records as they are 
printed. The data base is auto- 
matically repacked to close up 
holes left by deleted records. 

• CHANGE IF— Changes the 
specified field in all records 
to the value input by the user 
if the field meets the criteria in 
the command. For example, the 
command CHANGE IF AD- 
DRESS = 112 ELM ST. would be 
followed by the prompt TO 
WHAT?. The user might re- 
spond, 3350 WOODWARD AVE. 
All records would then be 
searched for fields named AD- 
DRESS which match the string 
112 ELM ST. When these fields 



are found they are changed to 
the string 3350 WOODWARD 
AVE. All records are printed out 
as they are changed. 

• APPEND— Adds data to the 
end of the data base currently in 
memory. Prompts input for each 
field of the new record as in the 
initial creation of the data base. 

• SORT BY— Sorts the data 
base in ascending order of the 
values of the specified field. For 
example, SORT BY NAME would 
result in an alphabetical sort of 
all records according to the 
value of the field called NAME. 

• EXIT— Returns to the BASIC 
monitor. 

Because the main body of the 
program is written in BASIC, 
sorting and searching opera- 
tions can be frustratingly slow, 
especially with lengthy data 
bases. However, the versatility 
of the program compensates for 
its lack of speed. ■ 



Program Listing 1. 



3=DELETE RECORD CODE 
3=DELETE RECORD CODE 
4=END OF DATA DESCR. 
5=END OF FILE CODE 

40 ' 

DATA DESCRIPTION START ADRS. =30001 
DATA RECORDS START ADRS. =31001 
DATA RECORDS START ADRS. =31001 

41 ' 

7 5 DEFINTA,B,T,C,D,F,H,I, J,N,R,S,X-Z 
80 X=29608:' START ADRS OF RESERVE MEMORY 
90 X=X-2:Y=IHT(X/256) :Z=X-(Y*256] : P0KE16561, Z :POKE16562 
,Y:CLEAR 

92 X=29920 

93 READY:POKEX,Y:X=X+1:IFY<>99GOT093: ' LOAD CASSETTE SU 

B ROUTINE 

94 DATA0, 58, 224, 116, 254, 1,202, 10, in ,33,49,117,205,132, 

2,126,35,205,100,2,254,4,194,23 9,116,33,24,121,126 
,35,205,100,2,254,5,194,252,116,205,248,1,201,205, 
147,2,33,49,117,205,53,2,119,35,254,4,194,16,117,3 
3,24,121,205,53,2,119 ,35,254,5,194 

95 DATA29, 117, 205, 248, 1,201, 99 

96 POKE16526,225:POKEl6527 ,116 

97 FORX=29610TO29652:READY:POKEX,Y:NEXT: ' LOAD SWAP SUB 

ROUTINE 

98 DATA1,0,0,17 ,217 ,115,42,213,115,126,18,35,19,3,254,2 

,32,247,197,237,91,213,115,237,176,193,237,83,213, 
115,33,217,115,237,17 6,42,215,115,35,34,215,115,20 
1 

99 ' 

100 CLS:CLEAR 1500:DIM FD$ (15 ) , HP ( 255 ) 

105 PRINT"IF EXPLANATIONS ARE NEEDED TYPE ? IN RESPONSE 

TO QUESTIONS. ": PRINT 
110 PRINT"NEW DATA BASE ";: INPUT ANSS 
112 IF ANSS="?" THEN 1100 
120 IF LEFTS(ANSS,1)="H" THEN 360 
125 PRINT 

127 Dl=30001 

128 ' 

130 PRINT"INPUT DATA DESCRIPTION." 

140 PRINT" (Field name, field size, field type. Seperate 

d by commas) 
145 INPUT NAS,FSS,FTS:IFNA$=''?" THEM 1300 
147 IF NA$="END" THEN 210 
150 NAS=LEFTS 1NAS,16) :CT=16-LEN(NA$) : IF CT>0 THEN FOR I 

=1 TO CT:NAS=NAS+" ":NEXT 
160 F0RI=1T016 :NB=ASC(MIDS [NAS, 1,1) ] :POKE Dl , NB: D1=D1+1 

:NEXT 
170 FSS=LEFTS(FS$,3) :CT=3-LEN(FS5) :IF CT>0 THEN FOR 1=1 

TO CT:FS$=FSS+" "jNEXT 
180 FOR 1=1 TO 3:NB=ASC(MIDS(FSS,I,1] ] :POKE D1,NB:D1=D1 

Program continues 



PMC 80 
$499.00 

Compatible with all TRS80* hard- 
ware and software and S-100 Bus 
hardware 

Use with TV or Monitor 

PMC-SO Personal Micro Computer, 
16K RAM, Level II BASIC 

List Price $645.00 

T.G.S, Price $499.00 

Upper/Lower Case Option 
Factory Installed 

List Price $75 00 

T.G.S. Price ... $59.00 

EXP-100 S-100 Bus Expander 
Disk Controller, Parallel, RS232 

List Price $410.00 

TG S. Price ... $299.00 

S-32K RAM Board tor EXP-100 

List Price $295.00 

T.G.S. Price $219.00 

LIMITED OFFER 

First five orders shipping prepaid 

Aerocomp Disk Drives Available 

IVIoclel No. 
40 track flippy 40-1 

List Price $349.95 

T.G.S. Price. . . $325.00 



40 track dual-head 

List Price. . . . 
T.G.S. Price 

80 track flippy 



80-2 

.95 
$429.00 

80-1 



List Price $459.95 



T.G.S. Price 

80 track dual-head 

List Price. 
T.G.S. Price. . . 

5Vi" Diskettes. . 



$429.00 

160-2 

$599.95 
.$569.00 



.$2.25 each 



APF Imagination Machine 8K 

$475.00 

System ii imagination Machine, 

Expansion box. disk controller & 

5%" disk drive. 

$849.00 

All APF periperals & software are 
available at discount. 



VISA S MasterCharge accepted 
Call or write for terms 



Route 2, Box 44 

Canton. Kansas 67428 

(316) 628-4935 

'Trademark ol Tanay/Radio Sliack 



t^See List of Advertisers on page 306 



80 Microcomputing, April 1981 • 187 




^^250 



A #12 SOFTWARE 

1/^ out our new items. 

CP/M users- Specify disk systems and formats Most formats available 

^ /-^ 
CP/M' A^V^^I 

ARTIFICIAL ^VV-;^ 

INTELLIGENCE O -J^ ^ ^d^ PEACHTREE^ 

^ Medical I449/S40 General Ledger . . $399/$40 

•^ Dental ■ . S449/S40 Acct Receivable $399/S40 

rnMBi ETC niic cvCTCM AcciPayable S399/S40 

COMPLETE BUS. SYSTEM p^ roll $399/S40 

Creator V.ttit^^ inventory $399/S40 

SX"^' llfj.lf. Property Mgt S799/S40 

^°'" ■ ■ »399''*''5 CPACIientWrite-up. ... S799/S40 

COMPUTER CONTROL Mailing Address . S349/$40 

^ ^^."Jlsort II 1119/125 SOFTWARE WORKS 

COMPUTER PATHWAYS Raifor $ 86/Sna 

Pearl(leveM) S 99/S25 enwn nnniiP 

Pearl (level 2) . . . 1299/140 P.HtlMrL. < ay/ton 

Pdsrl (Idvol Tl SiiiiQ/^RK MatchMaker . . $ 97/S20 

Pearl [level 3) S549/S65 Wori<Sheet S177/S20 

DIGITAL RESEARCH «,«..„„,„,.,. „««*r„« 

rp/M 9 7 STRUCTURED SYSTEMS 

NorthStar $149/S25 GLor AR or APorPay $599/S40 

TRS80Modelll(P«T)1l59/$3i Ir^ventory Control. . . S449/S40 

Micropolis .. $169/SS5 :^nq'r, S aq/slo 

Cromemco $189/$25 -^ OSort $ 89/S20 

PL/l-eO S459/I35 SUPERSOFT 

•^BT-eO S179/S25 ^ Forth (8080 or Z80) ... S149/S25 

Mac $ 85/$l5 1^ Diagnostic II .... $ 84/$20 

Sid S 65/$l5 other less 10% 

Z-Sid S 95/$15 

Tex S 70/S15 TCS 

DeSpool .. S 50/S10 GL or AR or APorPay S 79/125 

DYNAMIC MICRO- ^" ' '^^^'^^^ 

PROCESSOR ASSOC. WHITESMITHS 

^^Ascorn . S109/S15 "C' Compiler $600/$30 

CBS $369/S45 Pascal (incrC'l .$750/$45 

^ DMA-DOS . . $1 79/$35 "DATA BASE" 

GRAHAM-DORIAN FMS-80 I649/S45 

^ General Ledger $729/$40 dBASE tl . . $629/$50 

1^ Acct Receivable $729/$40 Condor S599/$30 

i^ AccI Payable S729/$40 TIM S329/$35 

^JobCosling . S729/S40 >.n.or.»i" 

Payroll $493/$40 KA&UAL 

inventory .. $493/$40 ^ Pascal/MT+ . ... S429/$30 

Cash Register S493/$40 "^ E^^'^^'?^,. ■ ■ ^^i^it^^ 

^^™''^"^' "^^^^^« 'plllS^^ ■ ■ lf4r/lfo 

KEY BITS 

string/80 I 84/$20 "WORD PROCESSING" 

^String/80 (source) S279/Ina ^SoellGuard. . . $249/$25 

WordSearch .. .. $179/$25 Spell Binder S349/S45 

MICRO-AP .'Magic Wand $289/545 

S-Basic $269/$25 "OTHER GOODIES" 

Selector III $269/$25 Tiny "C" S 89/S50 

SelectorlV. . $469/535 Tiny ■C" Compiler .$229/$50 

MirOn RATA RACE CBASIC-2 $ 89/$15 

MICRO DATA BASE Nevada Cobol S129/$25 

SYSTEMS MicroStat S 224/$ 15 

MDBS. ... .$269/$35 Vedit $ 99/$15 

WDBS $795/540 .^ Prof Time Bill (Asyst) $549/540 

^ DRS orQRSor RTL. $269/$35 ^^ ESQ-1 $1349/$50 

^ MDBS PKG . $1295/560 ^ MiniModel $449/$50 

MICROPRO .'StatPah . 5449/S40 

WordStar 5324/560 '^ ^^ico B+ 5229/540 

>^ Customization Notes .1 89/$na adhi e ■■• 

Mail-Merge. . $114/525 APKLIs II 

WordSlar/Mail-Merge . $434/585 MICROSOFT 

y' DataStar ... . 5249/560 Softcard 5292 

WordMaster $119/540 .'Fortran .. .5179 

SuperSort I . , . ,$199/540 Cobol 5574 

MICROSOFT PERSONAL SOFTWARE 

Basic-80 5294/530 Visicalc $122 

i' Basic Compiler. . . $329/530 CCA Data Mgr $ 84 

^ Fortran-80 5349/530 Desktop/Plan $ 84 

Cobol-80 5574/530 Zork I 34 

Macro-80 5144/520 PEACHTREE" 

Eciit-80 . . 5 84/520 General Lpriaer 5224/540 

MuSimp/MuMath . 5224/525 ^cC R^JSbTe 5224/540 

MuLisp-80 $174/520 ^^^j pgygble . 5224/540 

ORGANIC SOFTWARE Payroll 5224/540 

TextWriterlll .5111/520 Inventory. $224/540 

DateBook $269/$25 "OTHER GOODIES" 

OSBORNE Supei--Text II $127 

General Ledger .5 59/520 Data Factory 5129 

Acct Rec/Acct Pay 5 59/520 .^ DB Master ... 5159 

Payroll w/Cosl . 5 59/520 Ledger Plus. 5549 

^y All 3 $129/557 i' Ctiarles Mann less 15% 

All 3 -H CBASIC-2 5199/571 ^ STC Iess15% 

ORDERS ONLY-CALL TOLL FREE VISA ■ MASTERCHARGE 

1-800-854-2003 ext 823 ■ Calif. 1-800-522-1500 ext. 823 

Overseas — add 510 plus additional postage • Add 52 50 postage and handling 

per each item • California residents add 6% sales lax • Allow 2 weeks on checks, 
C CD. ok • Prices subject to change without notice. All items subject 
to availability ■ ® — Mfgs Trademark. 

THE DISCOUNT SOFTWARE GROUP 

6520 Selma Avenue, #309 • Los Angeles, CA 90028 • (213) 666-7677 



190 
200 
201 

205 

210 
220 
230 
235 
236 
240 

250 

260 
270 
280 
290 
300 

310 



320 
325 
330 

340 
342 
360 
365 
370 
372 
375 
380 
390 
395 
400 
405 
410 
415 
420 
422 
424 
440 
445 
500 
505 
510 

515 
520 
525 



530 
535 
540 

545 



550 
555 
600 

605 
610 
611 
615 
620 

625 
630 
635 
640 
645 
650 
655 
657 

660 
662 
663 
664 
665 
566 
667 
668 
669 
670 
671 
672 
680 
681 
632 
683 
684 
687 



-H:NEXT 
POKE D1,ASC(LEFTS(FTS,1) ) :D1=D1+1 
GOTO 14 5 

REM Dl=START ADRS . OF DATA DESCR. D2=START ADR. OF 

DATA SET 
POKE Dl,4:' SET END OF DATA DESCR. CODE 
PRINT 

PRIHT"ENTER DATA RECORDS." 
01=30001:02=31001 
POKE D2-l,2 
HS = "":FOR I = D1 TO Dl + 15 i H$ = HS + CHRS ( PEEK ( I) ) ! NEXT : Dl 

= 1 
F1S=HS:F0R 1=15 TO 1 STEP-1:IF RIGHTS (Fl S , 1 )<> " " T 

HEN 27 
F1S=LEFT${F1S, I) :NEXT 

H$="":FORI=D1T0D1+2tHS=HS+CHRS(PEEK(I] ] : NEXT: 01=1 
F2=VAL(HS) 

F3S=CHRS(PEEK(01)) : 01=01+1 
PRINTFIS;" ["!F2! "CHARACTERS) = ";: INPUT INS: 11 = 1 si 

F INS="ENO" THEN POKE 02,5:GOTO 360 
FOR I=D2 TO 02+[F2-l) [POKE I , ASC(MIDS (INS , II , 1) ) : II 

"Il-flilF I1>LEN(INS) AND I1< = F2 THEN I2 = I + l!F0R 13 

=12 TO D2+{F2-1) tPOKE I3,32tNEXT 13 [02=13 :GOTO 330 
NEXT I 
02-1 
IF PEEK(01)''4 THEN Dl''30001 sPOKE D2 , 2 :D2=02+1 : PRINT 

iGOTO 240 
POKE D2,l:D2=D2+liGOTO 240 

PRINT ! PRINT" COMMAND " j 

IFCIO0 CI = 

INPUT C05 

IFPEEK [ 14312 ) =63THENHC=0ELSEHC»1 

IF C0S="?" THEN 3600 

IF CO$="SELECT" THEN 500 

IP LEFTS(C0S,9)="SELECT IF" THEN 600 

IF LEFTS(C0S,9)="DELETE IF" THEN 700 

IF COS="LOAO" THEN POKE29 92 , 1 : X=USR ( 0) : GOTO360 

IF COS="SAVE" THEN POKE2992 , 2 : X=USR ( 0) : GOTO360 

IF COS=^"NAMES" THEN 800 

IF COS="APPEN0" THEN 900 

IF LEFTS (COS, 9)="CHANGE IF" THEN 2000 

IF LEFTS (C0S,7) ="SORT BY" THEN 910 

IF COS="EXIT" THEN STOP 

PRINT:PRINT"INVALID COMMAND" : GOTO 360 

01=30001:02=31001 

RN=1 

GOSUB3000:FDS(RN)=F1S:RN=RN+1:IF ASC(F1S)<>4 THEN 5 

10 
RN = 1 
1 = 1 
MSS="":GOSUB9700:MSS="RECORD NUMBER" :GOSUB9600 :MSS= 

STRS{RN) :GOSUB9700:RN=RN+1:MSS=STRINGS(20,"-") :GOS 

UB9700 
MSS=FD5(I) :GOSUB9600:MSS="=":GOSUB9600: 1=1+1 
eS=CHRS(PEEK(02) ) : 02=02+1 

IFASC(HS)=1 THEN MSS=" " :GOSUB970 :GOTO 530 
IF ASC[HS)=2 then HSS="" :GOSUB9700:GOSUB9700 : IF PEE 

KlD2)=5 THEN MSS="<ENO OF FILE> " : GOSUB9700 : GOTO 36 

0:ELSE 520 
MSS=h5:GOSUB9600:GOTO 535 

COS=MIDS[COS,ll,244) :HS="":F0RI=1T016:H0S=MIDS(C0S, 

1,1) ;ifhos="="orhos="<"orhos=">"then610 

hS=hS+hoS:nexti 

HH5=HS:MTS="" :IFM1DS (COS, I,1)="="THENMTS="=" 
F5S-HHS 

IFMIDS (COS, I,1)=">"THENMTS=">" 

IFMIOS(COS,I,1)="<"THENMTS="<":IFMIDS(COS,I,2)="<>" 
MTS="<>";I=I+1 
IFMTS=""THEN440 
1 = 1 + 1 

MVS=MIDS(C05,I,255] 
D1=30001:CT=0 

CT=CT+1:GOSUB3000:IFF1S=HHSTHEN655 
G0TO6 45 
H$=HH$ 
MSS="" :GOSUB97 00:MSS=HS:GOSUB9600 :MSS=MTS :GOSUB9600 

:MSS=MVS:GOSOB9700:HSS="":GOSUB9700 
02=31000 
FC = 
D2=D2+1 

GOSUB9000;IFFC=CTTHEN7 90ELSE67 
D2=D2-1:IFMTS="="THEN6 80 
IFMTS=">"THEN687 
IFMTS="<"THEN691 
IFMTS="<>"THEN596 
STOP 

IFPEEK (02) =5 IFOLT=1GOTO70 5ELSE360:ELSE671 
IFPEEK(D2-11 =2 THEN FC=0 
GOT0664 

IFF3S="I"THENIFINT(VAL(MVS] ] =INT [ VAL (GF S ) ) THEN6 84 
IFF3$="R"IFVAL(MVS)=VAL(GF$)THEN6a4 
IFF35="A"irMV5=GFSTHEN6 84 
GOT066 3 

GOSUB9100:GOTO664 
IFF3S="I"IFINT(VAL{GF5)) >INT (VAL (MVS) )THEN6 84 

Program continues 



188 • 80 Microcomputing, April1981 



688 
689 
690 
691 
692 
693 
694 
696 

697 
698 
699 
700 
705 
707 
709 
711 
715 
717 
719 
721 
723 
730 
780 
790 
792 
793 



305 
810 
815 



816 
817 
818 
820 
822 
900 
905 
906 
910 

915 

920 
925 
930 
935 
940 
942 
943 
944 
945 
950 
952 
950 
962 

964 



IFF3$="R"IFVAL(GFS) >VAL(MVS}THEN684 

IFF3S="A"IFGFS>MVSTHEN6 84 

GOT0663 

IFF3$="I"IFINT(VAL(GFS1 ) ':iNT(VAL[MV$) )THEK6 84 

IFF3S="R"IFVAL(GFS)<VAL(MVS]THEN6 84 

IFF3S="A"IFGF$<MVSTHEN6 84 

GOT0653 

IFF3$="I"IFINT(VAL1GFS))<>INT1VAL1HVS))THEN684 

IFF3 5="R"IFVAL(GFS) <>VAL(MVS]THEN6 84 

IFF3S="A"IFGFS<>MVSTHEN6 84 

GOT0663 

DLT=1 : MS $=" RECORDS DELETED: " :GOSUB9700 :GOTO60 

DST=31001 

I1=PEEK[DST) :IFIi=5THEN780 

IFI1=3 TAR=DST+l:GOT0715 

DST = DST+1 : GOTO? 07 

DST=DST-1 

I1=PEEK(DST) :IFI1=2 DST=DST+1:ELSE715 

BY=PEEK{TAR) : IFBY=3THEN7 30 

POKEDST,BY:IFBY^5THEN7 80 

DST=DST+l:TAR=TAR+l:GOT0719 

TAR=TAR+l:GOT0715 

DLT=0:GOTO360 

IFPEEK(D2-1)=2 THEN FC=0 

G0TO565 

MSS="":GOSUB9700:MSS="FIELD NAME " :GOSUB9600 :MSS=STR 
INGS(10," "] :GOSUB9600:MSS="FIELD SIZE" : GOSDB9600 : 
MSS=" '■:GOSUB9600:MSS = "FIELD TYPE " : GOSOB9700 : HS$ = 
STRINGS (42,"-") :GOSUB9700 

01^30001 

GOSUB 3000 

MSS=F1S:GOSUB9600:MSS=STRINGS(21-LEN(F1S1 ." ") : GOSU 
B9600:MSS=STRS(F2) :GOSUB9600:MSS=STRING$(12-LEN(MS 
$) ," ■') :GOSUB9600: IFF35^"A"MSS="ALPHA-NUMERIC" 

IFF3 S=" 1 "THENMSS= " INTEGER" 

IFF3$="R"THENMSS="REAL NUMBER" 

GOSUB9700 

IF PEEK{D1)^4MSS="":GOSUB9700:GOTO360:ELSE810 

01=30001 :FORI=31001TO32766:IFPEEK[I}<>5NEXT:ELSE905 
D2=l!MS$="":GOSUB9700:GOTO240 



X=2951 

527, Y 
MS5="" 

S = HHS 
CT=CT+ 
RP=310 
FC=0:D 
G0SUB9 
IILDS = G 
IFPEEK 
GOT094 
FC = 
G0SUB9 
IFF3S= 
IFF3S^ 
RP%=RP 
POKE29 

P%)+1 
POKE29 

)+l) 



0:Y=INTlX/256] :Z=X-[Y«2S6) : P0KE16526 , Z : P0KE16 

:HHS=MIDS(COS,9,244) : 01=30001 :CT=0 :GOSUB980 

:GOSUB9700:MSS="DATA SORTED BY " : GOSUB960 : MS 

:GOSUB9700:MSS^"":GOSUB9700 

1:GOSUB3000:IFF1$<>HHSTI1EN920 

01:S=0 

2 = RP 

900 

F$ 

(D2-1)=2THEN944ELSED2=D2+1 

2 



"A"THENIFHLDS<=GFSTHEN97 5 

"I"OfiF3S="R"THENIFVAL(HLDS><=VAL(GFS)THEN97 5 

:S%=S 

653,PEEK(VARPTR1RP%1 ) :POKE29654 ,PEEK(VARPTR (R 

) 

655, PEEK (VARPTR(S%] ) : POKE29656 , PEEK ( VARPTR ( S% 



966 X=USR10) 

96 8 P0KEVAEPTR(RP%) , PEEK (29653) : POKEVARPTR (RP%) +1, PEEK( 

29654) 

97 POKEVARPTR (S%) , PEEK (296 55) : POKEVARPTR [ S%) +1 , PEEK ( 29 

656) :RP=RP%:S=S%:GOTO980 
975 RP=D2-FI(0] :GOTO980 

980 IFPEEK{RP) O5THEN930 

982 IFS<>0THENS=0:GOTO925 

985 POKE16526,225:POKE16527,116:PRINT"SORT COMPLETED":G 

OTO360 
1100 PRINT: PRINT" IF YOU WANT TO READ A COMPLETE DATA 

BASE FROM TAPE (INCLUDING DATA DESCRIPTIONS), ANSW 

ER 'NO'. 
IF YOU WANT TO ENTER NEW DATA, ANSWER "YE 

S' ." 

1105 GOTO 110 

1106 ' 
1300 PRINT 

1305 PRINT"FIELD NAME= A 1 TO 16 LETTER DESIGNATION OF 
ONE" 

1306 PRINT" CATEGORY (FIELD) WITHIN EACH REC 
ORD . " 

1307 PRINT"FIELD SIZE= A 1 TO 3 DIGIT INTEGER VALUE SPE 
CIFYING THE" 

1308 PRINT" SIZE OF THE PREVIOUSLY NAMED FIE 
LD. " 

1309 PRINT"FIELD TYPE= (A)LPHA FOR AN ALPHANUMERIC FIEL 
D, 

1310 PRINT" (IjNT FOR A FIELD TO HOLD INTEGE 
RS. 

1311 PRINT" (RIEAL FOR A FIELD FOR REAL NUMB 
ERS, (DECIMAL 

1312 PRINT" POINTS] . 

1313 PRINT"ENTER 'END' WHEN DONE ENTERING DATA DESCRIPT 
IONS. 

1314 PRINT 

Program continues 




Don't be misled by more expensive imitations! 

This is the original Photo point light pen pre- 
ferred and supported by some of the leading 
software sources like, "Quality Software"— "In- 
stant Software"— "Level IV"products and so on, 

Just imagine . . , 

In playing backgammon, (included) when you 
want to move a man, you jusi point at where you 
want to move from, then point at where you 
want to move to, and your man moves!!! No 
more fumbling with keyboards— YEA! 

Your Photo Point package comes complete; 

• 1 Photo point tight pen (of course) 

• Info sheets on how to connect the pen and 
how to write your own programs 

ALL IN BASIC 

• Two apertures 

• AND two sensitivity settings 

• A cassette tape with 4 informative programs 
and games 

• Ready to connect to your TRS-80 System. 
{DOS too!) 

• Does not void any Radio Shack warranties 

Requirements: 

• Level II basic 

• And a little imagination!! 

For fast real time programming it is your lowest 
cost peripheral at ^19. 95 



Announcing 

NEW PEN BASIC by Steve Bjork 
Steve is one of the Best Assembly Lang, pro- 
grammers around, and he has come up with PEN 
BASIC. This low memory routine will add io more com- 
mands to Level II such as PENGET which searches the 
entire screen for the pen and returns a number between 
0-1024 in about 1 sec. Plus 9 other commands. Perfect for 
you light ware authors and NEW light pen owners 
too! onlySl4.9S 



< 

_j 
CQ 

00 
CC 

111 

> 




(COUPON) -. 



Micro Matrix ^bb 

P.O. Box 938 • Pacifica. CA 94044 

Send for yours NOW: (41 5) 355-4635 

Name 

Address 

City 

Zip _„_..„.^ 



St. 



Photopoint 
; I $19.95 

Pen Basic 
r $14.95 



Card# 

Ex. 

Date_ 



Money 
CK. Order Visa MC 



^See List of Advertisers on page 306 



80 Microcomputing, April 1981 '189 





LETTER QUALITY 
PRINTERS 

GETERMINET1200 

• 120 char/sec print rate 

• 96 char ASCII 

• RS-232: 110, 150, 300, 
600, 1200 baud 

Adjustable tractor: accepts up to 13" wide 
pin feed paper 

Used in good condition 
Introductory special: $795.00 

{After 4/30/81: $895.00) 



CRT TERMINALS 

LEAR SIECLER ADM-1 

• 24 X 80 display 

• Baud rates 110-9600 

• Auxiliary printer port 

• Character or block mode transfer 

Used in good condition 

introductory Special: $495.00 

(After 4/30/81: $595.00) 



REFURBISHED 
CENTRONICS PRINTERS 

730-1 (RS line printer II): $450 

306: $595 101/101A: $795 

103: $995 102: $1195 

All printers & terminals stnipped 
freight collect 

CHARACTER GENERATOR 
BOARDS 

Add lowercase plus additional character sets 
to your CENTRONICS printer! 
9X7 DOT MATRIX: 

• 101/101A: $150 (includes optional set of 
your ctioice) 

• 779 (RS line printer I): $135 (optional set 
$15 extra) 

5X7 DOT MATRIX: 

• 779 (RS line printer I): $110 (includes 
optional set) 

• All others: $95 (optional set $15 extra) 

MC, VISA, MO, PO, Check, COD 




Digital .368 

Systems 

Engineering 



12503 King's Lake Drive Reston, Virginia 22091 

(703) 620-2994 



1320 
1321 
2000 

2005 

2010 
2999 



3000 

3005 

3010 
3015 

3020 
3025 
3030 
3031 
3600 
3605 
3610 

3615 
3620 

3625 
3630 
3635 

3640 

3645 

3650 
3653 

3654 

3655 
3670 
3671 
9000 

9002 



9010 
9015 
9020 

9025 
9030 
9031 
9100 

BYTE 
9101 
9102 

9105 
9110 
9115 



9120 

9123 
9125 
9126 
9200 
9300 
9302 
9500 
9505 

9510 
9512 
9600 
9610 
9700 
9705 
9800 
9802 
9805 
9810 
9812 
9814 
9820 
9825 
9900 
9903 
9905 
9907 



9915 



GOTO 130 

INPUT"TO WHAT" ; F7 $ 

MSS="" :GOSUB9700:MS$="Tlit; FOLLOWING RECORDS WILL B 

E CHANGED IF ":GOSUB9600 

CI=1:GOTO600 

SUBR. READS DATA DESCR. FIELDS 


N ENTRY D1=CURRENT ADRS . IN DATA DESCR. ON EXIT Fl 
S=FLD NAME, F2=FIELD SIZE, F3$=FLD, TYPE (A, J, OR 

R) 

HS="":F0R I = D1 to Dl + 15 : H S = li S + CHBS [ PEEK ( I ) ) : NEXT: D 

1 = 1 

F1S=HS:F0R 1=15 TO 1 STEP-1:IF RIGHTS (Fl S , 1 )<> " "T 

HEN3015 

F1S=LEFTS|F1S,I) :NEXT 

HS="":FOR I=D1 TO Dl + 2 : il S = HS+CHRS ( PEEK ( I) ) : NEXT : Dl 

= 1 

F2=VAL1HS) 

F3S = CIiRS(PEEK(Dl)) :D1=D1 + 1 

RETURN 



PRINT 

PRINT" 

PRINT" 

ECIFIED FIELD 

PRINT" 

PRINT" 

DELETES 

PRINT" 

PRINT" 

PRINT" 

LDS 

PRINT" 

E 

PRINT" 

IN ALL 

PRINT" 

PRINT" 

G ORDER 

PRINT" 

ELD NAME) 

PRINT" 

GOTO 360 



SELECT - PRINTS ENTIRE DATA FILE 
SELECT IF - PRINTS RECORDS WHOSE SP 

MATCHES THE GIVEN VALUE 
DELETE IF - SAME AS SELECT IF, BUT 

LOAD - READ IN FILE FROM TAPE 
SAVE - WRITE RESIDENT FILE TO TAPE 
NAMES - PRINTS DATA DESCRIPTION FIE 

APPEND - ADD A RECORD TO END OF FIL 

CHANGE IF - CHANGE SPECIFIED FIELD 

RECORDS TO GIVEN VALUE 
SORT BY XXX - SORT FILE IN ASCENDIN 

BY FIELD XXX. (XXX^FI 

EXIT - END PROGRAM 



gfS="" 

ifpeek(d2)=5 ifdlt=1thendlt=0 : g0t07 5 r else360 : else 

9005 

IFPEEK(D2)=10RPEEK(D2)=2TUENFC=FC+1:D2=D2+1 :GOTO90 

20 

GFS=GFS+CHRS(PEEK(D21 ) :D2=D2+1 

GOTO9005 

FORA=LEN (GFS) -lTOlSTEP-1 : I FRIGHTS (GF$,1) <>" "THEN9 

030 

GFS=LEFTS(GF5,A) :NEXT 

RETURN 

' SUBROUTINE PRINTS 1 RECORD, ON ENTRY D2 POINTS T 

ANY 

IN RECORD 

C9 = l 

D5=D1:D1=30 001:GOSUB9200:GOSUB3000lMSS=F1S:GOEUB96 

00:MSS="=" :GOSUB960 

D4=D2 

D4 = D4-1: IFPEEK(D4] O2THEN9110 

D4=D4+1:IFPEEK(D4]=2MSS="" : GOSUB970 : D2=D4+1 : FC=0 : 

GOSUB97 00:GOSUB9 300: IFDLT=1P0KED4-1 , 3 ! RETURN : ELSER 

ETURN:ELSE9120 

IFPKEK(D4]=1MSS="":GOSUB9700:GOSUB3000:MSS=F1S:GOS 

UB9600:MSS="= ":GOSUB960 0:GOTO9115 

IFCI=1GOSUB9500 

MSS=CHRS(PEEK(D4) ] :GOSUB9600 :GOT09115 

X1S=F1S:X2=F2:X3$=F3S: RETURN 
F1S=X1S:F2=X2:F3S=X3S:D1=D5: RETURN 

IFF1S<>F5$RETURN 

IFLEN (F7$) >=C9 P0KED4,ASC(MIDS (F7 S ,C9 , 1) ) : C9=C9+1 : 

RETURN 

POKE D4,32:C9=C9+1:RETURN 

IFHC=0LPRINTMSS;ELSEPRINTMS$; 

RETURN 

IFHC=0LPRINTMSSELSEPRINTMS$ 

RETURN 

C=0:FI(0]=0:FORI^30001TO31000:IFPEEK(1)=4THEN9B10 

HS="" 

C=C+1:NEXTI 

S=C/20:D3=30001:FORI=1TOS:D3=D3+16 

F0RJ=1T03;HS=HS+CHRS(PEEK(D3) ) :D3=D3+1:NEXTJ 

D3=D3+1:FI (I) =VAL(HS) :HS="" :NEXTI 

FI(I1=0:FORII=1TOI-1:FI(0)=FI(0]+FI(II)+1:KEXTII 

RETURN 

IFPEEK(D2) =5THEN982 

IFCT=1THEND9=D2:II=1:GOTO9907 

D9=D2:FORII=1TOCT-1:D9=D9+FI (II) +1:NEXT 

Y=INT(D9/256) : Z=D9- (Y*256) : POKEVARPTR { [iS ) +1 , Z : POKE 

VARPTR{HS)+2,Y:POKEVARPTR(H5) ,FT (II) :D2=D2+FI (0] :G 

FS=H$:GOSUB9020:HS=" " 

RETURN 



190 • 80 Microcomputing, April 1981 




More power to you. 

Disk drives, hardware and software— now more affordable and more available! 



NOW IN STOCK! 

MODEL III DISK 

CONTROLLER BOARDS! 

All retrofit packages include 
circuitry, power supplies, 
mounting brackets, cables and 
everything required to turn your 
Model III intoa reliable, disk- 
based system. 100% compatible 
with Radio Shack hardware! 
AM-1 ~ Supports 4 single-sided, 
double-density 5V4-inch disk 

drives $445 

AM-2 — Supports 4 double- 
sided, double-density 5y4-inch 

disk drives $545 

AM-3 — Supports 2 internal 5Va- 
inch single-sided, double-density 
disk drives and 2 external 8-inch 
single-sided, double-density disk 
drives $645 

TRS-80^" SOFTWARE 

MAKE 80© 

Converts standard 35 or 40 track 
diskettes into 80-track-readable 
diskettes $14.95 

Model III TRSDOS 

40-track Model III TRSDOS & 

manual $20 

80-track Model III TRSDOS & 
manual $35 

Complete Service Center: 

Speedy repairs, including modified 

TRS-80's. 

New Store Hours: 

Monday-Friday 10-6, Sat. 10-5 ' 

'"TRS-80 is a trademark of Tandy Corp. 



SPECIALS! 



SAVE ON COMPLETE 
DISK DRIVE PACKAGES! 

5V4-inch drives 

40-track MPI 51 w/ith case, 
power supply and extender 

cables $320 

80-track MPI 91 with case, 
power supply and extender 

cable $425 

Dual-headed 80-track drive 
with case, power supply $550 
8-inch drives 

Single Siemens 8-inch drive 
with single case & power 
supply $695 

TEAC DISK DRIVES— 

THE BEST WE'VE SEEN TO 

DATE! 

Teac 40-track disk drive 
Call for our low price! 

Teac 80-track disk drive 
Call for our low price! 

PRINTER SPECIAL! 

Epson MX-80 Printer 
Call for our low price! 



The power behind 
the drives® 



v-452 



Jm 



A.M. ELECTRONICS, INC. 

^^ 3366 Washtenaw Ave. 
EI Ann Arbor, Michigan 48104 ^m 
(313)973-2312 



NEW TRS-80^" MODEL III! 
NOW WITH DISK DRIVES! 

Model III with dual 80-track disk 
drives— 704K of reliable disk 
storage on only two drives! 

• Features two double-density 
80-track drives 

• 48KRAM 

• Includes A.M. Electronics 
controller board and versatile 
MAKE80© program 

• Complete, ready-to-run 
Now only $2295! 

The Ultimate Small Business 
Computer: Model III with four 
dual-headed 80-track disk drives! 

• Features four drives 

• 48KRAM 

• 2.8 Megabytes reliable disk 
storage 

• Includes A.M. Electronics 
controller board and versatile 
MAKE80© program 

• Complete, ready-to-run 
Now only $3,795! 

CASES & POWER SUPPLIES 

5y2-inch enclosures 

Single drive unit case and power 

supply $85 

Dual drive unit case and power 
supply $120 

(Extender cables $15 each extra) 

8-inch enclosures 

Single drive unit case and power 
supply $150 

Attention OEM's & Distributors: 

Call us for details on our attractive 
pricing! 



►'See List of Advertisers on page 306 



80 Microcomputing, April 1981 • 191 



APPLICATION 



Get yours from those old pennies you've been squirreling ov^ay. 



Two Cents Worth 



Jack Clayton 

15 Walnut Ridge Rd. 
Stow, MA 01775 



Penny ante poker, pocket cleaning, thrift, 
whatever — each of us has at one time 
or another stashed away pennies. Maybe 
they are worth a little more than face value, 
but, more likely, not. 

Here Is a simple program for the TRS-80 
Level II to evaluate old pennies. It will keep 
the kids happy and maybe make a buck or 



two for you. It's simple to operate. After the 
title is displayed a one-page history of the 
Lincoln penny and a few programs remarks 
follow. Your penny's dates with mint iden- 
tification are entered normally. 

Any coin with a value greater than a 
dollar is noted. Finally, the coin is iden- 
tified with its value and a summation of all 
the coins analyzed is displayed. The pro- 
gram loops when any key is depressed to 
the next coin. 

Data is input from data lines that have 
been numbered, for easy identification. 



relating to date. This makes updating 
easier, but it costs a little run time. Since 
fewer old coins are around, you can pick up 
speed if you inverted the dates i.e. late date 
first, early date last. 

The coin values are not the latest, but 
they are close enough. The last word, as 
noted in the program, rests with a reputable 
dealer— which I am not. 

Input time is short, so it's easy to set up 
and use. 

Finally, for those cheapos, like myself, it 
will run on the simplest of systems. ■ 



Program Listing 



B CLS: PRINT CHRS ( 23 ) : PRIHT@ 460 , "GET YOUR PENNIES WORT 

H" 
10 FOR 1=0 TO 127 :SBT(I,7) :SET(I,40) :nEXT 
20 FOB 1=0 TO 2000TNEXT 
30 CLS:PRIKT TAB ( 28 ) "SUIIMARY "; PRINT 
40 PRINT"THI£ PROGRAM EVALUATES THE LINCOLH HEAD PENNIE 

S, DATED 1909 TO 
50 PEINT"PREEENT. THIS COIN WAS DESIGNED BY VICTOR D. B 

REMNER TO 
60 PRINT"C0MMEf10RATE LINCOLN'S 100TH ANNIVERSARY. HIS I 

NITIALS APPEAR 
70 PRIKT"ON THE 1909 AND 1909S ISSUES ." :PRINT 
80 PRiNT"PRICES USED IN THIS PROGRAM ARE APPROXIMATE FO 

R COINS IN 
90 PRINT''GOOD CONDITION — I.E. — SIGNS OF WEAR, DETAIL OF 

HAIR t, EARS 
100 PRIKT"GONE, YOURS HAY BE WORTH MORE OR LESS — CHECK 

WITH YOUR DEALER. 
110 PRINT:PRINT"FOR UPDATING DATA (CURRENT PRICE REVISI 

ONS) DATA LINES 
120 PRINT"AND DATES RELATE ON FIVE YEAR INTERVALS (1909 

D, LINE 1905- 
130 PRINT"1941, LINE 1940 ETC.)." 

140 PRINT"THI£ IS FOR FUN SO ENJOY 

150 FOR 1=0 TO 20000: NEXT 

160 CLS: AS="SS«###.##" 

170 PRINTia 192, :II)PUT"TYPE DATE AND MINT I.d. (NO SPACE 

-I.E.-1969S, 1909VDB) ";DS 
17 5 RESTORE 
180 C=VAL(D$) 

185 IF 019B2 THEN 344 

190 IF C >=1959 THEN V=.01 ELSE 210 

195 FOR I^1TO100:NEXT I 

200 GOTO 250 

210 IF C >=1944 THEN V=.02 ELSE 230 

220 GOTO 250 

230 READ YS,V 

235 OW ERROR GOTO 344 



240 IF DS=VS then 250 ELSE 230 

250 S=S+V 

260 IF V >=1 THEN 270 ELSE 280 

270 PRINT:PRINT"THIS COIN IS SPECIAL. GET IT APPRAISED! 

280 PRINT:PRINT"THE VALUE OF THIS ";DS;" COIN IS: " ; 

290 PRINT USING ASfV 

300 PRINT:PRINT"YOU HAVE SAVED "; 

310 PRINT USING AS;S; 

320 PRINT" WORTH OP PENNIES. COKGRADULATIONS ! " 

330 PRINT:PR1NT"T0 CONTINUE PRESS SPACE BAR" 

340 B$=INKEYS:IF BS=""THEN 340 

342 CLS: GOTO 170 

344 PRINTg 192, "SORRY-CHECK THE DATE AGAIN, THIS ONE IS 

NOT LISTED 
346 FOR 1=0 TO 1500:NEXT 
348 RESUME 350 
350 CLS: GOTO 17 

1905 DATA 1909,. 25, 1909VDB, 1.5,1909s, 24, 1909SVDB, 115 
1910 DATA 1910, .15, 1910S, 6, 1911, .15,19110, 2, 1911S, 9, 191 

2,. 15, 191 2D, 2. 5, 1912s, 7. 5, 1913,. 15, 1913d, 1.25, 1913 

S,5,1914,.15,1914D,40,1914,.2 
1915 DATA 1915,.4,1915D,.4,1915S,5,1916,.1,1916D,.2,191 

6S, .45,1917,.2,1917D, .15,1917S,.2,1918,.15,1918D,. 

2,1918S,.2,1919,.15,1919D,.2,1919S,.2 
1920 DATA 1920, .15,1920D,.4,1920S, .2,1921,.2,1921S, .45, 

1922,35,1922D,4.5,1923,.15,1923S,1.25,1924,.15,192 

4D,8,1924S, .45 
1925 DATA 1925 , . 15 , 1925D, . 2, 1925S, . 2, 1926 , . 15 , 1926D, . 2, 

1926S, 2. 75, 1927,. 15,19270,. 15, 1927 S,. 3, 1928,. 15, 19 

28D,. 15, 1928S,. 3, 1929,. 15,19290,. 15, 1929S,. 15 
1930 DATA 1930, .1,19300, .15, 1930S, .15, 1931, .2,19310,2.3 

5,1931S,24,1932,1,1932D,.5,1933,.5,1933D,1.1,1934, 

.1,19340, .15 
1935 DATA 1935 ,. 1 , 1935D, . 1 , 1935S, . 1, 1936 ,. 1 , 1936D, . 15 , 1 

936S,.15,19 37,.l,19 370,.15,1937S,.15,19 38,.l,193eD 

,.25,1938S,.4,19 39,.l,19 39D,.3,1939S,.l 
1940 DATA 1940, .1,19400, .05, 1940S, .1,1941, .1,19410, .1,1 

941S, .15, 1942, .1,19420, .05, 194 2s,. 1,1943,. 15, 1943D 

,.25,1943S, ,25 



192 • 80 Microcomputing, April 1981 



Mini-Disk Storage Systems for TRS-80* Computers 





Offers More. 
Charges less. 




Check this line-by-line com- 
parison of Access 5-inch 
mini-disk systems for Mod- 
el I and Model III computers. 
Nobody offers more ben- 
efits, better service or lower 
prices. 



TOLL-FREE ORDER NO. 
1-800-527-4196t 

(orders and literature only) 









Formatted Diskette 










Companv'DrJve Model 


Price 


Flippy 


Storage 


Capacity 


100% 
Tested 


48 hr. 
Burn-In 


Warranty 


Trial 
Period 


Dbl-Density 


Sgl-Denslty 


40-TRACK DRIVES 


















Access Unlimited 
AFD-100' 
AFD-'iOOF' 


S295 00 
329 00 


no 
yea 


-80 Kbytes 
360 KCytes 


102 KDytes 
204 Kbytes 


yes 
yes 


yes 
yes 


yes 
yes 


yes 
yes 


MTI 

TF-& 


359 00 


no 


? 


7 


7 


7 


7 


ro 


Midwest Comp. & Per. 

MPI B 51 


3?-\ DC 


no 


■} 


102 Kbytes 


7 


7 


yes 


ro 


Aerocomp 
Mai 40-1 


349 'J!; 


yoE 


■) 


7 


yes 


7 


yea 


yes 


CPU Shop 

CCI-100 


3] A 00 


no 


7 


102 Kbytes 


7 


? 


yes 


no 


AMI 

40- 1 'rick 


325 00 


no 


7 


7 


7 


7 


7 


no 


eO-TRACK DRIVES 


















Access Unlimited 
AFO-200' 
AFD-200F" 


429 95 
449 95 


no 
yes 


368 Kbyleb 
736 Kbytes 


205 Kbytes 
410 Kbytes 


yes 
yes 


yes 
yes 


yes 
yes 


yes 
yes 


MTI 

TF-8 


639.00 


no 


? 


200 Kbytes 


? 


7 


7 


nc 


Aerocomp 

80-tk mdl 


459 95 


yes 





7 


yes 


7 


yes 


yes 


CPU Shop 

CCI-280 


429 00 


no 


1 


204 KDytes 


7 


9 


yes 


no 


AMI 

an track 


660 00 


no 


7 


7 


7 


7 


7 


no 



As aOvenisea m eO Mitrocomputmg. Jan 1981 



Free trial offer 

Use your brand new AFD drive system for up to 15 days. If you're not 
completely satisfied, pack it m the originai shipping container and send it 
back 10 Access We'li refund the price of the system (iess shipping 
charges), no questions asked. (No refund for misuse or improper 
handling.) 

Operating burn-in test — too 

Every drive that leaves Access is not only 100% electrically tested and 
double-checked for mechanicai alignment, but it is also given a full 48- 
hour operating burn-in test You1l find a test list checked and signed by 



one of our competent technicians — in the drive carton. If a drive has latent 
defects, the burn-in life test will weed them out. The drives we ship just 
keep on running. And running. And running. 

About our warranty 

Venus de Milo has about the right number of fingers to count our warranty 
returns. Nevertheless, your new drive system is covered by our compre- 
hensive 90-day limited warranty. The details are spelled out in the illus- 
trated users manual included with each AFD drive system. 



Software galore! 

Games. Business programs. System software. We sell many of 
the best TRS-80" Model I and Model III programs, and at com- 
petitive prices. Make Access Unlimited your one-stop shopping 
center for all of your TRS-80* software, hardware and accesso- 
ries. Save big! Call our toll-tree order number, 1 -800-527-41 96t 
for free descriptive literature. 



USE YOUR CREDIT CARD AND SAVE! VISA AND 

► MASTER CARD CHARGES ARE NOT DEPOSITED UN-^ 
TIL THE DAY YOUR ORDER IS SHIPPED. CALL NOW^ 
TOLL-FREE, 1-800-527-41961. 



the DOUBLER^" 

Percom's new plug-in adapter for your Expansion 
Interface stores almost twice the data on a diskette 
track as a single-density system You can store up to 
four times more data — depending on the type of 
drive — on one side of a diskette than you can store 
using a standard Model I mmi-disk drive. Other 
^, features. Reads, writes and formats either single or 
double density minidiskettes. • Runs TRSDOS', 
NEWDOS+*Percom OS-80™ or other single-density software without 
changing either software or hardware Switch to double-density when 
convenient. • Includes DBLDOS"'\ a TRSDOS' compatible double- 
density operating system. • Includes on card, high-performance data 
separator circuit • Installs without rewiring or trace cutting. • Introductory 
price, including DBLDOS and format conversion utility, only $219.95. 
^ Permits Model III software to be read on Model I computers. ^ 




DATA SEPARATOR™ 

This PC board plug-in adapter for the TRS- 
80' virtually eliminates data read errors 
(CRC error — Track locked out!) which 
occur on high-density inner disk tracks, a 
problem that has plagued TRS-80* sys- 
tems. The Percom Data Separator^''' is in- -f 
stalled in the Expansion Interface without modifying the host 
system. Caution: Opening the TRS-80* Expansion Interface may 
void the limited 90-day warranty: $29.95, 




Disk System Interconnecting Cables 

Improvement over RS cable design places drive 0. which includes the 
cable termination, at the end of the cable to eliminate the reflected noise 
of an unterminated cable. Better data integrity Prices: 

Two-Drive Cable $24 95 

Four-Dnve Cable 34 95 

Power Line Filter 

115/250 V, 50-400 Hz. Instructions included for easy installation in stan- 
dard mini-box chassis: $19 95 
Minidiskettes (Double-Density rated) 

10 Disks in a convenient plastic organizer box $34.90 

Single Disk 3.49 

Disk Drive ID Tabs 

1" X 1 %" selt-adhering plastic drive identification tabs. Compatible silver 
with engraved black drive number Two tabs (Nos. 0, 1 ): $2.50; three tabs 
(Nos 0, 1 2): $3.25; fourtabs{0, 1. 2, 3): $4.50 



How to Order Order by calling Access Unlimited toll-free on 1 -800-527-41 96t- 

Mail orders also accepted Orders may be ctiarged !o a VISA or MasterCard account w paid tiy a £^ fTfT^Jv J? f f Af f lliyif T^#!l >-229 

cashier's check, certified check or money order We accept COD orders with 25% deposit Soiry. 

we cannot accept personal checks We pay shipping and insurance charges on orders over 

$1,000.00 Add approximate rnsurance and shipping charges !or under SI. 000 00. It in doubl 

about these charges ask wher you call in your order Texas residents include 5% sales lax. 

Minimum order $20 00. Allow 2 to 4 weeks for delivery tTexas residents call (214) 494-0206. 

T trademark ot Access Unlimited Company. 'RADIO SHACK and TRS-80 are trademarks of Tandy Corporation. "^Mtraije^ari, q| Percom Data Company, Inc. ttrademark of Apparat Corporation. 

ALL PRICES AND SPECIFICATIONS SUBJECTTO CHANGE AND ALL OFFERS SUBJECT TO WITHDFVkWAL WITHOUT NOTICE. 



ACCESS UNLIMITED 

315N.Shiloh.Ste. D1 ■ Garland, TX 75042 

(214) 494-0206 



TWO USER 
MULTI-TASKING 



$89 TSH A R E V1.3 

A SPLIT PERSONALITY FOR YOUR 
TRS- 80 MODEL I 

• Interrupt driven executive patches to parent operating system 
NEWDOS 2.1 or TRSDOS 2.3. 

• Allows two active users to share a single TRS-80. 

• Execute BASIC or MACHINE LANGUAGE (above 7700 Hex). 

• Joint access of disk files. 

• Second user ties to HOST via modem, terminal, or 2nd TRS-80. 

• Options for Expansion Interface, RS-232, TRS232, or HUH 
interface, 

• SIMPLEX MODE for non serial-port users. Requires only a 
printer to act as second "screen". Jobs share the keyboard 
under user control. 

• CONFIGURE UTILITY partitions memory usage and selects I/O. 



TRS-80 tm Radio Shack/Tandy Corp. 
NEWDOS tm Apparat, Inc, 
TRS232 tm Small System Software 
HUH tm California Computer Systems, 




D B M 5 ^^^ 

MULTI - FEATURE DATA MANAGER 

• Up to 20 user defined fields. 

• Files extend across multiple diskettes. 

• Supports up to four drives, 

• Automatic single drive disk mount requests, 

• Four data types and computational fields. 

• Flexible REPORT GENERATOR. 

• Fast assembly language sorts, 

• MULTI-FIELD sorts and searches. 

• Keyed access on any sorted field. 

• Indexed relations between files. 



TO ORDER 



203ARDEN STREET ^204 
GLENDALE, CA 91203 
(213) 649-0369 



Why Do Professionals Prefer 



BECAUSE 

• Unique software • Technical supporl • Quick 
delivery • Established company • Release 2 
CP.'W (some packages under UNIX' anaTRSDBS 
■ Quality software • In-house expertise • Fasl 
response • Usei orientation • Competitive prices 

• Customer service • \fertaltm** media • Onyx 
hardware (CP'M and UNIX vetsions} 



Business 
Medical 
Real Estate 
Computer Systems 




BECAUSE 

Unique swift routing cybernetics response system 
gives you no-nonsense technical answers ttiat save 
you time Call (714)848-1922. 




"■"■"^■^"'■"•■"'-t'ttll-n 



New HM/COBOL' applications: 

• Order Entry/Inventory • Receivables • Payables • 
General Ledger • Financial Modeling ■ Client Account- 
ing — and more on the way! 

NEW CBASIC2' applications: 

• REAP (Real Eslale Acquisilion Package). 



Software from Cybernetics? 



flM/COBOL— The new standard lor microcomputer COBOL!! The only COBOL 
for CP/M {al«o on TRSDOS A UNIX) wllh alternate keys (mutll-key ISAM), CRT 
screen handling. Interactive debug, and the most useful Level 2 features. Compat- 
ible with RSCOBOL'— but run* faster. 

P1u> existing CBASIC2 packages 
APH (Automated Patient History) 

Osborne S Assoc —Payroll • Payables. ReceivaOles • General LeOger 
NAD* (Name and Address) 
PMS (Property Management System) 

inquire tor details 

Trademarks ot Ryan-McFarland Corp . Compiler Syslems. Inc.. 'Digital Research. 'Bell 
Telephone LaCoratones. Inc 'Tandy Corp . "Verbatim. Inc . Cybernetics. Inc 'Struc- 
lured Systems Group. Inc "Small Business Applications Inc 



TRS-80>, Model II CP/M— The lailesi Mod 11 CP/M with the most leatures. Out- 
standing leaching documentation tor newcomers lo CP/M, multiple CRT emula- 
tion, down loading package, support for CORVUS 10 Mb hard disk. Many addi- 
tional user-oriented features. 

And system sottware packages 

MAGIC WAND" Editing/Word Processing 
CBASIC2 Compiler BASIC 
QSOflT- Sofi Merge Package 




^'S-IT-iiLCis 



8041 Newman Ave , Suite 208 
Huntington Beach. CA 92647 
(714) 848-1922 



194 • 80 Microcomputing, April 1981 



REVIEW 



You've heard all about it, 
now read all about it— including the latest zaps. 



NEWDOS-80 



Allan J. Domuret 
7825 Willowcrest Way 
Fair Oaks, CA 95628 

NEWDOS-80 
Apparat, Inc. 
Denver, CO 
$149 



After long anticipation, NEWDOS-80 has 
finally arrived. And an impressive pack- 
age it is, 

I liope to provide enough information for 
tliose of you wino have not yet purchased 
NEWDOS-80 to help you decide w/hether or 
not your life depends on owning it. i also of- 
fer current and potential users a bit of 
operational guidance and fixes for minor 
difficulties I encountered. Just to be sure 
there is something for everyone, Table 1 
provides some zaps that should prove use- 
ful, even if you are already an expert on 
NEWDOS-80. 

Documentation 

The first surprise on receipt of the NEW- 
DOS-80 package {N80) was the quantity of 
documentation, which comes bound in an 
attractive brown notebook. A quick count 
revealed 96 double-sided pages. 

The handsome packaging and quantity 
of the documentation is a breakthrough for 
Apparat, which has been better known for 
the quality of their software than the clarity 
of their documentation. 

When first getting started with N80, the 
novice will find it as easy to use as TRS- 
DOS, if the standard TRSDOS commands 
are used exclusively (The COPY and BACK- 
UP commands are slightly different and 
more complicated than the TRSDOS com- 
mands.) There are also new and complex 
functions to keep the pseudo-experts busy 
for awhile. 'Nuff said. 

Specialties— SYSTEM 

N80 permits the DOS Itself to be custom- 



ized to fit the many different hardware con- 
figurations currently possible for the 
TRS-80. For example, using the new 
PDRIVE command It's possible to define 
your DOS for disk drives having 01 to 96 
tracks, and almost any combination of 5 or 
8 inch drives. (This magic cannot be worked 
without appropriate hardware attachments. 
N80 only supports the hardware bolted on 
by the user.) It Is also possible to define the 
Omikron eight inch drive system or the 
Lobo expansion Interface to N80 DOS. Pro- 
visions are made for future hardware adap- 
tations by leaving space for additional 
customizing codes. 

The directory can be expanded up to 
three tracks to accomodate extra files. For 
those of you who have 77 track (or more) 
drives, and the standard single track direc- 
tory doesn't have enough capacity for the 
numerous files on the diskette. The direc- 
tory track can be relocated on the diskette, 
If desired. (I often wondered if having the di- 
rectory on track one rather than track 17 
(decimal) would be more efficient in terms 
of reducing disk head travel. Now I can find 
out). 

The new DOS SYSTEM command (not the 
same as BASIC'S SYSTEM command) can 
be used to customize certain DOS func- 
tions. Some of the more interesting are: 
passwords, enable or disable; BASIC run- 
only mode, enable or disable (protects BA- 
SIC code from unauthorized access by com- 
puter operators); lowercase hardware, in- 
stalled or not installed; BREAK key, enable 
or disable; DEBUG, enable or disable; and 
many more. No manual zaps are required- 
just follow instructions for the DOS SYS- 
TEM command and everything else is pretty 
much automatic. 

I initially experienced some difficulty get- 
ting my DOS SYSTEM command to work. 
The solution is to enter the command as fol- 
lows: SYSTEM,USD:1 AA = N. The USD (Use 
System Disk parameters) evidently serves 
as a password until such time as they are 
disabled by the appropriate SYSTEM com- 



mand. Unless I was initially doing some- 
thing wrong, this was not immediately ob- 
vious to me. 

DOS commands 

MINI-DOS and DOS commands via the 
2.1 CMD functions are beauties. MINI-DOS 
and CMD are actually two ways of bringing 
up DOS commands. 

The operational distinctions between 
DOS and BASIC become blurred as it be- 
comes possible to execute most DOS li- 
brary commands at almost any time, from 
almost any program. (Library commands 
are the usual commands such as DIR, 
DUMP, FREE, CLOCK, etc. Not Included are 
the commands that cause a program to ex- 
ecute). 

The BASIC CMD function works as It did 
In NEWDOS 2.1, but has been expanded to 
allow more DOS operations. N80 performs 
some checking functions to help prevent 
the DOS command from clobbering the resi- 
dent BASIC program and its variables- 
SUPERZAP (now in machine language) and 
DIRCHECK can be exercised from BASIC 
without clobbering BASIC operations, vari- 
ables, or programs. 

Here is an interesting trick that can be 
worked in BASIC: 



lOCLS 

20 CMD"SUPEBZAP"; REM (DIRCHECK is another possi- 
bility] 
30CLS 
40 PRINT" Finistied" 

When finished with SUPERZAP (or DIR- 
CHECK), exit with SUPERZAP's EXIT com- 
mand or DIRCHECK's character 'N'. SU- 
PERZAP and DIRCHECK imply that they 
will exit to DOS, but both will return to BA- 
SIC if called up from BASIC, as this mini- 
program demonstrates. 

Many unique applications can be found 
for CMD operations from BASIC. 

The N80 documentation best explains 
MINI-DOS purpose: "There are many times 



80 Microcomputing, April 1981 • 195 



"How about calling up a 

Dl Rectory from Scripsit? Simple/' 



when, during the execution of a main pro- 
gram, the operator would iike to interrupt 
the main program, execute one or more of 
the DOS library commands, and then re- 
sume main program execution without any 
change having occurred in the main pro- 
gram's state during the interruption. To ex- 
ecute MINI-DOS, simultaneously press the 
'OFG' keys (but not during disk I/O), and ex- 
ecute the DOS command. Any DOS library 
command can be issued except APPEND, 
CHAIN, COPY, FORMAT, PDRIVE, and SYS- 
TEM. Single file copy can, however, be ex- 
ecuted with the MDCOPY command." 

How about calling up a DIRectory from 
Scripsit? Simple. Move the cursor to the end 
of the text file (to prevent the OFG keys from 
overwriting Scripsit text when pressed) or to 
the command position with the break key 
(preferred over the former method), press 
the DFG keys to bring up MINI-DOS, then 
enter DIR: 1 . Enter MDRET to return toScrip- 
sit. Yes, Tandy, Apparat bailed you out 
again! The inability to manipulate directory 
files, a major Scripsit weakness, has been 
compensated for. 

Modem users addicted to ST80D or 
ST80III (by Lance Micklus): Its inability to 
call a directory is no longer a problem. Use 
MINI-DOS to perform a DIR, KILL, or what- 
ever without disturbing the main program. 

Want to check diskette free space before 
writing Scripsit, Pencil, orSTSOiii text to it? 
Or kill a file while in Scripsit or ST80III to re- 
lease space on a full disk? How about re- 
naming a file? No problem. Want to exit 
Scripsit without reaching for the hidden RE- 
SET button because you have fat fingers 
that won't fit into the little cavity? Enter 
MINI-DOS, then enter BOOT. Great! 

Other Magic 

There are ways to manipulate your break 
key: N80 has a BREAK command to enable 
or disable the break key. Very handy if you 
have one of those silly BASIC programs 
that disables the break key. 

A subtle but powerful feature has been 
added for bringing up DEBUG: simultane- 
ous depression of the 123 keys will summon 
DEBUG at any time. This is a handy way to 
get into the innards of a BASIC program 
that disables the break key to prevent the 
program from being listed. DEBUG can also 
be activated in the midst of a machine lan- 
guage program, as long as memory require- 
ments of the program and DEBUG don't 
conflict, and the target program does not 
assume control of the keyboard Device 
Control Block (DCS) at 4016 hex. 

The CHAINing command exercises a ser- 
ies of DOS or BASIC commands, or makes 
automatic inputs to a BASIC program. The 
functions are similar to the BOOTSTRAP or 
COMPROC (from Racet Computes) pro- 



grams. One important difference is that 
BASIC can implement a CMD "CHAIN" in- 
struction which will then activate a prede- 
termined sequence of inputs to BASIC. 
Think of it as automating the keyboard. 

A nice feature of the N80 CHAIN com- 
mand is that a wasteful five-sector (one 
gran) flie Is not necessarily created for each 
CHAIN file. Append a number of CHAIN 
command strings Into one file, then access 
only the one that Is needed. 

The documentation provides a wealth of 
technical Information for making use of 
NBO's internal instruction code. As an ex- 
ample, a DOS CALL machine language rou- 
tine Is provided which allows the incorpora- 
tion of DOS commands into your programs. 
Want to use RSM2D to LOAD a file Into 
RAM? You can do it with a dozen bytes of 
code. How about creating your own SYS- 
20/SYS file? The documentation explains 
how. Apparat's no secrets marketing ap- 
proach is genuinely refreshing. 

Disk BASIC, like NSO's DOS, is a com- 
plete rewrite. BASIC still works as it always 
did, and there appear to be no BASIC pro- 
gram incompatibilities. Significantly, Disk 
BASIC has been upgraded with a number of 
fascinating enhancements. 

In addition to being able to RENUMber a 
BASIC file, it is now possible to move pro- 
gram lines around within the program. REF 
(variable and line number cross referenc- 
ing), improved scrolling, and CMD, as imple- 
mented in NEWD0S2.1, are still available. 

In BASIC run-only mode, the BREAK and 
CLEAR keys are disabled and BASIC will 
not accept direct statements from the oper- 
ator. In business applications, this keeps 
the computer operator from gaining access 
to unauthorized files or from manipulating 
the program itself. Apparat thoughtfully 
made it possible for a BASIC menu program 
to LOAD or RUN another BASIC program. In 
other words, it is possible for a BASIC pro- 
gram to call up another program or data file 
with imbedded commands, but the comput- 
er operator cannot do this directly from the 
keyboard. When turned on, the computer 
boots up and goes directly to the selected 
program. The operator has no control other 
than to operate the program as intended by 
the boss. Of course DEBUG and MINI-DOS 
can also be locked out to further frustrate 
the operator. 

A number of wonderful new BASIC disk 
Input/Output (I/O) enhancements are imple- 
mented. Briefly, disk record lengths can be 
up to 4096 bytes long instead of the old 256 
byte maximum. Disk files can be created 
and accessed in a variety of ways, allowing 
manipulation of file data in almost any con- 
ceivable format, from a single byte to a 4096 
byte record, using fixed length files or var- 
iable length files. These new disk I/O op- 



tions are available via five new BASIC file 
types which are classified in two major 
groupings: fixed item files and marked item 
files. 

But the reader is cautioned: Apparat in- 
troduces new and esoteric terminology 
which makes things difficult for the novice, 
To make it easier, N80 includes a sample 
program which Is accompanied by a tutorial 
chapter in the documentation, to help the 
new user along. This beginner's approach, 
plus an alphabetized dictionary, eases the 
operator gradually and painlessly into a 
very powerful set of disk I/O functions. 

The operator is walked through the pro- 
cedures, step by step, for creating and us- 
ing the new BASIC files, Analogies are 
made to the traditional sequential and ran- 
dom file operations. With patience and 
practice, a whole new world of disk I/O ma- 
nipulation becomes possible. 

Your old BASIC files are compatible with 
N80, and it is still possible to create the 
"standard" sequential and random files 
with it. 

Areas of Incompatibility 

There is no way in the world to maintain 
total compatiblity with existing software, 
especially when machine language pro- 
grams directly access non-standard sub- 
routines within the guts of the DOS soft- 
ware itself. 

Apparat acknowledges the few, minor in- 
compatibilities in N80, and they provide the 
necessary zaps or guidance, where applic- 
able, to compensate for them. If and when 
new problems arise, I feel certain that fixes 
will become available. It appears at the 
present time that N80's incompatibilities 
are trivial. 

The following is a brief description of real 
or potential incompatibilities, as listed in 
the N80 documentation. 

• User routines which are driven by the 
25ms TRSDOS or NEWDOS 2.1 interrupt 
must be modified to work with N80. The N80 
documentation explains the patches neces- 
sary to correct potential problems. To my 
knowledge, the only commercial programs 
that might experience interrupt problems 
are spoolers and despoolers. 

• There is a compatibility problem with 
ST80III and with the Microsoft FORTRAN 
package, including the MACRO-80 assem- 
bler, but Apparat provides the necessary 
zaps to make these programs compatible 
with N80. 

• Enabling or disabling the break key was 
formerly accomplished by changing the ad- 
dress at 4313 hex. The new address to ac- 
complish this is 4369 hex. The procedure is 
explained in the N80 documentation. 

• The same NEWDOS 2.1 incompatibility 
involving NEXT and EOF in the FOB (file 



196 • 80 Microcomputing, April 1981 



MODEL II 




$ DISCOUNT $ 

X -TVl^^'Ovr DEALER A301 

COMPUTER SPECIALISTS 



MODEL 




26-4002 

64K 1 Drive 

$3440.00 

26-4160 1 Drive Exp $1034.00 

26-4161 2 Drive Exp 1574.00 

26-4?62 3 Drive Exp 2114.00 

26-4530 Scripsit II 265,00 

26-4512 Profile II 162.00 

26-45] 1 Visicalc II 265.00 

26-4501 Gen Ledger 180,00 

26-4506 Mail List 72.00 



PRINTERS 



26-1061 4K I $629,00 

26-1062 16K III 865.00 

26-1063 32K III 

W/2 Drives, RS232 2225.00 

COLOR 




^^^^^S 




26-3001 4K $353,00 

26-3002 1 6K Ext. Basic 533.00 

26-3008 Joysticks 22.50 

26-3010 Color Video 353.00 

26-1206 Recorder 54.00 



CALL US. . . 
SAVE MONEY 

We carry the full line of TRS-80 Computers. All 
other R.S. software, furniture, and accessories 
at discount from catalog price. We stock most 
items to assure you fast delivery and save you 
money. 

26-1140 Expansion Interface $249,00 

26-1141 16K Exp. Interface 359.00 

26-1142 32K Exp. INterface 469.00 

26-1 1 45 RS232C Boord 84.00 

26-1160/1 Mini Disk Drive 419.00 

26-1563 Scripsit-Disk 79.00 

26-1566 Visicalc 83,00 

* . . . . ^PRINTERS* ' ' * ' * 

26-1155 Quick Printer 187.00 

26-1167 9'/2 Dot Matrix Printer 360.00 

26-1 166 Line Printer VI 1080.00 

26-1158 Daisy Wheel II 1799.00 

26-1165 Line Printer V 1710.00 

CEnTROniCS commodore 

_ . ^_^ Pocket Computer AUTHORIZED DEALER 

BEST PRICES ^ - - - -_, CALL FOR PRICES 

1 -«■ ^'-mzr^i _____^ ___^ 

Fast 100 CPS Centronics ^ T ' ■!".■. ?"' """KDioa ALL POCKET AND COLOR 

730-1 A Printer $577.00 ffi^^^lJiSS^S^'C^ «» O a O C3 rOMPl tTFR tinCTWAPC 

Text Quality Centronics '^^^'S^^lS^^^^&C ^ OODaO COMPUTER SOFTWARE 

737-1 Printer $737.00 ' "" 0"0"« SOLD AT DISCOUNT 

26-3501 1,9K P.C $221.00 _____ -__.^ ___ 

26-3503 Cossetle IF 45.00 WRITE US FOR A 

'^^'^"^^^"^^ ^2°° FREE CATALOG 

1-800-841-0860 ToII Free Order Entry 

No Taxes on Out Of DOWNTOWN PLAZA SHOPPING CENTER „ , ^„ 

,,^^ „^^„ . . ,^ „... R.S. 90 Day Limited Warranty 

State Shiprrients 115 C. SECOND AVE. S.W. F-48 Form Provided 

CAIRO, GEORGIA 31728 

Immediate Shipment (912) 377-7120 Ga. Phone No. & Export Largest Inventory 

From Stock on Most Items m-aounr«guter«d,r<.d«marKof.heTandycorp. 'd THc S.E. U.S.A. 




..-See List ol Advertisers on page 306 



80 Microcomputing, April 1981 • 197 



SOME STRAIGHT TALK ABOUT DISK DRIVES 



■ DON'T BE CONFUSED BY ALL THE BRAND NAKE5 VOU SEE IN THE HARKET PLACE, THERE ARE VERY FEH HANUFACTURERS OF THE BASIC 
DRIVE CHASSIS, ALL THE OTHER NANES ARE THOSE OF THE ASSEMBLERS OR THE RETAILERS. 

■ AS NANUFACTURED, THE DRIVE KILL NOT RUN ON A TRS-BOI, IT NUST BE NODIFIED BY THE ASSEMBLER. 

■ THE DUALITY OF THE DRIVE DELIVERED TO YOU IS DEPENDENT ON BOTH THE NANUFACTURER AND THE ASSEMBLER, THE BEST CAN TURN 
TO JUNK IF THE ASSEMBLY IS IMPROPERLY DONE, 

■ THE POMER SUPPLY AND CASE ARE VERY IMPORTANT COMPONENTS OF THE COMPLETE DRIVE, THE CASE MUST ALLDN PROPER COOLINB 
AIR FLON, AND THE PQNER SUPPLY NUST MAINTAIN TMO CONSTANT VOLTASES. 

■ YOU MUST DEPEND ON THE COMPANY SELLING YOU THE DRIVE TO SERVICE IT AT REASONABLE COST NHEN IT FAILS YOU, THE 
MANUFACTURER IS NOT EQUIPPED TO DO THIS! 

■ THE BEST MEASURE OF QUALITY IN A DRIVE IS IT'S SPECIFICATIONS, MILL IT HANDLE DOUBLE DENSITY, NHAT IS THE TRACK TO 
TRACK ACCESS TIME, THE ANSIfERS TO THESE TNO QUESTIONS INDICATE THE PRECISION OF IT'S COMPONENTS. 

■ NHAT KIND OF DRIVE SHOULD YOU BUY ? LEVEL IV HAS CHOSEN TO DISTRIBUTE EXCLUSIVELY, THE MPI LINE, ALL MODELS OF NPI 
ARE DOUBLE DENSITY RATED AND REQUIRE ONLY A FIVE MILLI-SECOND TRACK TO TRACK ACCESS TIME. 

■ NHAT DO ALL THE MODEL NUMBERS MEAN? 

B-51" 40 TRACKS SIN6LE HEAD SINSLE SIDE B-52= 40/40 TRACKS DOUBLE HEAD DOUBLE SIDE 
6-91>> 80 TRACKS SINSLE HEAD SINBLE SIDE 6-92- BO/SO TRACKS DOUBLE HEAD DOUBLE SIDE 
(DOUBLE HEADS}-READ BOTH SIDES OF DISK (DUALS)-TNO DRIVES IN ONE CASE (RAM)-ND POHER SUPPLY OR CASE 

■ NMERE SHOULD YOU BUY YOUR DRIVE, LEVEL IV IS ONE OF THE OLDEST AND LAR6EST DISTRIBUTORS OF TRS-80t EQUIPMENT, LOOK 
AT THE ADS IN YOUR OLD MASAZINES, MANY OF THE ADVERTISERS ARE NO LONBER IN BUSINESS, LEVEL IV HAS BEEN A LEADER 
SINCE THE BEGINNING, NE STAND BEHIND OUR PRODUCTS, AND HE'LL BE HERE MHEN YOU NEED HELP. 

■ WHERE DO THE NATIONALLY KNOHN AUTHORS BUY THEIR DRIVES ? LEVEL IV CAN SHUN COPIES OF SALES RECEIPTS FOR DRIVES TO 
MOST OF THEM, LANCE MICKLUS, SCOTT ADAMS, VERNON HESTER, BOB (CAPTAIN 80) LIDDIL, DICK BALCDM, KIH NATT, ETC. 
TO THESE MEN COMPUTING IS NOT A HOBBY, IT IS THEIR PROFESSION. 

■ CALL FOR OUR LON PRICES ON NEM AND USED DRIVES, REMEMBER, NE ALSO TAKE TRADES, AND PAY THE SHIPPING! 

LEVEL IV PRODUCTS INC. 3223B SCHOOLCRAFT, LIVONIA, MI 48150 



PHONES: MI (313) 525-6200 

t a tradeiark of the RADIO SHACK DIV. of TANDY CORP. 



OTHERS 800-521-3305 (TOLL FREE) 




SUPER-UTILITY 

® 1980 by Kim Watt of 
Breeze Computing 

P.O. Box 1013 • Berkley, Michigan 48072 
SUPER-UTILITY was written by BREEZE COMPUTING and is the MOST POWERFUL utility 
program of its kind on the market. This program contains over- FOUR DOZEN MAJOR UTILITIES- 
that allow you to solve problems in SECONDS that used to take HOURS of tedious work. 

For the first time, the NOVICE PROGRAMMER is able to perform a wide range of functions that up 
to now. only a PRO could handle. This 24K MACHINE LANGUAGE, stand alone program comes 
with over30 pages of instructions that have been written in LAYMAN TERMS and also contains step 
by step instructions on how to use each utility. 

SUPER-UTILITY contains seven (7) main menus of utilities and each menu has several different 
functions that are available for your use in various programming or disk repair problems that may 
arise. The following list will give you an idea of SOME of the power that this fantastic program 
contains. 

Zero unused directory entries Repair GAT tabic 

Zero unu;ed granules Repair HIT table 

Remove all sysiem files automatically Repair BOOT 

Kill tiles by calegoty (CMD/BAS/TXT/ECIl Read protect directory track 

Change name, date, passujord, aulo command Recover killed files 

Change file parameters Complete directorv check 

Remove passwords from all files Move memory 

Format dUks (1 to 96 track) Exchange memory 

Format without erasing existing data Compare memory 



Display disk sectors 

Display file sectors 

Display main memory 

Compare disk sectors 

Copy disk sectors 

V«nfy disk sectors 

Zero disk sectors 

String search (ASCII or NUMBERS) 

Sector search 

Modify data In (HEX.ASCII.DECIMAL Add tracks to existing disk 

or BINARY) Custom format any way you want 

All screen displays in HEX AND ASCII Read address marks on disk 
Dual cursors Reads "Protected Disks" 

Over 25 data modification commands Copy disks with formal 
Kill individual files Copy disks without tormatling 

Kill files from a list Copy "Protected" Disks 

Full disk directory (active and non- Copy "Protected" Tapes 

active Hies) Automatic disk repair 

Examine sector allocations 



Zero memory 
Test memory 

imput byte from port 
Output byte to port 
Write memory to disk 
Read memory from disk 
Rend a full track from disk 



Dealer inquiries invited To purchase your copy of SUPER- UTILITY, send $49.95 (check or money 
order, Michigan Residents add 4% sales tax) and $2,50 Shioping and Handling to: 

BREEZE COMPUTING ^ e 

P.O. Box 1013 • Berkley, Michigan 48072 




198 • 80 Microcomputing, April 1981 



"/Wy zaps are necessary to provide 

access for MINIDOS and DEBUG to 

the keyboard. Without them, your system will hang." 



control block) continues with N80. This has 
typically been an inconsequential incon- 
venience for most users. 

Scripsit owners have no doubt learned by 
now that its disk I/O works properly only 
with TRSDOS. Apparat provides the neces- 
sary zaps to make Scripsit work with N80, 
and with NEWDOS 2.1, also. 

These minor incompatibilities will not 
concern the average user unless one of the 
spoolers marketed by other distributors is 
involved. Machine language pros should 
have no difficulty coping. Again, the N80 
documentation lists the old and new inter- 
rupt addresses to aid machine language 
hackers in making repairs. 

All popular DOS routines are still acces- 
sible with the standard DOS address calls. 
This applies to BASIC functions as well. 
The traditional DOS call addresses, plus 
some new ones, are conveniently listed in 
the N80 documentation. 

Apparat has done an exceptional job of 
maintaining compatibility among DOS sys- 
tems. This is especially notable since N80 is 
a complete rewrite. Not only has Apparat 
given us the best available DOS system for 
the TRS-80 (NEWDOS 2.1, and now NEW- 
DOS-80), they have managed to do so with a 
minimum of inconvenience to the user. 

I found two other problems: The Electric 
Pencil and the Misosys Editor Assembler 
will not properly read a disk directory. The 
fixes for both of these programs are pro- 
vided in Table 1. 

The zaps to make N80 function at faster 
clock speeds are provided in Table 1 for 
TRS-80S with a CPU clock speedup board in- 
stalled. If your TRS-80 is modified for the 
2.66 MHz CPU clock, first try N80 without; 
they may not be required. 

Those who are running at a 100 percent 
CPU clock speedup (3.54 MHz) will no doubt 
have to install my zaps. I am running at 4.0 
MHz and N80 requires my zaps to function 
at this clock speed. You should experience 
no problems running N80 at either the nor- 
mal 1.77 MHz or any souped up CPU clock 
speed, from 2.66 to 4.0 MHz, with the zaps. 

Some Hints about MINI-DOS 

For Ml Ml DOS to function, the current pro- 
gram (that which is up and running) must al- 
low for enabled interrupts and must not 
take away the keyboard device control 
block (DCB) at memory location 4016 hex. 

For example. Pencil changes the key- 
board DCB, although it does not make use 
of the DCB after the change; it uses its own 
keyboard scan routine. The fix is a simple 
one; I have experienced no problems as a re- 
sult. The zaps are listed in Table 1 . 

By teaching Pencil to leave the keyboard 
DCB alone, it's possible to use MINI-DOS 
and DEBUG {call it by pressing '123') with- 



out crashing Pencil or its text. 

If DEBUG is called with Pencil, 5C6F hex 
is a good re-entry address. Just enter 'G 
5C6F' from DEBUG. Pencil's text file will not 
be disturbed. 

My zaps are necessary to provide access 
for MINIDOS and DEBUG to the keyboard. 
Without them, your system will hang. 

Watch out for the block move routines 
(the LDIR or LDDR instructions) which move 
programs or subroutines around in RAM. 
These routines. Including those those cre- 
ated by Apparat's LMOFFSET, normally 
disable interrupts with the Dl machine lan- 
guage code as the first instruction. Unless 
the program to be run reactivates inter- 
rupts, MINI-DOS or DEBUG will not function 
after this. 

The solution is to patch each block move 
routine as necessary with an enable inter- 
rupt command (hex code FB) before the 
jump to the program's execution address. 
Here is what it should look like. 



Dl jdisable interrupts 

LD HL,ssss isource address 

LD DE,dddd ;destination address 

LO BC,bbbb ;byle count 

LDIR ;move it 

El ;enable interrupts (added) 

JP eeee ;JP to execution address 



With the El properly inserted, interrupts 
are re-enabled and (if the program does not 
permanently disable them again, as RSM2D 
and others do), MINI-DOS will function nor- 
mally. 

If you have not patched Scripsit with one 
of these block move routines only one zap is 
required to re-enable its interrupts. The zap 
is provided in N80's documentation. 

Let me part with one last suggestion. If 
you have an original NEWDOS 2.1 and 
are eligible for Apparat's N80 upgrade spe- 
cial deal (submit your registration number 
and pay the cost differential of $50), and if 
you are also considering buying one of the 
commercially available spoolers, pay the 
$50 for the NEWDOS-80 upgrade. You get a 
spooler for free with NEWDOS-80 and it is 
probably better than most of those current- 
ly available.H 



NOTE: After this article was sub- 
mitted for publication, Apparat 
released a number of Zaps to fix 
newfound bugs in NEWDOS 80. 
One large set of Zaps in particu- 
lar— ZAP 031 —overwrites most 
of my fast clock zaps. 



Table of NEWDOS 80 Zaps 

The relative file's sector is given in hex, then the relative byte in hex. The format is: 05/06= relative sector five, 
relative byte 60. 1 emphasize the use of hex because the new SUPERZAP/CMD will accept decimal inputs as well 
as hex. 



1. To make Pencil read a directory properly; 

0a06 Change: 58 23 22 
To: 58 00 22 

2. To make the Misosys EDTASM read a directory properly: 



08/39 Change; 5D 13 ED 
To; 5D 00 ED 



3. To make Pencil accept a MINI-DOS request: 

00/61 Change: 54 22 16 40 21 
To: 54 00 OO 00 21 

Also, verify that 00/C5 reads 01 FB 09. 01/57 should read 09 FB 21. (Some users zeroed out the FB, which is an 
enable interrupt code, because ot old TRSDOS 2.1 problems). 

4. Fast Clock Zaps (Caution: these zaps use DOS RAM areas that appear to be unused, but may turn out to be used 
by some routine I haven't yet found. If you develop a problem I would appreciate hearing about it): 

SYSO/SYS: 03/54 Change: 05 OA 08 F5 E5 E1 E5 El F3 
To: 05 C3 F5 40 E3 E3 E3 E3 F3 

(The E3s may already be in your SYSO/SYS. If so, it will still be necessary to put in the C3 F5 4C). 

Table continues 



80 Microcomputing, April 1981 • 199 



". . . the N80 documentation lists the 
old and new interrupt addresses to aid 
machine language hackers in making repairs." 



In addition, Perconn Inas re- 
cently released a double density 
board for the TRS-80 Mode! I 
disk system, and Circle J Soft- 
ware quickly thereafter released 
Double-Zap II to configure NEW- 
DOS-80 for double density oper- 
ation. These deserve additional 
comment so as to avoid prob- 
lems with those of you who may 
become confused by all of the 
DOS Zaps being tossed about. 

Here are your options: 

1. No Double-Density Applica- 
tions: 

a. Completely omit Appa- 
rat'sZAP031 ifyou are not us- 
ing the Omikron Mapper, be- 
cause it slows down your 
computer noticeably. Omit- 
ting ZAP 031 retains the origi- 
nal DOS operating speed and 
does not affect system relia- 
bility or operation. In this way 
you can still apply my fast 
clock zaps and be none the 
worse off. 

b. If you are intent on in- 
stalling ZAP 031, you can still 
run at fast clock CPU speeds 
because Apparat wrote ZAP 
031 so that it will function in 
fast clock systems, with one 
exception. With ZAP 031 in- 
stalled, omit all of my fast 
clock zaps except for the one 
in SYSO/SYS: 

04/OA, change: 11 00 24 IB 
to: 11 00 52 IB 

Some users find that values 
smaller than the 52 used herein 
work better in their systems. 
You might want to experiment 
with different values. 

2. Double-Density Applica- 
tions: 

Double-Zap II (Circle J Soft- 
ware) absolutely requires in- 
stallation of Apparat's ZAP 
031 for double-density opera- 
tion. Again, there is no prob- 
lem with fast clock operations 
if the same change to SYSO/ 
SYS (at 04/OA) is installed. 
Hopefully these comments 

will prevent some Inevitable 

confusion. Good luck. 



SYSO^YS: 04;7E Change: 01 00 80 DC 
To: 01 00 00 DC 



SYSO/SYS: 04/89 



Verity: C9 E3 E3 E3 E3 3A 

(The E3s here were already in place in my copy). 



SYSO/SYS: 04/AO Ctiange: 11 00 24 IB 
To: 11 00 52 IB 



SYSOSYS: 


OA/10 


Change: 


00 
00 


00 
00 


00 
00 


00 
00 


00 
00 


00 
A6 






















(eleven bytes of zeros) 


















To: 


E3 
F5 


E3 
C3 


E3 
59 


E3 
46 


OA 
00 


08 

A5 














SYS6/SYS: 


04/07 


Ctiange; 
To: 


01 
01 


00 
00 


80 

00 




















SYS6/SYS: 


CC/20 


Verify: 


E3 


£3 


E3 


E3 


OA 






















(The E3s were aiready 


on my copy). 














OC/27; 


Change: 


5E 


CB 


4E 


02 


37 


5E 


CB 


4E 


20 


3A 


CB 4E 


20 








36 


CB 


4E 


20 


32 


CB 


4E 


20 


2E 


CB 


4E 20 


2A 








CB 


4E 


20 


26 


□9 


09 


CB 


4E 


C2 


3F 


5E CB 


4E 








20 


23 


CB 


4E 


20 


IF 


CB 


4E 


20 


IB 


CB 4E 


20 








17 


CB 


4E 


20 


13 


CB 


4E 


20 


OF 


D9 


(Stop) 








To: 


5E 


C5 


06 


12 


CB 


4E 


20 


05 


10 


FA 


CI D9 


G9 








CI 


C3 


37 


5E 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 00 


00 








00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


C5 


06 


12 


CB 


4E 20 


05 








10 


FA 


01 


D9 


C9 


C1 


C3 


3F 


5E 


00 


00 00 


00 








00 


00 


GO 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


D9 


(Stop) 






0C/9F 


Change; 


OA 


CB 


4E 


02 


48 


5E 


CB 


4E 


20 


D3 


CB 4E 


20 








CF 


CB 


AE 


20 


CB 


CB 


4E 


20 


C7 


CB 


4E 20 


C3 








CB 


4E 


20 


BF 


CB 


4E 


20 


BB 


08 


(Stop) 








To; 


OA 


C5 


06 


16 


CB 


4E 


20 


06 


10 


FA 


01 C3 


8D 






' 


5E 


CI 


C3 


48 


5E 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 00 


00 








00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


00 


08 


(Stop) 





5. To make the break key functional for the 'JKL' screen print option (Caution; again, these zaps use DOS RAM 
areas that appear to be unused, but may turn out to be used by some routine I haven't found yet.) 

SYSO/SYS; 00/B9; Change; All zeros (Note— there is a 01 at 00/B1, Sector/BYTE 00/B9 corresponds to 
BAM memory location 43A6). 



To; 


F5 


E5 


3A 


7F 


38 


FE 


04 


28 


08 El 




F1 


CB 


74 


23 


C3 


B2 


45 


3E 


OD CO 




3B 


00 


E1 


F1 


C3 


66 


45 


00 


(Stop) 



SYSO/SYS; 02/A9: Change; 7E CB 74 23 20 
To: 7E 03 A6 43 20 

6. Zap to the BASIC/CMD file to implement BASIC'S unused NAME command. After setting this zap, entering 
NAME from BASIC will cause a jump to the address specified in the NAME jump vector. For example, LOAD 
RSM2D48/CMD into high memory with an appropriate memory size protect, using either the (4049) entry or 
BASIC'S 'MEMOFIY SIZE?' request, RSM2D's execution address (48K version) Is EE94 hex. 
Make the zaps to the BASIC/CMD file in the usual way. 



BASIC/CMD; 16/72; 



Change; C3 4A IE 03 
To: 03 94 EE 03 



With RSM2D(48K version] in high memory, entenng NAME will jump to RSM2D. To get back to BASIC gracefully 
from RSM2D, enter 'G 0072' (Go to address 72 hex). BEADY and Its prompt will appearand the resident BASIC pro- 
gram will be intact. 

This can also be done with NEWDOS 2,1 or TRSDOS 2.3. Just fine the C3 IE 4A (for the NAME function) in the 
BASIC/CMD tile and change it in the same way. 



200 • 80 Microcomputing, April 1981 



NATIONAL TRS-80* 

MICROCOMPUTER SHOW 



New York Staffer 

Exposition Hail 

(opposite Pennsylvania Raliroad Station 

and Madison Square Garden) 

7th Ave. & 33rd Street 



May 21, 22, 23, 1981 

Thursday Noon to 6 PM 

Friday 11 AM to 6 PM 

Saturday 10 AM to 4 PM 



For the Businessman, Educator, Professional and Hobbyist. 

• Commercial Exhibits and Sales of Microcomputers, 
Software, Books, Magazines, Supplies, 

Parts, Printers, Etc. 

• Free Seminars 

• Famous Name Guest Speakers. 

• User Groups. 

(Mod I, II, III, Color and Pocket Computers). 

• Door Prizes - A TRS-80® Computer will be given 
away free each day, plus other prizes. 

Avoid standing on line - Send in your registration today! 

Radio Shack and TRS-80 are registered trademarks of Tandy Corporation, which has 
no relationship to Kengore Corporation or The National TRS-80 Microcomputer Show. 



REGISTRATION FOR TRS-80® MICROCOMPUTER SHOW 

May 21, 22, 23, 1981 New York Statler Hotel 

Name _^ . 



Title 



Company Name 
Address . 



City, State, Zip 



Please send 



registrations at $10.00 each. 



(Registration Badge will be sent to you on May 1st. 



Send To: 

Kengore Corporation, Dept. 80 

3001 Route 27 

Franklin Park, N.J. 08823 ^230 



(Be sure to enclose 
check or money order. 



v-See List of Advertisers on page 306 



80 Microcomputing, April 1981 • 201 



THE ORIGINAL MAGAZINE FOR 
OWNERS OF THE TRS-80 "* MICROCOMPUTER 



• TRS-80'" IS A TRADEMARK OF TANDY CORP, 



SOFTWARE 

FOR TRS-80 " 

OWNERS 



H 



CQiriPLJTHQWlCS 



I MONTHLY 

II NEWSMAGAZINE 
" FOR TRS-80'" 

c. 



OWNERS 



MONTHLY NEWSMAGAZINE 

Practical Support For Model I, II & III 



PRACTICAL APPLICATIONS 
BUSINESS 

GAMBLING • GAMES 
EDUCATION 
PERSONAL FINANCE 
BEGINNER'S CORNER 
NEW PRODUCTS 
SOFTWARE EXCHANGE 
MARKET PLACE 
QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS 
PROGRAM PRINTOUTS 
AND MORE 



NOW IN OUR 4tli YEAR 



PROGRAMS AND ARTICLES PUBLISHED IN RECENT ISSUES 
INCLUDE THE FOLLOWING: 

• FINCALC A COMPLETE FINANCIAL APPLICATIONS PACKAGE 

• INFORMATION SYSTEM REVIEW 

• STATISTICAL COMBINATIONS ' - 

• PASCAL'S TRIANGLE 

• ASSEMBLY LANGUAGE FOR BEGINNERS 

• DISK FILES 

• MOD-III REVIEW 

• KEYBOARD THUNDER AND LIGHTING EXPLAINED 

• DOS COMMANDS IN LEVEL II 

• PROBABILITY CURVE GENERATOR 

• CALCULATOR SIMULATIONS 
, • THE MEGABYTE GAP 

• S rOCKS AND BONDS 

• BUDGET ANALYSIS (FOR BUSINESS AND HOME) 

• NEWDOS/80 REVIEW 

• DUTCHING THE HORSE SYSTEM THAT CANT LOSE 

• A SIMULATED GOLF GAME 

• CONTINUOUS FORM SOURCES 

• TAX/SAVER REVIEW 
, . . , AND MORE 



f^^^; 



A Complete Financial Analysis Package Used 



» ^^ ^^^ Qfjncalcj 

^^(;^ft^* To Calculate Markup, Margin, Annuities, Compound Interest, Nomina! 
^ O^ ^^^ Effective Rates, Sinking Funds, Mortgage Calculations, Future Value, 
TNit^^ Savings and Insurance, Percentage Difference Between Two Numbers, 
Amortization Schedule and More 



»t 



SEND FOR OUR NEW 64 PAGE SOFTWARE CATALOG (INCLUDING LISTINGS OF HUNDREDS OF TRS-80'" PROGRAMS AVAILABLE ON 
CASSETTE AND DISKETTE). $2,00 OR FREE WITH EACH SUBSCRIPTIONS OR SAMPLE ISSUE 



* All programs are supplied on cassette (add $3 for Diskette Version - add $5 for modified Mod-Il Version). 



CQIYIPLJTHQMICS 



M^TV^J^AATCJ^L Af^ irjl'lf>JS ^^^^/TZF' 



50 N. PASCACK ROAD 
SPRING VALLEY, NEW YORK 10977 

ONE YEAR SUBSCRIPTION $24 

TWO YEAR SUBSCRIPTION $48 

SAMPLE OF LATEST ISSUE $ 4 

START MY SUBSCRIPTION WITH ISSUE 

(ftl - July 1978 • 1*12 ■ Junp 1979 • #24 ■ July 1980 • #30 ■ January 1981 
NEW SUBSCRIPTION RENEWAL 



CREDIT CARD NUMBER. 
SIGNATURE 



NEW TOLL-FREE 

ORDER LINE 

{OUTSIDE OF N.Y. STATE) 

(800) 431-2818 




HOUR 
24 ORDER 
LINE 

(914) 425-1535 




_EXP. DATE_ 



NAME. 



ADDRESS . 



X!TY_ 



.STATE. 



ZIP. 



*** ADD $12/YEAR (CANADA, MEXICO) - ADD $24/YEAR AIR MAIL - OUTSIDE OF U.S.A., CANADA & MEXICO 



202 • 80 Microcomputing. April 1981 



H 



CQnPUTHQM 




• » EVERYTHING FOR YOUR TRS-80 ••• 



* TRS-80'" is a trademark of the Radio Shack Division of Tandy Corporation 

■* All orders processed within 24'Hours 



MOD-II PROGRAMS 



*■ 30-Doy n\or\ay back guarantee on all TRSDOS Software 
• Add $3.00 for s/iipping in UPS Areas 
•Add $4.00 for COD or NON-UPS Areas 
*Add $5.00 outside U.S.A., Canada & Mexico 
• We will match ony bonafide advertised price 
in ani^ of the Major Computer Magazines 



A 

L 
L 

S 
O 

F 
T 
W 
A 
R 
E 



LISTED 
HERE 



w 
o 

R 
K 
S 

W 

I 

T 
H 

T 
R 
S 
D 
O 
S* 



(1) ELECTRIC PENCIL (Michael SHrayer Software). 
Completa word processor wild entensive ediling and 
pnnler tormalling lealures ..$325 (STANDARD 
TRSDOS VERSION) $350 (DIABLO, NEC OR OUME 
TRSDOS VERSION], 

(S) GENERAL LEDGER, ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE, 
ACCOUNTS PAYABLE, INVENTORY CONTROL, 
INVOICING AND PAYROLL (Small Business Systems 
Group) .an extensive business system tor ttie Eerious 
user ..can be used one module at a lime or as a co- 
ordinated system S225 .,per module.. $1299 tor the 
complete system. 

(3) QENERAL LEDGER, ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE, 
ACCOUNTS PAYABLE, INVENTORY CONTROL 
AND PAYROLL (Compumax). a complete user on- 
enled business system .can be used one module at a 
time or as a coordinated syslem, 1140 per module,,, 
$995 tor the complete system, 

(4) MOD-II UTILITY PACKAGE (Racel Computes) 
adds important utilities (o TRSDOS, copy files 
selectively (aslsr and more accurate file copying... 
repair bad directories displays sorted directory o( 
all files on 1 to 4 disk drives SUPERZAP,. change 
disk ID and more,, $150 

(5) ADVENTURE "1-"9 (Scott Adams - Adventure 
International) a series of games formally only 
available on the large computers, your goal is to work 
your way through a maze of obstacles in order to 
recover a secret treasure or complete a mission the 
package includes all 9 Adventures written by Scott 
Adams $99 95 

(6) GSF (Racet Computers) . Generalized Subroutine 
Facility a series of super fast machine language 
utilities that can be called from a BASIC program (no 
machine language knowledge required) sorts 1000 
items in under 5 seconds allows PEEK and POKE 
statements move data blocks , compress and un- 
compress data, works under TRSDOS $50. 

(7) DSM (Racet Computes) .Disk Sort Merge sorts 
and merges large multiple diskette tiles on a 1 to 4 
drive system ..NOT AN IN IwlEWORV SORT can 
actually alphabetize (or any ottier type of sort) 4 disk 
drives worth of data .sorts one complete disk ot 
information in 10 minutes, information is provided to 
use DSM with the RS MAILING PROGRAM,,, works 
under TRSDOS $150. 

(B) RSM (Small Systems Software), ,a machine 
language monitor and disassembler can be used to 
see and modify memory or disk sectors contains all 
the commands found on the Wodel-I version plus 
some additional commands for the WOD-ll works 
under TRSDOS $39,95, 

(9) BLINK BASIC LINK FACILITY (Racet Computes) 
Link from one BASIC program to another saving all 
variables chain programs without losing variables 

,,,$50 

(10) BASIC CROSS REFERENCE UTILITY (Racet 
Computes!, lists all variables and strings used in a 
program (with the line numbers in wtiich they appear) 
. lists all GOTO's and GOSUB's (with the line num- 
bers in which they appear), searches tor any specific 
variables or strings (with the tine number in which 
they appear) $50. 

(11). DEVELOPMENT PACKAGE (Racet Computes) . 
SUPERZAP (lo see, print or change any byte on a 
diskette) Disassembler and f^OD-ll interface lo Ihe 



MICROSOFT EDITOR ASSEMBLER PLUS including 

uploading services and patches for Disk I/O.. assemble 
directly mio memory ..save all or portions of source 
to disk ..dynamic debug facility (ZBUG), .amended 
editor commands, ,,$125, 

(12) HARD/SOFT DISK SYSTEM (flacet Computes).. 
The software essential to interface any of Ihe popular 
large hard disk drives,,, completely compatible with 
your existing software and files,, .allows up to 20 
megabytes of storage (and larger) ., directory expand- 
able to handle thousands ot files.. $400 

(13) CAMEO HARD DISK DRIVE CONTROLLER 
coming soon (November 1?) 

(14) HARD DISK DRIVES., coming SOOn (Nov, I''), 

(15) H ft E COMPUTRONICS, INC. SHARE-A- 
PROQRAM DISKETTES! works under TRSDOS .a 
collection of programs written by MOD-II owners., 
programs include data base management...a word 
processor mail system,,, mortgage calculations. . 
checkbook register.,, and many others. ..$8 (add $3 
postage outside of the United States. Canada and 
Mexico) ..FREE it you send us a diskette containing 
a program that can be added to the SHARE-A-PRO- 
GRAM DISKETTE. 

(16) WABASH CERTIFIED DISKETTES,, $39 95 (per 
box ot 10) 

(17) FLIP SORT DISKETTE STORAGE TRAY , Stores 
50 diskettes comes complete with index -dividers, tilt 
plates and adjustable spacing $44 95 

(IB) MASTER PAC 100 ..100 essential programs 
BUSINESS, PERSONAL FINANCE STATISTICS, 
MATH, GAMBLING GAMES includes 125 page 
manual and 2 diskettes , $99 95 

(19) BUSINESS PAC 100 ,100 esseniial business 
programs .INVENTORY CONTROL ,,PAyROLL 
BOOKKEEPING SYSTEM , STOCK CALCULA- 
TIONS CHECKBOOK MAINTENANCE AC- 
COUNTS RECEIVABLE ACCOUNTS PAYABLE . 
includes 125 page manual and two diskettes,,, $149 95 

(20) EDITOR ASSEMBLER (Galactic Sottware Ltd,) ,, 
the first user oriented Editor Assembler lor the 
MODEL II and was designed to utilize all the features 
of the MODEL II It includes innovative features for 
ease ol coding and debugging and complele docu- 
mentation (over 120 pages) , works under TRSDOS 

$229 00 

(21) BASIC COMPILER (Microsoft) , changes your 
source programs into machine language ,, increases 
program execution by 3-10 times $395. 

(22) MAIL/FILE SYSTEM from Galactic Sottware Ltd 
stores 2,500 names per disk. No sorting time is 
required Since the file is automatically sorted by first 
and last name plus Zip Code on input Retrieve by any 
combination of 19 user codes Supports an 11 digit 
alphanumerica Zip Supports a message line Comes 
complele with user-oriented documentation (100- 
page manual) Allows for company name and individ- 
ual Ot a company and complele phone number (and 
extension) works under TRSDOS , $199,00 

(23) INCOME TAX PAC Professional income tax 
package most (orms and schedules output to video 
or line primer ,automaJic memory storage ot all 
information data can be loaded from diskette, 
changed and edited built inerrorchecking ,$19995 



(24) COMPUTER GAMES (SBSG) Mean Checke 
Machine, Star-Trek III, Concentration, Treasure Hunt 
Banco, Dog Star Adventure $74 95 



:cQ^1PlJTHQf>^lcs! 



-♦ 



^Afl■^^*^-W'' < -Hn. Af*^ t ji'ir^, ■ 



50 N. PASCACK ROAD 
SPRING VALLEY, NEW YORK 10977 



HOUR 

ORDER 

LINE 



NEW TOLL-FREE 

ORDER LINE 

{OUTSIDE OF NY. STATE) 

(800) 431-2818 





(1) CP/M (Lifeboat Associates) an alternative 

operating system for the MOD-II that allows MOD-II 
owners to use any of the hundreds ot programs 
available under CP/M .$170, 

(2) CP/M HANDBOOK, ,,(Sybe»). a step-by-sfep 
guide lo CP/M. ..takes the reader through each of the 
CP/M commands numberous sample programs . 
practical hinfs. reference tables. .$13 95. 

(3) GENERAL LEDGER, ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE, 
ACCOUNTS PAYABLE. INVENTORY CONTROL. 

AND PAYROLL (Peachtree Sottware) .requires CP/M 
and MICROSOFT BASIC professional business 
systems, turn key operation .can be used as single 
modules or as a coordinated syslem .$500 per 
module, $2500 for Ihe complele syslem 

(4) WORD-STAR, ,The ultimate word processor a 
menu driven word processing syslem that can be used 
with any printer. All standard word processing 
commands are included,, .plus many unique com- 
mands only found on WORD STAR. ..requires CP/M 
,,,$495 

(5) MAIL LIST MERGE. ,An add on package thai 
allows the user to send form letters (created on 
WORD-STAR) to any compiled mailing list (using any 
CP/M based MAIL program such as the PEACHTREE 
MAIL PROGRAM), requires CP/M, WORD STAR and 
andy CP/M based mail program. $150. 

(6) SELECTOR III (Micro-Ap) complete data 
management system, user defined fields and codes. , 
manages any list defined by the user ,, includes 
additional modules for simplified inventory conlrol. 
accounts receivable and accounts payable,,, requires 
CBASIC-2 $295. 

(7) SELECTOR IV (Micro-Ap), the ultimate data 
managemenl system .all features use the SELECTOR 
ill plus, ,data file format conversions .full page report 
(ormatler . computations, global search and replace 

hard disk compatible,, oafa/fexl merging $560 

(8) GLECTOR (Micro-Ap) add on package to the 
SELECTOR .general ledger that allows the user lo 
define a customized chart of accounts.. $350 

(9) CBAStC-2,,,a non-interactive BASIC used tor 
many programs that run under CP/M ., allows user to 
make more efficient use ot disk files,,, eliminates the 
use of most line number references require on such 
programs as the SELECTOR,, ,$120 

(10) MICROSOFT BASIC,,,an enhanced version o( the 
MICftOBOFT BASIC found on TRSDOS., adds 
commands such as chaining (allows the user to LOAD 
and RUN a new program without losing the variables 
currently in memory),., long variable lenglti tile 
records, WHILE/WEND and others can be used with 
the BASIC COMPILER to speed up programs (3-10 
times faster execution). .,$325, 

(11) MASTER TAX (CPAids) professional lax 
preparation program prepares schedules. A, B, C D 
E, F, G. R/RP,SE,TC,ES and forms 2106, 2119, 2210 
3468. 3903, 2441, 4625, 4726, 4797. 4972, 5695 and 
6521, Priniing can be on readily available pre-printed 
continuous forms, on overlays, or on computer 
generated IRS approved lorms Mamtainsclint history 
files , inleractive with CP/Aids General Ledger. $995, 

(12) GENERAL LEDGER II (CPAids) ,, designed tor 
CPA's .stores complete 1 2 month detailed history of 
transactions,,, generates financial statemenls, 
depreciation, loan amortizations, journals, trial 
balances, statements ot changes m financial position, 
and compilation letters. , includes payroll system with 
automating posting to general ledgers. , prints 
payroll register, W2's and payroll checks ..$450 

(13) ELECTRIC PENCIL (Michael Shrayar Software) 
.Complete word processor with extensive editing 

and printer formatting features. $275 (Standard 
printer version) $300 (DIABLO, NEC Or OUME 

version) 

(14) BASIC COMPILER (Microsoft) . changes your 
source programs into machine language, increases 
program execution by 3-10 limes, ,,$395 

• (CP/M IS A REGISTERED TRADEMARK 
OF DIGITAL RESEARCH) 



A 

L 
L 

P 
R 
O 
G 
R 
A 
M 
S 



LISTED 
HERE 

•* ■ 



R 

E 

Q 

U 

I 

R 

E 

C 
P 

/ 
M* 



(914) 425-1535 



NEW!!! 

MOD-II NEWSLETTER 
$lX/year Cor 12 issues) 



80 Microcomputing, April 1981 • 203 



CQIV1PLJTHQ0<1CS 



N 
C. 



• •♦EVERYTHING FOR YOUR TRS-80"*** 

* TRS-SO"* is a trademark of the Radio Shack DivMon of Tandy Corporation 

100 suP^R [master PAC 100 , 



FOR YOUR TRS-80'" LEVEL II MICROCOMPUTER 

ALL ON CASSETTE OR DISKETTE 



BUSINESS AND PERSONAL FINANCE 

1. CHECKBOOK MAINTENANCE 

2. TIME FOR MONEY TO DOUBLE 

3. FEDERAL FICA & WITHHOLDING TAX 

3. COMPUTATIONS 

4. HOME BUDGET ANALYSIS ^-5 

5 ANNUITY COMPUTATION .velWCS^ 

6 UNIT PRICING 'BU**" 

7. CHANGE FROM PURCHASE ^ 

8. NLtiS CHECK PRINTLR 
9 DAYS BETWEEN DATES 

10. MORTGAGE AMORTIZATION TABLE 

n INVENTORY CONTROL 

12. PORTFOLIO VALUE COMPUTATIONS 

13 VALUE OF A SHARE OF STOCK 

14 SALES RECORD KEEPING SYSTEM 

15 FUTURE VALUE OF AN INVESTMENT 

16. EFFECTIVE INTEREST RATE (LOAN) 

17. PRESENT VALUE OF A FUTURE AMOUNT 

18. RATE OF RETURN-VARIABLE INFLOW 

19. RATE OF RETURN-CONSTANT INFLOW 

20. REGULAR WITHDRAWAL FROM INVESTMENT 

21. STRAIGHT LINE DEPRECIATION 

22. SUM OF DIGITS DEPRECIATION 

23. DECLINING BALANCE DEPRECIATION 

24. BREAK EVEN ANALYSIS 

25. SALVAGE VALUE OF INVESTMENT 

26. PAYMENT ON A LOAN 

27. FUTURE SALES PROJECTIONS 

28. CREDIT CARD FILE 

29. ECONOMIC ORDER QUANTITY (EOQ) 
INVENTORY MODEL 

30 VALUE OF HOUSE CONTENTS _-fc*l S.\. 

31. TEXT EDITOR ttlTlVSOr"**^ 

32. MONTHLY CALENDAR iT**** 

33. DAY OF WEEK 

34. CASH FLOW VS DEPRECIATION 

35. COMPLETE MAIL SYSTEM 
36 INTEREST RATE ON A LEASE 



TISTICS 



FIT^ANCE 



STATISTICS AND MATHEMATICS 

37 RANDOM SAMPLE SELECTION 

38 ANGLO-METIC CONVERSION 
39. MEAN, STANDARD DEVIATION, 

MAXIMUM AND MINIMUM 

40 SIMPLE LINEAR REGRESSION 

41 MULTIPLE REGRESSION ANALYSIS 

42 GEOMETRIC REGRESSION 

43 EXPONENTIAL REtlRLSSION 
44. SIMPLE MOVING AVERAGE 

45 SIMPLE T-TEST ^^ k ' 

46 CHI SQUARE TEST S» *■ ** 
47. NORMAL PROBABILITIES 

48 BINOMIAL PROBABILITY 

49 POISSON PROBABILITY 

50. MATRIX ADDITION AND SUBTRACTION 
51 MATRIX TRANSPOSE 

52. MATRIX INVERSE 

53. MATRIX MULTIPLICATION 

54. SOLUTION OF SIMULTANEOUS EQUATIONS 

55. QUADRATIC FORMULA 

56. LINEAR EQUATION SOLUTIONS 

57. ROOT HALF INTERVAL SEARCH 

58. ROOTS OF POLYNOMIALS 

59. ROOTS NEWTON'S METHODS 
60 PRIME FACTORS OF INTEGER 

61. LEAST COMMON DENOMINATOR 

62 RADIAN DEGREE CONVERSION 

63 NUMERICAL INTEGRATION 

UTILITIES 

64 QUICK SORT ROUTINE 
65. PROGRAM STORAGE INDEX 
66 MULTIPLE CHOICE QUIZ BUILDER 

67. FORM LETTER WRITER 

68. SHELL SORT 

69. CASSETTE LABEL MAKER 

70. CODES MESSAGES 

71 MERGE TWO FILES 

72 SORT WITH REPLACEMENT 



MATH 



GRAPHICS 

73 DRAWS BAR GRAPH 
74. DRAWS HISTOGRAM 

75 MOVING BANNER DISPLAY 

GAMBLING AND GAMES 

76 RANDOM SPORTS QUIZ 

77 GOVERNMENT QUIZ 

78 HORSE RACE 

79 MAGIC SQUARE 
80. ARITHMETIC TEACHER 

81 HIGH LOW GAMBLE 

82 UNSCRAMBLE LETTERS 

83 HANGMAN 

84. GAME OF NIM 

85. RUSSIAN ROULETTE 
86 ROULETTE GAME 
87. ONE ARMED BANDIT 

88 HIT THE TARGET 

89 WALKING DRUNK 

90. STATE CAPITAL QUIZ 

91. TIC TAC TOE 

92. DICE GAME 

93. LUNAR LANDAR GAME 

94. BIORHYTHM 

95. HORSE SELECTOR (CLASS CALCULATOR] 

96. RANDOM DICE ROLL 

97 RANDOM ROULETTE ROLL 
98. RANDOM CARD DEALER 
99 GUESS THE NUMBER 
100 WHITE OUT SCREEN 



GXMBUW^ 



XJSEK 



---^i";::rx. 



GUARANTEED SATISFACTION 

30-DAY MONEY BACK GUARANTEE ON ALL SOFTWARE 



iCQinPLJTHQMlCSi 



fW\AT>^PvlAT 



50 N. PASCACK ROAD 
SPRING VALLEY, NEW YORK 10977 

PLEASE SEND ME: 

n MASTER PAC 100 CASSETTE VERSION $59.95 

n MASTER PAC 100 DISKETTE VERSION $59.95 

D MASTER PAC 100 (TRS-80 MODEL I! VERSION) $99.95 



-^^m.\ ^ ^ HOUR 
^^W\24 ORDER 
LINE 

(914) 425-1535 



NEW TOLL-FREE 

ORDER LINE 

(OUTSIDE OF N.Y. STATE) 

(800) 431-2818 

-*- Ail orders processed within 24-Hours 

* 30-Day money back guarantee on all Software 




CREDIT CARD NUMBER EXP. DATE. 



SIGNATURE. 



NAME 

ADDRESS CITY STATE ZIP 

■** ADD S3.D0 FOR SHIPPING IN UPS AREAS • ADD KM FOR C.O.D. OR NON-UPS AREAS • ADD $5.00 OUTSIDE U.S.A. CANADA & MEXICO 



204 • 80 Microcomputing, April 1981 



CQinPlJTHQMlCS 



N 
C. 



• • • EVERYTHING FOR YOUR TRS-80 • • • 

TRS-SO Is a Irademark of the Radio Shack Division of Tandy Corporation 

BUSINESS PAC 100 

100 Ready-To-Run 
Business Programs 




Software 



(ON CASSETTE GRDISKETTE) Includes 110 Page Users Manual 5 Cassettes (Or Diskettes) 

Inventoiy Control Payroll Bookkeeping System Stock Calculations 

Checkbook Maintenance Accounts Receivable....Accounts Payable 



BUSINESS 100 PROGRAM UST 



1 RUL£78 IntereM Apportionment by Rule of the 78's 

2 ATHMUl Annuity computation program 

3 DATE Time between daes 

4 DAYYEAR Day of year a particular date fails on 

5 LEASEinT Interest rate on lease 

6 BREAKEvn Breakeven analysis 

7 DEPRSL StraightJine depreciation 

6 DEPRSY Sum of ifie digits depreciation 

9 DEPRDB Declining balance depreciation 

10 DEPRDDB Double declining balance depreciation 

1 1 TAXDEP Cash flow vs depreciation tables 

12 CHECK2 Prints MEBS checks along with daily register 

13 CHECKBKl Checkbook maintenance program 
\A MORTQAGE/A Mortgage amortizaton table 

15 MULTMON Computes lime needed for money to double, triple, 

16 SALVAGE Detemines salvage value of an investment 

1 7 RRVARIM Rate of return on investment v^ih variable inflows 
!8 RRCOMST Rate of return on investment with constant inflows 

1 9 EFFECT Effective interest rate of a loan 

20 FVAL Future value of an investment (compound interest) 

21 FVAL Present value of a future amount 

22 LOAMPAY Amount of payment on a loan 

23 REGWITH Eiqual withdrawals from investment to leave over 

24 SIMPDISK Simple discount analysis 

25 DATEVAL Equivalent & nonequtvalent dated values for oHig. 

26 ANMGDEF Present value of deferred annuities 

27 ^W^KUP % Marttup analysis for items 

28 SINKFUND Sinking fund amofliialion program 

29 BONDVAL Value of a bond 

30 DEPLETE Depletion analysis 

3! BLACKSH Black Scholes options analysis 

32 STOCVALl Expected return on stock via discounts dividends 

33 WARVAL Value of a warrant 

34 BOMDVAL2 Value of a bond 

35 EPSEST Estimate of future earnings per share for company 

36 BETAALPH Computes alpha and beta variables for stock 

37 SHARPEl Portfolio selection modd-i.e. what stocks to hoW 

38 OFTWRTTE OptJwi writing computations 

39 RTVAL Value of a right 

40 EXPVAL Expected value analysis 

41 BAYES B^«slan decisions 

42 VALPRIHF Value of perfect information 

43 VALADINF Value erf additional informatkyi 

44 trnUTY Denves utility function 

45 SlMrt£X Linear programming solutkin by simplex metf»d 

46 TRANS Transportation method for linear programming 

47 EOQ Economic order quanti^ inventory model 
46 QUEUEl Single server queueing (watting line) model 

49 CVP Cost-votumcprofit analysis 

50 COriDPROF Conditwnal profit tables 

51 OmOSS Opportunl^ k>» tables 

52 FQUOQ Fixed quantity economic order quvitity model 

NAWE DEaanpnoN 

53 FQEOWSH As above but with shortages pemnHted 

54 FOEDQPB As above but with quantity pdce breaks 
» QUEUCCB CoM-beneAt waMng line analyais 

96 NCFATIAL fiet catMVw analysit for Umpie Imotnwft 

97PROF1I1D ProAt^rittymdetofaprc^ 

96 CAPI Cap- AMd Pr. Model anfyA of prefect 



59 WACC Weighted average cost of capital 

60 COMPBAL True rate or loan with compensating bal. required 

61 DISCBAL Tnjc rate on discounted loon 

62 MERGANAL Merger analysis computations 

63 FINRAT RfMncial ratios for a iimi 

64 MPV Met present value of ftfoject 

65 PRIMDLAS Laspeyres price index 

66 PRIMDPA Paasctie prke indsK 

67 SEASIND Constructs seasonal quantity indices for company 

68 TIMETR Time series analysis linear trend 

69 TIMEMOV Time series analysis rrxwing average trend 

70 FUPRINF Future price estimation with inflation 

71 MAILPAC MaiUng list system 

72 LETWRT Letter writing system-Unks with MAILPAC 

73 SORT3 Sorts list of names 

74 LABELl Shipping label maker 

75 LABEL2 Name label maker 

76 KJSBUD DOME business bookkeeping system 

77 TIMECLCK Computes weeks total hours from timeckxSt info. 

78 ACL I PAY In menvDfy accounts payaNe system-storage permitted 

79 INVOICE Generate invoice on screen and print on printer 

80 INVEMT2 In memory inventory cc»itrol system 

81 TELDIR Computerized telephone directory 
62 TIMUSAN Time use analysis 

83 ASSIGN Use of assignrnent algorithm for optimal job assign. 

84 ACCTREC In memory accounts receivable system-storage ok 

85 TERMSPAY Compares 3 methods of repayment of kMns 

86 PAYTIET Computes gross pay required for given nrt 

87 SELLPR Computes selling price for given after tax amount 

88 ARBCOMP Ari^jge computations 

89 DEPRSF Sinking fund depreciation 

90 UPSZOISE Finds UPS zones from zip code 

91 ENVELOPE Types envelope including return address 

92 AUTOEXP Automobile expense analysis 

93 INSFHLE Insurance policy file 

94 PAYROLL2 In memory payroll system 

95 DILANAL Dilution an^ysis 

96 LOATIAFFD Loan amount a borrower can afford 

97 RErfTPRCH Purchase price for rental property 

98 SALELEA5 Sale-kiaseback analysis 

99 RRCOrWBD Investor's rate of return on convertable bond 
100 PORTVAL9 Stock market portfolio storage-valuation program 



NHVV 



n CASSETTE VERSION »99.95 "«=»V TQu j. 

a DISKETTE VERSION »99.95 OfiDeo ^ ^^^ 

D TR8-80* MODEL n VERSION »149.95 (Outsio ^^NE 

ADD $3.00 FOR SHIPPING IN UPS AREAS (SHflX jt^ ' ' ^^^fS) 

ADO (4.00 FOR C.O.O. OR NON-UPS AREAS X^^UJ 437-Pflf a 

ADO $5.00 OUTSIDE U.S.A. CANADA & MEXICO ^OfQ 



ICQinPLiTHQMICSf 



fSiiVTV^hUCricAu >w«_jc^TicTsjG ^eer^^X^ ' 



50 N. PASCACK ROAD 
SPRING VALLEY, NEW YORK 10977 



HOUR 
OA ORDER 
^^ UNE 





425-1535 



80 Microcomputing, April 1981 • 205 



H 



CQIYIPLITHQMICS 



N 
C. 



>» EVERYTHING FOR YOUR TRS-80 ••• 

TRS^SO Is a Irademark of fhe Radio Shat k i>lvlslon of Tandy Corporation 




COORDINATED 
BUSINESS 
SYSTEMS 



SMALL BUSINESS 
SYSTEMS GROUP 



* All orders processed within 24-Hours 
•k 30-Dai> moneij back guarantee on all Software 
• Add $3.00 for shipping in UPS Areas 
• Add $4.00 for C.O.D. or NON-UPS Areas 
*Add $5,00 outside U.S.A., Canada & Mexico 



FACTS ABOUT THE S.B.S.G. BUSINESS PACKAGES 

1. S.B.S.G. IS a sophisticated Business Software System designed for the serious businessman. 

2. Eacli of the S.B.S.G. Business Modules may be purchased separately. .or you may purchase the entire coordinated business system. 

3. Modules purchased separately do not coordinate with the General Ledger {although forthestandardS.B.S.G.fee.lheuser may upgrade his 
individual modules for the coordinated system), 

4. Foolproof, Step-By-Step procedures are supplied, planned and documented for the First-Time Computer User. All programs are self- 
explanatory, telling the user what is required at every step. 

5. Programs are written in BASIC and the source code listing is supplied for those users who decide to modify the original system, 

6. A complete users manual is supplied with each module. 

7 Demo Data diskettes are supplied with sample data, 

8 S.B.S.G. has an In-House staff that can answer questions and problems related to the proper use ot the S.B.S.G. Business System (on the 
telephone or through the mail). 

9. First-Time Computer Owners Note-Instructions are provided for entering state payroll withholding tables. There is an additional charge if 
you prefer to have S.B.S.G. Programmers insert the correct data. 

10. Minimum system requirement is 2-drives to run any single module, 

1 1. Minimum system requirement is 3-drives to run the coordinated business system (AR-AP-GL) or {AR-AP-GL with PAYROLL), 

12. Minimum system requirement is 4-drives to run the extended coordinated system (AR-AP-GL-PR and INVENTORY/INVOICING). 

13. The A. OSBORNE & ASSOCIATES business manuals are provided FREE with each order (they may be purchased separately at $20 per 
manual). 

14. The INVENTORY and INVOICING modules are original programs written by S.B.S.G. 

15. Each module can be purchased as independent modules to run on a 2 or more drive system except INVOICING. 

16. Memory requirement is 48K for the MODEL-I and 64K tor the MODEL-II 

17. All S.B.S.G. BUSINESS SYSTEMS may be upgraded up to 4-disk drives. No data is ever lost during an upgrade. There is a standard S.B.S.G. 
charge for all upgrades. 



ACCOUNTS PAYABLE 

The accounts payable system receives data concerning purchases from 
suppliers and produces checks in payment of outstanding invoices. In 
addition, it produces cash management reports. This system aids in 
tight financial control over all cash disbursements of the business. 
Several reports are available and supply information needed for the 
analysis of payments, expenses, purchases and cash requirements. All 
A/P data feeds General Ledger so that data is entered into the system 
just once. These programs were developed 5 years ago for the Wang 
micro-computer and have been tested in many environments since 
then. The package has been converted to the TRS-80'" and is now well 
documented, on-line, interactive micro-computer system with the 
capabilities of (or exceeding many larger systems). 

CAPABILITIES: 

* menu driven; easy to use; full screen prompting and cursor control 

* invoice oriented, everything revolves around the invoice; handles 
new invoice or credit memo or debit memo 

* invoce information recorded; invoice #, description, buyer, check 
register #, invoice date, age date, amount of invoice, discount (in %), 
freight, tax ($), total payable 

* transaction print and file maintenance procedures insure accuracy 

* flexible check calculation procedure; allows checks to be calculated 
for a set of vendors-or-for specific vendors 

* program prints your checks, contiguous computer checks with your 
company letterhead can be purchased from SBSG 

* reports include (samples on back)- 

• open Item listing/closed item listing - both detail and summary 

• debit memo listing/credit memo listing 

• aging 

• check register report (to give an audit trail of checks printed) 

• vendor listing and vendor activity (activity of the whole year) 

* fully linked to GENERAL LEDGER; each invoice can be distributed 
to as many as five (5) different GL accounts, system automatically 
posts to cash and A/P accounts 



ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE 

The objective of a computerized A/R system is to prepare accurate and 
timeley monthly statements to credit customers. Management can 
generate information required to control the amount of credit extended 
and the collection ot money owed in order to maximize profitable credit 
sales while minimizing losses from bad debts. The programs com- 
posing this system were developed 5 years ago, especially tor small 
businesses using the Wang Microcomputer. They have been tested in 
many environments since then. Each module can be used stand alone 
or can feed General Ledger for a fully integrated system. 
CAPABILITIES: 

* menu driven; easy to use; full screen prompting and cursor control 

* invoice oriented; invoices can be entered before ready for billing, 
when ready for billing, after billing or after paid 

* allows entry of new invoice, credit memo, debit memo, or change/ 
delete invoice 

* allows for progress payment 

* transaction information includes: 

• type of A/R transaction • billing date 

• customer P.O. # • general ledger account number 

• description of P.O. • invoice amount 

• shipping/transportation charges 

• tax charges 

• payment 

■ progress payment information 

• transaction print & file maintenance procedures insure accuracy 

* customer statements printed; computer statements with your com- 
pay letterhead can be purchased from SBSG 

■* reports include: (samples on back) 

• listing of invoices not yet billed 

• open items (unpaid invoices) 

• closed items (paid invoices) 

• aging 

* fully linked to General Ledger; will post to applicable accounts; 
debit A/R, credits account you specify 



206 • 80 Microcomputing, April 1981 



H 



CQIVIPLJTHQI^ICS 



N 
C. 



• • •EVERYTHING FOR YOUR TRS-80 ••• 

TRS-SO Is a rrademark of Iht* Radio Shack nlvl.sloii of Tandy c:(>r|K>rarl()n 



PAYROLL 

Payroll invoices many complex calculations and the production of 
reports and documents, many of which are required by government 
agencies. It is an ideal candidate for the computer. With this Payroll 
system in-house,you can promptly and accurately pay your employees 
and generate accruate documents/ reports to management, employees, 
and appropriate government agencies concerning earnings, taxes, and 
other deductions. The package has been converted to the TRS-80'" and 
is now a well documented, op-line, interactive, micro-computer system 
with the capabilities of {or exceeding) many larger systems, 
CAPABILITIES: 

* performs all necessary payroll tasks including: 

• file maintenance, pay data entry and verification 

• computation of pay and deduction amounts 

• printing of reports and checks 

* can handle salaried and hourly employees 

* employees can receive: 

• hourly or salary wage 

• vacation pay 

• holiday pay 

• piecework pay 

• overtime pay 

* employees can be paid using any combination of pay types (except, 
hourly cannot receive salary and salary cannot receive hourly) 

* special non-taxable or taxable lump sums can be paid regularly or 
one time (bonus, reimbursements, etc) 

* healtfi and welfare deductions can be automatically calculated for 
each employee 

* earnings-to-date are accumulated and added to permanent records; 
taxes are computed and deducted: US income tax. Social Security 
tax, state income tax, other deductions (regular or one time) 

* paychecks are printed; computer checks with your company letter- 
head can be purchased from SBSG 

* calculations are accumulated for; employee pay history, 941A re- 
port, W-2 report, insurance report, absentee report 

* fully linked to General Ledger, Each employee's payroll information 
can be distributed to as many as (12) twelve different GL accounts; 
system automatically posts to cash account 



INVENTORY CONTROL/INVOICING 

* ISAM (Indexed Sequential Access Method) eliminates the necessity 
for time consuming sort, 

*■ Pre-A I located Files for IMMEDIATE updateand inquiry capabilities, 

* Fast Disk storage and retrieval. 

* Inventory Master Record includes. ,. class, .,SKU.,, Division,, Retail, , 
Cost. ..Beginning Balance. ..Period Sale Units,,, Period fleceipts...On 
Order.. On Hand. ..Minimum Reorder Point. ..Recommended Re- 
order Amount. ..Vendor Number. .Period Sale Dollars. ..YTD Sale 
Units. ,,YTD Sale Dollars, 

* Calculated and Displayed Formulas include,. Gross Margin ($).,. 
Gross Margin (%) , Gross Margin ROI (%)... Average Inventory Retail 
($)... Average Inventory Cost ($). ..Turn-Over (%) 

* Reports Generated include, ..Master File Listing , Class Description 
Listing ,. Transaction Audit Trail,,. Minimum Reorder Point by Ven- 
dor.., Retail Price List,. .Retail & Cost Price List , Period Sales Report 
., Year to Date Sales Report... Stock Status (Screen or printer output) 
...Commission Report (for salesmen and buyers). 

* Transaction Types include. ..Sales, Vendor Receipts,,, Vendor 
Orders , Customer Returns, .Vendor Returns,, .Transfer Stock. 



GENERAL LEDGER 

The General Ledger accounting system consolidates financial data 
from other accounting subsystems (A/R, A/P, Payroll, direct posting) in 
an accurateand timely manner. Major reports include the income State- 
ment and Balance Sheet and a "special" report designed by manage- 
ment. The beauty of this General Ledger system is that it is completely 
user formatted. You "customize" the account numbers, descriptions, 
and report formats to suit particular business requirements. These 
programs were developed 5 years ago for the Wang micro-computer 
and have been tested in many environments since then. The package 
has been converted to the TRS-80'" and is now a well documented, on- 
line, interactive micro-computer system with the capabilities of (or 
exceeding) many larger systems. 
CAPABILITIES: 

* more than 200 chart of accounts can be handled 

* account number structure is user defined and controlled 

* more than 1,750 transactions may be entered via: 

• direct posting; done by hand; validated against the account file 
before acceptance 

• external posting; generated by A/R, A/P, Payroll or any other 
user source 

* data is maintained and reported by: 

• month 

• quarter 

• year 

• previous three quarters 

* reports (samples on back) include: 

• trial balances 

• income statement 

• balance sheet 

• special accounts reports and more.. . 

* user formats reports with the following designated as you wish: 

• titles 

• headings 

• account numbers 

• descriptions 

• subtotals 

• totals 

• skip lines 

• skip pages 

* up to eight levels of totals - fully user designated 

■* menu driven; easy to use; full screen prompting and cursor control 



ICQIYlPJTHQMlCSi 



50 N, PASCACK ROAD 
SPRING VALLEY, NEW YORK 10977 



NEW TOLL-FREE 

ORDER LINE 

{OUTSIDE OF N.Y. STATE) 

(800) 431-2818 




HOUR 
24 ORDER 
LINE 

(914) 425-1535 



PRICING MOD-1 

VERSION 

ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE $125 

ACCOUNTS PAYABLE $125 

GENERAL LEDGER $125 

PAYROLL $125 

INVENTORY $175 

INVOICING $150 

COORDINATED INVENTORY/INVOICING ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE $449 

COORDINATED AR-AP-GL $375 

COORDINATED AR-AP-GL with PAYROLL $495 

EXTENDED COORDINATED AR-AP-GL INVOICING/INVENTORY with PAYROLL $799 



MOD-II 


MOD-III 


VERSION 


VERSION 


$225 


$199.95 


$225 


$199.95 


$225 


$199.95 


$225 


$199,95 


$275 


$199.95 


$250 


$199.95 


$749 


$599 95 


$675 


$599.95 


$899 


$799.95 


$1299 


$1199.95 



80 Microcomputing, April 1981 • 207 



CQIYIPUTHQWICS 



N 
C. 



• • • EVERYTHING FOR YOUR TRS-80 "• • • 

TRS-80 Ls a trBdemark of the Radio Shack Division of Tandy Corporation 



MICROSOFT BASIC COMPILER 

With TRS-80'" BASIC Compiler, your Level II programs will run at record speeds! 
Comfxied programs execute an average of 3-10 times faster than programs run under 
Level II. Make extensive use of integer operations, and get speeds 20-30 times faster 
than the interpreter. 

Best of all, BASIC Compiler does it with BASIC, the language you already know. 
By compiling the same source code that your current BASIC interprets, BASIC 
Compler adds speed with a minimum of effort. 

And you get more BASIC features to program with, since features of Micro- 
scrfl's Version 5.0 BASIC interpreter are included in the package. Features like the 
WH[LE...WEND statement, long variable names, variable length records, and the CALL 
statement make programming easier. An exclusive BASIC Compiler feature lets you 
call FX)RTRAN and machine language subroutines much more easily than in L-evei II. 

Simply type in and debug your program as usual, using the BASIC interpreter. 
Then enter a command line telling tfie computer what to compile and what options 
to use. 

Voila! Highly optimized, Z-80 macfiine code that your computer executes in a 
flash! Run it now or save it for later. Your compiled program can be saved on disk for 
direct execution every time. 

Want to market your programs? Compiled versions are ideal for distribution. 
You distribute only the object code, not the source, so your genius stays fully protected. 

BASIC Compiler runs on your TRS80'" Model I with 48K and disk drive. The 
package includes BASIC Compiler, linking k»der and BASIC library with complete 
documentation 1195.00 



1980 INCOME TAX PAC 

Completely Revised ■ Latest Tax Tables - Fully Tested - Complete Manual and Docu- 
mentation. The new version of the Income Tax Pacs are full of error catching codes 
making it impossible to make an error. Follow the simple Step By Step procedure that 
makes tax preparation simple. 

mCOME TAX PAC A (« 19.95.. .Cassette) 

For Level II 16K Cassette Only 
Does Fomn 1040 and 1040A 

■ Schedule A itemized deductions 

■ Schedule B interest and dividends 

■ Output to video display 

- Schedule TC tax computation 

DiCOME TAX PAC B M9.95...Cas8ette or Diskette) 

For Level II 1 6K with or without printer.. .cassette or disk has all features of Income Tax 
Pac A Plus works with or without line printer. 

■ Formats Fomi 1040 and 1040A for standard tax forms 

■ Schedule C income from a personally owned business 

■ Form 2106 employee business expense 

PROFESSIOriAL INCOME TAX PAC C «99.95..J>lskette 

For l_evel II 32K v/ith disk and printer (optional) 

Has all features of Income Tax Pac B Plus automatic memory storage for income tax 

preparers. 

■ 22 additional schedules and forms 

■ Fomiats forms for individual or tractor feed printing 

HOD II CPA VERSICm *199.95 



WINS 



AVERAGE PROFIT 



..^oDrtFTT —-« wins __« avejcauc KKuri i 
GUARANTEED PRO"' 91% puiQES 32% AT ALL TRACK8-1978 

SHOWS 

THE HORSE SELECTOR II (FLATS) (By Dr. Hal Davis *50.00 

New simplified versfcin of the original Horse Selector. The first Horse Selection System 

to actually calculate the estimated odds of each horse. 

HIGHER PROFITS (OVER lOOS) POSSIBLE TTiROaGH SELECTIVE BETTIMG OM: 

• Rates each horse in 10 seconds. 

• Easy to follow rules. 

• Can be used with any Apple U Computer. 

• 100% money back guarantee (retumed for any reason). 

• Uses 4 factors (speed rating, track variant, distance of the present race, distance of 
the last race). 

• CJsing the above factors, the Horse Selector calculates the estimated odds. BET 
on horses wtx)se actual payoff (from the Tote Board or Morning Lines) is higher 
tfian payoff based on estirriated odds. 

• Usir^ the above factors, the Horse Selector calculates the estimated odds. BET 
on any selected horse with an estimated payoff (based on Tote Board or Morning 
Unes) higher than cskrulated payoff (based on Horse Selector 11). 

• Source listing for the TT?&«)"", Tl-59, HP-67. HP-41 , Apple and BASIC Computers. 

• No computer or calculator necessary (although a caklulator \would be helpful for 
the simple dMslori used to cakrulate e^imated odds). 

FREE Dutdifaig Tables aUows betting on 2 or more horses with a guaranteed profit 



NEWDOS/80 

A New aihanced NEWDOS for TRSflO" Model 1 for the 1980's 

Apparat Inc.. announces the most powerful Disk Operating System for the 
TR&80'". It has been designed for the sophisticated user and prcrfessionalpnagrammer 
who demands the ultimate in disk operating systems. 

IHEWDOS/80 is not meant to replace the present version of NEWDOS 2. 1 
which satisfies most users, but is a carefully pbnned upward enhancement which 
significantly extends NEWDOS 2. I's capabilities. This new member to tiie Apparat 
NEWDOS' family is upward compatible with present NEWDOS 2. 1 and is supplied on 
Diskette, complete vinth enhanced NEWDOS -I- utility pnDgrams and documentation. 
Some of the NEWDOS/80 features are: 

• New BASIC commands that supports with variable record lengths up to 4095 
Bytes long. 

• New BASIC commands that supports with variable record lengths up to 4095 
Bytes long. 

• A^ or match disk drives. Supports any track count from ]8to80.Use35,40or 
77 track 5" mini disk drives or 8" disk drives, or any comttnation. 

• A security boot-up for BASIC or machine code application programs. User never 
sees "DOSREADV or "READY' and is unable to "BREAK", clear screen, or 
issue any direct BASIC statement including "LIST." 

• New editing commands that allow program lines to be deleted frcwn one kx:ation 
and moved to another or to allow the duplication of a program line with the 
deletion of the original. 

• Enhanced and improved RENUMBER that alk)ws relocation of subroutines. 

• Powerful program chaining. 

• Device hanging for routing to display and printer simultaneously. 

• CDE function; simultaneous strildng of the C. D and E keys will allow user to 
enter a mini-DOS to perform some DOS commands without disturbing the 
resident program. 

• Upward compatible with NEWDOS 2. 1 and TRSDOS 2.3. 

• Includes Superzap 3.0 and all Apparat 2.1 utilities. 
•149.00 



STOCK MARKET MONITOR 

Galactic Software Ltd. 

CASSETTE VERSION *89.00 

DISK VERSION *99.00 

1 . The system is designed for the active "trader" not the "long term" investor, as 
the system is "technically" oriented. 

2. For the TRS-80'" Model I, Level II, 16K or more. Available in both disk and tape 
versions. 

3. Tracks user selected issues, in a technical system that reflects the issue's 
performance against the overall market. 

4. Set up data is input by the user from the Standard and Poors stock guide or 
Value Line. 

5. Daily issue data, "high", "low", "close" and "volume" are input from any news- 
paper containing this information. 

6. Daily overall market, "volume" and "closing Dow" are also provided from a 
newspaper. 

7. Volume and price changes of an issue, as they compare to vdume an price 
changes of the overall market, are the basis of this system's analysis of the given 
issue. 

8. Comparisons of the issue against itself are also done. "Hiis me^ allow the user 
to spot "unusual" activity on this issue. 

9. Clear indications are given as to whether the issue is "out performing", "under 
performing" or "performing" with the market 

10. Complete video and printed output is provided. 

1 1 . This program is intended to be a guide to indications, and is r>ot to be used asa 
sole recommendation to buy, sell or hold an issue. These decisions are the 
responsibility of the user and his brokerage. 



MAIVCMATCJU. Af«^JCATlcrge Stt^flCS 



ORDER LINE 

(OUTSIDE OF N.Y. STATE) 

(800) 431-2818 



* AH orders processed 

u,ithir. 24-Hoti« rant- 

♦ 30-Day money baCK s" 
on all Software 



SO N. PASCACK ROAD 
SPRING VALLEY, NEW YORK 10977 
HOUR '^^^ 
ORDER ^^^ 
LINE ^^^ 
(914) 425-1535 

ADD S3.OO FOR SHIPPIMG IM UPS AREAS 
ADD S4.OO FOR C.O.D. OR NOIS-aPS AREAS 
ADD S5.OO OOTSIDE USA. CANADA & MEXICO 




208 • 80 Microcomputing, April 1981 



CQIYIPLITHQMICS 



N 
C. 



• • EVERYTHING FOR YOUR TRS-80' 

MODEL III 



* Alt orders processed within 24-Hours 
* 30'Duy money back quarar\tee on all TRSDOS Software 
* Add $2.00 for shippinsi in UPS Areo^i 
* Add $4.00 for cob. or NON-UPS Areas 
* Add $5.00 outside U.S.A.. Canada & Mexico 
* We will match onv bonafide advertised price 
in anyi of the Major Computer Magazines 



■ TRS-80 i« i Uidemiik ol T^ndy Corp. 



(1) GENERAL LEDGER, ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE, ACCOUNTS PAYABLE, PAYROLL, 

INVENTORY CONTROL AND INVOICING (Small Business G^oup) an extensive business 
system lor Itie seiious user can be used one module at a time or as a coorflinated system 
$199.9S per module 11199,95 tor Itie complete system ' 



(2) MASTER PAC 100 

STATISTICS MATH 



100 essential 
GAMBLING 



programs 
GAMES 



BUSINESS . PERSONAL FINANCE 
includes 125 page manual and 5 diskettes 
SS3.95 



(3) BUSINESS PAC 100 100 essential business programs INVEMTORY CONTROL PAY- 
ROLL BOOKKEEPING SYSTEM STOCK CALCULATIONS CHECKBOOK MAINTEN- 
ANCE.. ACCOUNTS RECEIVABLE ACCOUNTS PAYABLE .includes 125 page manual 
and live diskelles $99.95 

(4) INFORMATION SYSTEM [The Bottom Shelf). An in-memory inlormation system tor small 
mailing lists, inventories |i e. books, articles, records, program reference liles) Can be used 
tor anything ibat you would use rolodex or index card files Up to ten user define tields 
Programmable printouts tor rolodex cards, mailing labels, etc . Will identity all records that 
cohtai.n a group ot characters you've entered even iT thai group is in the middle o( a line Sorts 
data base by any field $49.50' 

(5) DATA MANAGER II (The Boltom Shell) RANDOM ACCESS Disk based DATA MANAGE- 
MENT SYSTEM (Similiar to INFORMATION SYSTEM above.. but RANDOM ACCESS 
STORAGE expands the amount of storage space available) .. Used to replace index cards for 
medium si;ed mail lists, inventories, personnel records, sales prospects, etc . Uses up to four 
disk drives on line Up to twenty user defined fields, programmable printouts for rolodex 
cards, etc .will identify all records that contain a group of characters you've entered even il 
that group is in the middle ol a line., .maintain up to 5 changeable presorted "key" files.... 
variable length random records (the smaller the record you define, the more records yu can 
store] S99.95- 

(6] BUSINESS MAIL SYSTEM (The Bollom Shelf) Handles large mailing lists (up to 150,000 
names) . supports 3 Or 4 line addresses . files automaiically in zip code order, alphabetical 
witliin zip code, formats for 1 to 4 across mailing labels ...supports quick disk location ol 
single or multiple names .meets all industry and postal standards numeric code fields 
included for punting selected records $125,00' 

(7) ANALYSIS PAD (The Bottom Shelf) .A Columnar Calculator for financial analysis, line item 
budgeting, cost analysis, sales analysis and almost any financial function (and many statistical 
functions) create matrixes ol 29 '39 . make all entries at one time either by row or column. . 
add. delete, move or switch columns and rows edit any data Irom lull screen display. . add, 
subtract, multiply and divide one column by another and put results in designated column (up 
to SIX calculations can be made and placed in designated column) ...define columns as con- 
stants save calculations and formulas on disk . results can be printed in a variety of report 
formsts $99.95' 

(8) CHECKBOOK II (The Bottom Shelf) A complete in memory checkbook balancing and 
reconcillialion program live column keyboard input with 5 characters for check number, 16 
for payee. 4 lor code numerical sort routine S49.50' 

(9) CHECK REGISTER ACCOUNTING SYSTEM (The Bottom Shelf) .A complete random access 
ctieckbook system set and delme up to 60 accounts with as many income accounts as you 
Choose complete checkbook balancing and reconcillialion. single entry input where 
transaction can be dispersed over several accounts enables user to make a64-character note 
on each transaction .print out your own check after data entry pnnls monthly summaries of 
each account with month and year-lo-date totals . create a suspense lile to remind you of 
coming expenses. Reports generated included Check Register (lor any month), notes to 
Check Register. Income/Expense Distribution Report, Statement ol Selected Accounts, Bank 
Reconcile Statement, Suspense File and Full Account Distribution Statemeni $74.95* 

(10) LIBRARY 100 (The Bottom Shell) 100 Programs on a broad range of topics Finance 

Education Graphics Home Games. ..CASSETTE VERSION $49.50 

DISK VERSION S74.95 

(11| ADVENTURE (by Scott Adams) A senes ol games (for ages 10-99) .wander through en- 
chanted worlds seeking treasures 1 Adventureland 2 Pirate's Adventure 3 Mission 
Impossible Adventure... 4. Voodoo Caslle 6 The Count.... 6 Strange Odyssey 7 Mystery 
Fun House 8 Pyramid ol Doom.... 9 Ghost Town .(#1 and #2 recommended lor Ihe movie 
adventure). Each adventure $14.95 (|on cassette) . Diskette versions sold in groups ol three 
at $39.95 per three programs (#1 - #3. S4 - #6. i>7 - 09). 

(12) HORSE SELECTOR II (Or Hal Davis).. . New simplified version ol the original Horse Selector 
(for Hats) The first Horse Selection System to actually calculate the estimated oils tor each 
horse easy to follow rules ..uses 4 factors (speed rating, track variant, distance ol the 
present race, distance of the last race) . ..calculated estimated odds ..FREE DUTCHING 
TABLES allows betting on 2 or more horses with a guaranteed profit $50.00 

(13) MON-3 and MON-4 (Howe Software) Powerful utility programs enabling you to interact 
directly with your TflS-BO in MACHINE LANGUAGE ..The monitor comes with complete 
40- page instruction manual making it useful for both the beginner and advanced programmer . 
simple commands make it easy to use lunclions include DISPLAY, DISASSEMBLE, MOVE 
and COMPARE, SEARCH, MODIFY, RELOCATE. PRINT. READ and WRITE, UNLOAD, SAVE 
and READ, INPUT and OUTPUT, SEND and RECEIVE. .UON-3 $39.95 (for cassette)... 
WON-4 $49.95 (for disk) 



(14) SMART TERMINAL (Howe Software) 
to a time sharing computer system 



enables your TRS-S 



) to be used as a remote terminal 
$59.95 



(15) FAST SORT (Howe Software)., a series of machine-language subroutines to sort data Irom 
BASIC programs data may be alphabetic (string] or numeric ..easily interlaced with your 
BASIC programs (no machine language knowledge is necessary) $9.95 

(16) MAILING LIST (Howe Sottware) . maintains mailing lists ol over 1000 names . commands 
allow adding, changing, deleting, and finding names Sorting is done in machine language 
subroutine . labels printed in 1. 2 or 3 columns $69.95 

(17) HOME BUDGET (Howe Sollware) ....combines the maintenance ol your checkbook with 

analysis ol your income, expenses and monthly bills Handles data including bills, income, 
deposits, checks and debits to your checking account, and cash expenses. Computes check- 
book balance, list ol unpaid bills, monthly and year-to-date summaries ol income and expenses 
showing income tax deductions. All output printed on video display or line printer comes 
with complete instructions manual $49.95' 

(18) SMALL BUSINESS ACCOUNTING (Howe Sollware) . Based on the DOME BOOKKEEPING 
SYSTEM keeps track ol all income, expenditures and payroll lor a small business of up to 16 

employees .income and expenditures can be entered on a daily, weekly or monthly basis . .. 
computes monthly and year to date totals ...manual contains complete mslrucilons lor custom- 
ization Cassette version $29.95 ..Diskette version $49.95 



(19) HEMODEL-PROLOAD (Racel Computes) 
one part ol a program to another 



..Renumber program lines 



move statements Irom 
$34.95 



(20) GSF (Racet Computes) ..Lightning last m-memory machine language sort utility that can be 
made part of your BASIC progams without any machine language knowledge .. includes 
several other utilities to speed up your BASIC programs no machine knowledge necessary 
to use GSF in your BASIC programs $30. M 



(21) DOSORT (Racet Computes) 
on multiple disk dnves 



includes GSF (above) . extends Ihe 



nory sort to sorts 
$45.00- 



(22} COPSYS (Racet Computes] . allows the user to make copies of machiries language cassettes 
without any knowledge ol machine language $20.00 

(23) COMRPOC (Racet Computes), .an auto load program for disk users allows the user to 
insert a diskette inio their MOD-lll and have the computer take over all loading ...load a 
machine language program, BASIC, RIJN a certain program all without pressing a single button 

allows your computer to perform 10, 20, 30 or more functions without pressing a single 
button $30.00* 

(24) INFINE BASIC (Racet Computes) . adds a variety of machine language subroutines to your 
BASIC programs (without any machine language knowledge) .last sorts . .matnx operations 

compress and uncompress data, and more $60.00 

(25) INFINITE BUSINESS (Racet Computes). ...an add on package to INFINITE BASIC. ..adds a 

variety ol roulines important to the businessman (increase accuracy of calculations and more) 

$30.00 

(26) DMS (Racet Computes) lightning last machine language sort sorts up to 4 disk drives ot 
information $90.00* 

(27) BLINK (Racet Computes) . allows you to RUN new programs without losing the variables 
stored in your previous program . line many programs together without losing important 
variables $30.00' 

(28) KFS-BO (Racet Computes] ...now you can use ISAM (Index Sequential Access Files) on your 
MOD-ill using ISAM in your BASIC programs allows instant access ol your ilems in your 
data liles use with mail programs .inventory programs... etc. $100.00* 

(29) MAIL LIST (Racet Computes]. . .all routines are in machine language allowing lor quick 
access $75.00 

■ FOR DISK ONLY 



'CQIYIPUTHQl;^ICS! ^» 



■viaT-k«*.iaTjiL flJ*^ t^'T"r>, 



50 N. PASCACK ROAD 
SPRING VALLEY. NEW YORK 10977 



NEW TOLL-FREE 

ORDER LINE 

(OUTSIDE OF NY. STATE) 

(800) 431-2818 



--^ ^ ^ ^ HOUR 
^^S\24 ORDER 
LINE 

(914) 425-1535 




f'See List ol Advertisers on page 306 



80 Microcomputing, April 1981 • 209 



RECREATION 



See if you get the point of this programming exercise. 



The Dot Game 



Arthur J. Welctier 
360 S. Wetherly Drive 
Beverly Hills CA 90211 



If you really want to learn how 
to program, write a game," 
said my experienced friend 
when I took delivery of my 
TRS-80. 

I began to visualize knights on 
hotseback, castles with hun- 
dreds of rooms, fields of men 
and artillery, airplanes and roc- 
ket ships in the skies, and I 
could see what my friend was 
talking about! 

I shall not fait into the trap of 
endless revising, I thought. I 
shall select a simple game for 
my first attempt. An old stand- 
by, maybe some graphics just to 
make it interesting. I finally 
came up with the Dot Game. It 
hasn't been overdone, in fact, it 
has been almost forgotten! It 
has pre-planned moves, and 
easy graphics; perfect! 

Remember the Game? 

In case you don't remember, 
the game of connecting the dots 
goes like this: Each player takes 
a turn where he draws a line to 



connect two adjacent dots, ei- 
ther vertical or horizontal. If you 
are able to complete a simple 
box with your line, you score a 
point and receive another turn. 
Whoever has the most boxes 
when the game board has been 
completed, with all dots con- 
nected, is the winner. 

To begin, lay out the game 
board in lines 5000 to 5170. 

First, you must establish the 
move subroutine in line 2000 to 
3040 depending on whether it is 
a horizontal or vertical move. 
For a vertical move, go from the 
top coordinate to the bottom co- 
ordinate and from the left coor- 
dinate to the right for a hori- 
zontal move. 

Also, when the letter of the co- 
ordinate is entered it must be 
followed by a comma, and then 
the number. For example: a le- 
gitimate horizontal move, going 
from left to right, would be B, 3 
ENTER to B, 4 ENTER. A legit- 
imate vertical move, going from 
top to bottom, would be C, 7 
ENTER to D, 7 ENTER. 

This works, and I settled for it, 
but you don't have to. You could 
modify the program to take the 
coordinates without the comma 
using a VAL(RIGHT$(X$,1) and 
VAL(LEFT$(X$,1) or you could 
modify it so that it is possible to 
enter it right to left as well (IF 



M>N THEN N1 = N:M1 = M: 
M-N1:N-M1). 

After each move, we go to the 
scoring subroutine at lines 5500 
to 5520. This subroutine checks 
to see if the line can complete a 
box. In the case of a horizontal 
line, the box above and the box 
below the move are scanned by 
using the Point command to see 
if a line exists for each of the 
other three sides. For a vertical 
move, the program uses the 
same process to determine pos- 
sible boxes to the left and right 
of the entered line. 

If you have a completed box, a 
score will tally and you will be re- 
turned to line 5179 to make an- 
other move. At the end of your 
moves, the score will register on 
the board, and it will become the 
opponent's move. 

Originally for Two 

I originally wrote this program 



for two players, but I decided 
that if the computer could scan 
your move, it could also take the 
move to complete a box. IE the 
computer cannot make a box, it 
would take a random move. All 
of this happens in lines 5522 to 
7166. 

This routine was written to 
start its scan at coordinate A, 1. 
The computer takes a few mo- 
ments to scan the entire board 
looking for a box to complete. 
This works well, so I settled for 
it. But I have used a little logic 
since then, and decided that the 
scan need only start one line 
above, and one row to the left of 
the last move in order to dis- 
cover if your move created three 
sides of a box. if you begin to 
tire waiting for the computer to 
make its move, try making this 
change in the program yourself. 

I hope you have as much fun 
with it as I did.B 



5 


CLS 




6 


Z = 




7 


T=0:O=0:S=1 




10 


PRINT"TH1S IS THE GAME OF 


CONHECTING DOTS" 


20 


IHPUT"ENTEB PLAYER 1 HERE 


!A$ 


25 


INPUT"IF YOU WANT TO PLAY 
2"; A 


THE COMPUTER ENTER 1 ELSE 


27 


ON A GOTO32,30 




30 


INPUT"ENTEB PLAYKR 2 HERE 


;BS 


31 


GOTO100 




32 


Z=1:BS="C0MPUTER" 


Program continues 



210 • 80 Microcomputing, April 1981 



Games from BIG FIVE will turn your computer into a 

TRS-80 HOME ARCADE 



SUPER 
NOVA® 




GALAXY 
INVASION® 




ATTACK 
FORCE® 



COSMIC 
FIGHTER® 




METEOR 
MISSION II® 





"ses*.- 



NEW 
JOYSTICKS! 



If you and your TRS-80 bavelongedfora fast-paced arcade-type game that is 
truly a chailenge, then SUPER NOVA is what you've been waiting for. In this 
two player machine-language game, large asteroids float ominously around the 
screen. Suddenly your ship appears and you must destroy the asteroids before 
they destroy you! (But watch out because big asteroids break apart into little 
ones.) The controls that your ship will respond to are thrust, rotate, hyperspace, 
and fire. All right! You've done it! You've cleared away all the asteroids! But what 
is that saucer with the laser doing? Quick! You must destroy him fast because that 
guy's accurate! 

The sound of the klaxon is calling you! Cruel and crafty invaders have been 
spotted in battle formation warping toward Earth at an incredible speed. Suddenly, 
your ship materializes just below the huge flock of invaders. Quickly and skillfully 
you shift right and left as you carefully fire your lasers at them. But watch out! A 
few are breaking out of the convoy and flying straight at you! As the whine of their 
engines gets louder, you place your finger on the fire button knowing all too well 
that this shot must connect — or your mission will be permanently over! With 
sound effects! 

Your TRS-80 screen has been transformed into a maze-like playfield for this 
game. As your ship appears on the bottom of the screen, eight alien ramships 
appear on the top. All of them are traveling at flank speed directly at you! Quickly 
and boldly you move toward them and fire missiles to destroy them. But the more 
aiiens you destroy, the faster the remaining ones become. If you get too good you 
must endure the wrath of the keeper of the mazefield: the menacing "Flagship". 
Vou must destroy him fast because, as you will find out, that guy's accurate! With 
sound effects! 

With thousands of stars whizzing by you, your SPACE DESTROYER ship 
conies out of hyperspace directly under a convoy of aliens. Almost effortlessly, 
you skillfully destroy every last one. But before you can congratulate yourself, 
another set appears. These seem to be slightly more intelligent than the first set. 
Quickly you eliminate all of them, too. But your fuel supply is rapidly diminishing. 
You must still destroy two more sets before you can dock with your space station. 
All right! The space station is now on your scanners! Oh no! Intruders have 
overtaken the station! You must skillfully fire your neutron lasers to eliminate the 
intruders from the station before your engines run out of fuel and explode! With 
sound! 

As you look down on your space viewer you can see the stranded astronauts 
that are crying out for you to rescue them. But first you must maneuver your 
shuttle down through the asteroids & meteors before you can reach them. Great! 
You've got one! But now can you get back to the space station to save your fellow 
shipmate or will you crash and kill both of you? You can fire your lasers to destroy 
the asteroids, but watch out, because there couid be an alien FLAGSHIP lurking 
behind! Includes sound effects! 

For 339.95 it's now possible to have the famous ATARI joystick interfaced 
with your Model 1, All of our tapes are now completely compatible with the 
joystick. Packaged with complete instructions, you can even use it with your own 
programs! If your old tapes do not say "Joystick Version" on them and you wish 
to exchange them for new Joystick versions, enclose S2 and your old tape. (Call 
or write for info on Mod 3 joysticks.) 



BIG FIVE SOFTWARE 

P.O. Box 9078-185, Van Nuys, California 91409 

For MC/Visa or COO orders, call (213) 782-6861 from 9am-5pm Pacific time. 



^m 



Prices per game; Level 2, 16K Mod l./Mod 3— S15.95 
Level 2, 16K Mod 1 /Disk— S17.95 
10% discount for 2 items, 15% for 3 or more. (Including Joystick) 
Piease add SI. 50 postage/handling, Calif, residents add 6% tax. 
All games are written in machine language and supplied on cassette. 
Disk versions save high scores to your TRSOQS or NEWDOS diskette. 



Cassette versions require 16K memory, disk versions require 32K. 

We accept checks, money orders, and MC/Visa orders. 

All games ©1980 by Bill Hogue & JeH Konyu. 

TRS-80 & TRSDQS ate trademarks of Tandy Corp. 

NEWDOS is a trademark of Apparat, Inc. 

Dealer inquiries invited. 



40 CLS 

1000 KEC. 

1010 A=10 : B = 13 : C = 16 :D = 19:E = 22:F = 25:G=28: 11^31: 1 = 34 :J = 37 

1020 K=22+( |K-1)*8] 

1025 GOTO5000 

1070 REM If M-N>1 THEN5180 

1080 REM IF P-L>3 THEN5180 

1090 IF 1M>N}AND (P=L) THEN2000 

1100 IF (M=N)AND {P>L) THEN3000 

2000 K=22+(H-l)*a 

2005 FOB X=K TO K+8 

2010 SET(X,L) 

2020 HEXTX 

2030 GOSUB5185 

2040 GOTO5500 

3000 FOR Y=L TO L+3 

3 010 SET(22+1(N-1)*8) ,Y) 

3020 NEXTY 

3030 GOSUB51B5 

3040 GOT05515 

5000 REM.GAMf] BOARD 

5001 CLS 
5050 

5070 FOR W = 1 TO 10 

5080- PHINTei33 +4*W,W; 

5090 NEXTVJ 

5110 PRINT@196,"A":PRINTP26 0,"B":PRI[JT@324,"C":PRINT(a3 

88, "D":PRINT9452, "E" 
5120 PRINT@516,"F":PRINT(3580,"G":PRINT(?6 44,"ll":PRINTia7 

08,"I":PRIHTia772,"a" 

5130 FORY^IB TO 37 STEP3 

5140 FORX=22 TO 94 STEP 8 
5150 SET(X,Y1 

5160 NEXT X 

5170 NEXT Y 
517 5 PRIKT@0, "SCORE " AS , T ; TAB ( 40 ) ; B$ ; 

5176 :F(Z=1}AND (S=2)=-1 THEM5185 

5177 A=10:B=13:C=16:D=19:R=22:F=25:G=28:H=31:I=34:J=37 

5178 IF S=2 THEN5183 

5179 DEFIHT L , P : PRINT@89G , " 

5180 PRINTy896 ,AS; " 'S TURN ""NUMBER-LETTER"; : INPUTN 
,LS 

5181 L=[ASC(LS)-57)+2*(ASC(L5)-64) 

5182 GOTO5190 

5183 PRINT@896 ,BS; " 'S TURN" , "NUMBER-LETTER" ; : INPUTN, 
LS 

5184 L={ASC(L?)-57)+2*(ASC(L$)-64) :GOTO5190 

5185 PRIWT@898 ,BS;"'S TURN - LET ME TAKE A LOOK": RE 
TURN 

5190 PRINT@896, " " , "END NUMBER-LETTER" ; : INPUTM.PS 

5191 P=(ASC(PS)-57)+2*(ASC(PS)-64) 
5:;00 GOTO1B70 

5490 CLS 

5500 REM 

5501 IF POINT(23+(N-l]*8,L)AND POI NT ( 23 + ( N-1 ] *a , L+3 ) =-1 

THEN5509 
5503 IF POINT(23+(N-l)*B,L)AND POI NT { 23 + (K-1 ) *8 , L-3 j =- 

1 THEN5 512 
5506 GOTO5600 
5509 le POINT{22+(H-l]*8,L+l)AND POl NT { 22+N*8 , L+I ] =^-1 

THEN5522 
5512 IF POINT(22+ (N-1) *8,L-1) AND POI NT ( 22+N* 8 , L-1 ) =-1 



TilEN5522 
5513 GOTO5600 

5515 IF POINT(22+(N-l]*8,L+l>AND POINT | 22+N* 8 , T,+] ] =-1 
THEN5518 

5516 IF POIKT(22+(N-l) *8,Lt1)AMD POl NT 1 22+ 1N-2 ) *B , L+1 ) 
=-1 THEN5519 

5517 GOTO5600 

5518 IF P0INT(23+(N-1)*8,L)AND POINT (23+ (N-1) *8 , L+3) =-1 

THEN5522 

5519 IF POINT(23+{N-2)*8,L] AND POINT ( 23+ { N-2 ) *8 , L+3 ] =- 
1 THEN5522 

5520 GOTO5600 

5522 IF S=l THENT=T+l:GOT05175 

5525 IF|Z=1)AND 1£=2)=-1 THEN0=0+1 : GOTO6000 

5530 IF S = 2 T[iEKO = 0+l: + 5175 

5600 IF(Z=1)AND (S=l)=-1 THEN5660 

5601 IF(Z = 1)AND (S = 2)=-l T11EN5650 
5605 IF S=l THEN5640 

5610 IF S=2 THEN5650 
5640 S=2:GOT05175 
5650 S=l:GOT05175 
5660 S=2:GOTO6000 

6000 A=0:B = 0:C = 0:D^0:E = : F = : fl = : 1 = : J=^ : G=0 

6001 S=2 

6005 FOR Y=10 TO 34 STEP 3 
6010 FOR X=22 TO 86 STEP 8 

6015 A=X+1 

6016 B=(X-14]/8 
6040 E=POINT(A,yj 
6050 F=P0INT(X,Y+1) 
6060 G=P0INT(X+8,Y+11 
6070 H=P0INT(A,Y+3) 

6090 IF (E=-1)AND (F=-1)AND (G=-1)AND (U=-l)=-l TnEN62 



6100 IF(E=-1]AND (F^-l)AND (G=-l)=-l THENN=B : L=Y+3 : M=li 

+8:P=Y+3:GOTO1090 
6120 IF(E=-1)AND 1F=-1)AND 

+1:P=Y+3:GOTO1090 
6130 IF(E=-1)AND (G=-1)AND 

=Y+3:GOTO1090 

6140 IF(F=-1)AND (C=-1)AND 

:P=y:GOTO1090 

IF(E=-1)AMD (F=-l)=-l 

IF(E=-1)AND (G=-l)=-l 

IF(E=-11 AND ((1 = -1)=-1 



6175 
6180 
6190 
6200 
6210 
6220 
6225 
6230 
6240 
5250 
6260 
6261 
6265 
6270 
7160 
7161 
7165 
7166 



IF(F=~1)AND (G=-l)=-l THEN6240 

IF1F=-1)AND (H=-l)=-l THEN6240 

IF(G=-1]AND (H=-l)=-l THEN6240 

IF (E=-l) THEN6240 

IF[F=-1) TnEN6240 

NEXTX 

NEXTY 

N=RND(9) 

L=RND(9) *3 +10 

A=10:B=13:C=]6 : 0=19 : E=22 : F=25 : G=; 

GOTO109O 

N=B:L=Y:M=B+8:P=Y 

GOTO1090 

N=B:L=Y:M=B:P=Y+3 

GOTO1090 



(Ii = -l)=-.l THENN=B+1;L-Y:H=B 

(B = -l)=-l THENN = BrL = Y:t1 = B:P 

{H=-l)=-l THENN=B:L=Y:M=B+8 

TIIEN6240 
THEN6240 

THEN624( 



i:H=31:I=34:J=37 



Program Listing 1 




i 



HOMES £or TRS-80 

(CuMom furnilura (w MODELS I, II, and III) 



Homes for TRS-80, is the unique custom 
furniture liiic that converts the Radio Shack 
modular computer system into one homo- 
genious unit. Available in a high quality, com- 
mercia! and economy series, the basic custom 
corner desk consoles provide total built-in 
capabilities for the TRS-80 keyboard, inter- 
face, monitor, and cassette. Options are 
available for buildinp in accessories such as: 
Stringy Moppy's, Disk Drives, Screen Prin- 
ters, and Line Primers. 



FEATURES 

One Homogeneous Unit 
Built-in Accessories 
Arm Rest Cushion 
Copy Shelf 
Typewriter Height 



/VE 



AUDIO- VIDEO 
46 SYSTEMS 

3485 Autumnvaf* Dr. San Jot*, CA. 95132 




ContoUi ltom|l3B.09, Slancti (rMnlflO.OO 



FOR 24 HOUR INFORMATION 
PHONE 408-946-1265 




212 • 80 Microcomputirig, April 1981 






The 225% Solution. 



TRS-80 MODEL I UPGRADE 

•Registered Trademark of Tandy ■ • ■ ^^ ^^ ^^ ^^ ■ ^^ ■ ^M ■ m« bM^ ^H 

If you're tired of waiting for 
your TRS-80* and need more 
processing power but don't 
need the hassels of changing 
software, the MicroC PCP may be 

Simply plug the MicroC PCP into the keyboard expansion port. 
No installation. No traces to cut. No holes to drill. No wires to 
solder. Not a mere clock mod but a whole new 4 MHz Z-80A CPU 
and support circuitry. Programs run reliably more than twice as 
fast (2.25 times faster) at the SAME CLOCK SPEED AS THE 
MODEL II. Special proprietory circuitry speeds RAM accesses. 
Automatic slowdown circuitry slows the processor to normal 
speed during disk accesses, with override for 4 MHz disk 
operation. System desk models now available. 

SEE US IN NEW YORK 



r "■"- .t, ^- 




• * BOOTH 38 • • 

NATIONAL TRS-80 MICROCOMPUTER SHOW 
MAY 21, 22, 23 

ASK ABOUT OUR NEW DISTRIBUTOR POLICY 



Send Check for: 

$229 

includes shipping 

and handling 

VISA, Master Charge, CO.D. 



To: MicroCompatible Inc. 

p. O, Box 106 

Scaly Mt,, N, C, 28775 

(704)526-2782 

8:00 a,m, to9:00 p,m. EST 

^252 



CONVERT YOUR SERIAL PRINTER TO PARALLEL 



NtVV MODFI. UPI-"1 SbKlAi PRINTER INTfRFACL 
MAKbS IT POSSIBLE TO CONNECT AN ASCII SERIAI 
PRINTER TO THE PARAI 1 EL PRINTER PCJRTCN THE 
rKS-80, 

Software Lompdlihility problem^ art.' lolaliy I'linu- 
naled because the TRS-80 "THINKS" that it fia^ a 
parallel printer attached. NO MACHINE LANGUAGE 
DRIVER NEEDS TO BE LOADED INTO HIGH MEM- 
ORY BECAUSE THE DRIVER ROUTINE FOR THE 
UPI-3 ISALREADYINTHE LEVEL II ROM! SCRIPSIT, 
PENCIL, RSM 2, STfiOD. NFVVDCJS, FORTRAN, 
BASIC etc, all work as it "a parallel printer was in use 

The UPI-3 h complelely sell tuntained and ready to 
use. A 34 conductor edge card connector plugs onto 
the parallel printer port of the model I Expansion Inter- 
face or onto the parallel printer port on the TRS-80 III. 
A DB25 socket mates with the cable frt;m your serial 
printer. The UPI-3 converts the parallel output of the 
TRS-80 printer port into serial data in both the 
RS232-C and 20 MA. loop formats. 



SPEEDWAY ELECrRONICS 
I i.>4 AUBURN ^275 

SPEEDWAY, IN 46224 



Also available trortn 
YE ODDt SHCJPPE 
(M7) 925-0496 



VISA MasterCard 




DB2.-,S 



S4 Ciinilue lor 
Ediif Card 



Switch selectable options include: 

• Linefeed after Carriage Return 

• Handshake polarity (RS232-C) 

• Nulls after Carriage Return 

• 7 or 8 Data Bits per word 

• I or 2 Stop Bits per Word 

• Parilv or No p.irity 

• OD[) or EVEN Parity 

Price IS $139, 9rj plus $4.00 shipping US, $15,00 
Foreign. SPECIFY BAUD RATE 1 ! TO 4800 WHEN 
ORDERING. The manual lor the UPI-."; is available for 
$5,00 postpaid. 

Our printer inlerface lor ihe H14 is still available at 
$29,9'") plus $2,00 S^H. Installation requires solder- 
ing. See ad Oct 80 p, 189 



J- See List ot Advertisers on page 306 



80 Microcomputing, April 1981 •213 



APPLICATION 



If you have the bucks, this check writing routine is good to $999,999.99. 



Endorse It 





Arthur J. Welcher "What do you put in?" 1 asked. 


Program Listing 1 


360 S. Wetherly Drive "Everything," he answered. 




Beverly Hills, CA 90211 "Why not just spindle a blank 


10000 CLEAR500:1NPUT''DOLLARS AND CENTS";XS 


check into your printer and type 


10005 P6S-"":P5S-"":P4S="":P3$="":P2S="":P1$="" 
10010 PBS="." 


out the check?" 1 asked. 


10020 L =INSTR(XS,PBS) 


"You sound just like my wife," 


10030 XAS^LEPTS(XS,L) :XBS=RIGHTS (XS,2) : PCS=XBS+ "/100 " 
10040 ON L-1 GOTO 10150,10140,10130,10120,10110,10100 


11 fly friend was telling about he answered, and walked away. 


10090 REM DIGITAL SEPARATION 


Iwlhis latest acquistion, a It got me thinking about in- 


10100 X6S=MIDS(XA5,L-6,1] 
10110 X5$=MIDS(XA5,L-5,1) 


check writing program. 1 asked eluding a check writing program 


10120 X4S=MIDS(XAS,L-4,1) 
10130 X3S=HID${XAS,L-3,1] 


him what it did, and got the ob- as a part of my own General Led- 


10140 X2S=MIOS(XA5,L-2,l) 


vious answer, "It writes checks!" ger program. After all, my cur- 


10150 X1S-MIDS(XA5,L-1,1) 




10170 ON L-1 GOTO 10450,10400,10350,10300,10250 




,10200 




10189 ON L-1 GOSUB 106 0,106 50,107 00,107 50,10800,1085 L 




10190 END 




10200 X6=VAL[X6S) 




10210 ON X6 GOSUB11001, 11002, 11003, 11004, 11005, 11006 ,11 


10915 P2$=PP$:P1S="" 


007,11008,11009,11010 


10920 GOTO10180 


10220 P6S=PS+"HUNDRED " 


10930 X4 =VAL(X4S):IF X4 = THEN P5S = ''TEN " : P4 S = "" ;G0T01 


10250 X5=VAL(X5S) :P0S="" 


0320 


10260 ON X5 GOSUB10930, 12002, 12003, 12004, 12005, 12006, 12 


10935 ON X4G0SUB 13001,13002,13003,13004,13005,13006,13 


007,12008,12009,12010 


007,13008,13009 


10270 P5S=P0S 


10940 P5S=PPS:P4S="" 


10300 X4=VAL(X4S) :PS ="" 


10945 GOTO10320 


10310 ON X4 GOSUB 11001,11002,11003,11004,11005,11006,1 


11000 REM 


1007,11008,11009,11010 


11001 PS="0NE "iRETURN 


10320 P4S=PS +"TH0USAND " 


11002 PS="TW0 "iRETURN 


10350 X3=VAL{X3S) : IF X3=0 THEN10400 


11003 P5^"THREE ":RETURN 


10360 ON X3 GOSUB 11001,110 02,11003,11004,11005,11006,1 


11004 P9^"F0UR ":RETURH 


1007,11008,11009,11010 


11005 P9 ="FIVE ":RETURN 


10370 P3S=PS+"HUNDRED ":PS="" 


11006 PS ="SIX "iRETURN 


10400 X2=VAL{X2S) :P0S^"" 


11007 PS ="SEVEN "tRETURN 


10410 ON X2 GOSUB 10905,12002,12003,12004,12005,12006,1 


11008 PS ^-EIGHT "iRETURN 


2007,12008,12009,12010 


11009 PS ="NINE "iRETURN 


10420 P2S=P05 


11010 PS="" :RETURN 


10450 X1=VAL[X1$) :PS="" 


12001 P0S="TEN ":RETURN 


10460 ON XI GOSUB 110 01,110 02,11003,11004,11005,11006,1 


12002 P0S="TWENTY ": RETURN 


1007,11008,11009,11010 


12003 P0S = "T11IRTY "iRETURN 


10470 P1$=P? 


12004 P0S="FORT¥ ":RETURN 


10480 GOTO10ia0 


12005 P0S="FIFT¥ "iRETURN 


10600 PR1NTP1S;"AND ";PCS 


12006 P0S="SIXT¥ ":RETURN 


10610 RETURN 


12007 P0S="SEVENTY " iRETUBN 


10650 PRINTP2S;P1S:"AND ";PC$ 


12008 P05="EIGHTY ":RETURN 


10660 RETURN 


12009 P0S="NINETy ":RETURN 


10700 PRINTP3S;P2S;P1S;"AND ";PCS 


12010 P0S="":RETURK 


10710 RETURN 


13000 REM TEENS 


10750 PRINTP4S;P3S;P2S;P1S; "AND ";PCS 


13001 PPS="ELEVEN "iRETURN 


10760 RETURN 


13002 PPS="TWELVE ":RETURN 


10800 PRINTP5$;P4S;P3S;P2S;P1S; "AND "PC5 


13003 PPS="THIRTEEN ":RETURN 


10810 RETURN 


13004 PPS="FOURTEEN ":RETURN 


10850 PRINTP6$;P5S;P4S;P3S;P2S;P1S;"AND "PCS 


13005 PPS="FIFTEEN "iRETURN 


10860 RETURN 


13006 PP$="SIXTEEN ":RETURN 


10905 X1=VAL(X1$) :IF X1=0 THKN P2S="TEN " : PI S= " " :GOTO10 


13007 PPS="SEVENTEEN ":RETURN 


180 


13008 PPS="EIGHTEEN ":RETURN 


10910 ON XI GOSUB 13001,13002,13003,13004,13005,13006,1 


13009 PPS="NINETEEN ":RETURN 


3007,13008,13009 


13010 PPS="TEN ":RETURH 



214 • 80 Microcomputing, April 1981 



rent program makes all the cal- 
culations for payroll checks and 
accepts the entry of accounts 
payable checks. Why isn't check 
writing a part of any program of 
this kind? 

One look at a blank check im- 
mediately gave me the answer. 
The blank check calls for the 
check number, the date, the pay- 
ee, my signature, and the amount 
in two places, once in Arabic 
number form and again in En- 
glish word form. Thats it! 

Most programs are confined 
to mathmatics or word process- 
ing, but a printed check needs a 
translation from numerics to the 
written word. 

Limitless Checks 

I decided to do something 
about it. I had seen a check that 
was marked "not valid over two 
hundred dollars", so it was pos- 
sible to have a practical limit on 
the translation, i wanted more 
room in the program, so I set my 
limit six places to the left of the 
decimal point, or "not valid over 
999,999.99 dollars". That 



wouldn't exclude too many 
check applications. 

I gave the program a high 
starting line number so that it 
can be merged with an existing 
program and used as a subrou- 
tine. The program is a bit over 2K 
in length and requires about 130 
bytes to execute. 

Lines 10010 to 10030 count 
the columns to the left of the 
decimal point. 

Lines 10100 to 10150 assign a 
string name to each column. 
Then, working in reverse, lines 
10200 to 10460 do the actual 
translation decisions, with lines 
11001 to 13010 supplying the 
words, and lines 10600 to 10860 
printing the processed number 
into English. 

You must include the two 
numbers that denote cents. It is 
necessary to have two digits to 
the right of the decimal point, 
even if they are zeros. 

Now, to test the program, 
place a blank check into your 
printer, and write a check to the 
author. Any figure up to 
999,999.99 is possible. ■ 




Dr. Jerome S. Osteryoung, renowned business educator, and 
author of 5 business texts has written the following programs. 

1 . PROFORMA CASH-BUDGET 

PROGRAM 

Allows the user lo projRct the cash-balances for up lo twelve 
periods in 1 he future. Amoun! of loan, if needed, is computed as 
well as computing funds available for short-term investment 
(Price J1Z5) 

2. LEASE-PURCHASE PROGRAM 

Evaluates the lease vs. purchase decision incorporating all the 
latest tax laws including the investment tax credit and ac 
celerated depreciation. This program gives the user all the in- 
formation necessary to make this decision. (Price $50) 

3. BUSINESS PROGRAM PACKAGE 

13 Business programs (e.g., capital budgeting, cash- 
management, ratio analysis, debt management). These pro- 
grams will be very useful to the business manager. (Price $200) 

4. PROCUREMENT PROGRAM 

Ascertains purchase amount when future price of commodily 
IS varying, A must for all managers who have purchasing 
responsibilities. This program takes into consideration inven- 
tory levels, inventory capacity, and financial carrying cost m 
determining the optimal amount of an item to purchase when 
future prices are varying. (Price siso) 

5. COLLEGE ENROLLMENT 
PROJECTION PROGRAM 

Forecasts the enrollment for colleges using several different 
statistical techniques. User can specify the number of periods 
for which a forecast is desired, (Price $100) 

Extensive Documentation With Each Program 

Wrile or call for a brochure which describes the produc 
greater detail 
^87 





FEATURES INCLUDE: 

• Uses Standard Typewriter Ribbon 

• Micro Processor Controlled 

• Can Operate Continuously— 

No Thermal Problems (Hasan all metal 
print head) 

• 5 X 7 to Larger 10 X 7 and Larger 10 X 14 
Dot Matrix Character Generator 

• Standard 96 ASCII Character Font 

• Upper and Lower Case Printing 

• Up to 88 Characters Per Line 

• Single Line Print Rate Is 160 CPS 

• Average Print Rate Is 60 CPS For Ten 
Lines 

• Graphics Capability With Extended 
Character Modes 

• Programmable With 32 System Level 
Softvware Commands 

• Standard Parallel and Serial Interface 

• Software and Hardware Reset Interface 

• Software Line Counting For Paging 

• Baudrate Select From 110 to 9600 

• Manual Paper Advance 

• Manual Selftest and Reset 

• Adjustable Tractor Width From 1 to 9V2 
Inches 

• Interfaces with Apple, Atari, OSI, T.I., 
TRS-80 and the List Goes On ' 



COOSOL DATA LOGGER IMPACT PRINTER 



FACTORY DIRECT 




immt' 



i 




COOSOL, INC. 



$495 Kit, 1 01 B-80KE $545 Assembled & Tested 1 01 B-80E 

■Registered Trademarks of Apple Com pule r Inc . Atari Inc. Otiio Scienlidc Int; Texas I nstriimRnls Inc . 
Tandy Coip (espectively 

P.O. BOX 743, ANAHEIM, CA 92805 (714) 545-2216 7 Days a Week 



^See List of Advertisers or) page 306 



80 Microcomputing, April 1981 • 215 




e books youVe 
been waiting for... 



m 



Available at an IJG dealer near you! 

Anderson Computers Huntsville AL 

Personal Computer Place Mesa AZ 

Simutek Computer Products Tucson AZ 

Berkley Microcomputer Berkley CA 

Thorpe Dataservices Canoga Park CA 

Data Dynamics Cerritos CA 

J.K. Gill Cupertino CA 

P C Computers El Cerrito CA 

Computerland South Bay Lawndale CA 

Op Amp Technical Books Los Angeles CA 

Small Systems Software Newbury Park CA 

Hobby World Northridge CA 

Computer Information Exchange Oceanside CA 

Kive Computers Oceanside CA 

Stacey's Palo Alto CA 

Capital Computer Systems Sacramento CA 

Computerland San Bernadino CA 

Stacey's San Bernadino CA 

Computerland San Diego CA 

ComputerAge Inc San Diego CA 

Disney's Electronics San Diego CA 

Stacey's San Francisco CA 

Computer Store of San Leandro San LeandroCA 

M M & T Industries Lompoc CA 

Microcomputer Technology Santa Anna CA 

Vista Computer Co Santa Anna CA 

ET Research Signal Hill CA 

Exatron Sunnyvale CA 

James Games Computer Center Upland CA 

Computers To Go Westlake Village CA 

Apparat Denver CO 

Software Gourmet Denver CO 

Computer Works Westport CT 

The Program Store Washington DC 

Computer Junction Fort Lauderdale PL 

Adventure International Fern Park FL 

HIS Computermation Melbourne FL 

Boyd Electronics Panama City FL 

TAB Sales Company Pensacola FL 

AMF Microcomputer Center Tampa FL 

Atlanta Computer Mart Atlanta GA 

The Bottom Shelf Atlanta GA 

Idaho Microcomputers Buhl ID 

Garcia & Associates Chicago IL 

Radio Shack Associate Store Honolulu HI 

Data Domain of Schaumberg Schaumberg IL 

Computer Shoppe Metairie LA 

Mark Gordon Computers Cambridge MA 

Computer City Charlestown MA 

Miller Microcomputer Natick MA 

Small Business Systems Group Westford MA 



A M Electronics Ann Arbor Ml 

Wizards Arsenal East Lansing Ml 

Computer Center Garden City Ml 

Soft Sector Marketing Garden City Ml 

The Alternate Source Lansing Ml 

Level IV Products Livonia Ml 

C & S Electronics Milan Ml 

Software Shack Belton MO 

The Software Center Flourissant MO 

Computer Mart Springfield MO 

Computer City Manchester NH 

Ramworks Milford NH 

73 Inc Peterborough NH 

Westech Sparta NJ 

Industrial Products Corp Albuquerque NM 

B T Enterprises Centereach NY 

Digibyte Systems New York NY 

H & E Computronics Spring Valley NY 

Micromini Computer World Columbus OH 

Meta Technology Euclid OH 

Astro Video Electronics Lancaster OH 

Vern Street Products Sapulpa OK 

Computer Store Tulsa OK 

Sounds Etc Watonga OK 

Erie Computer Store Erie PA 

VR Data Folcroft PA 

Marketline Systems Huntingdon Valley PA 

Computerland Mechanicsburg PA 

Computer House of Pittsburg Pittsburg PA 

Personal Computer Corp Paoli PA 

Brodart Inc Williamsport PA 

Computerlab Memphis TN 

Computer Fort Arlington TX 

Quality Software Dallas TX 

Waghalter Books Houston TX 

Quality Technology Salt Lake City UT 

Computer Shoppe Metairie VA 

Home Computer Center Virginia Beach VA 

Virginia Microsystems Woodbridge VA 

H & S Microsystems Blaine WA 

Magnolia Microsystems Seattle WA 

Personal Computers Inc Spokane WA 

Byte Shop of Milwaukee Milwaukee Wl 

Mc Gill's Australia 

Micro 80 Australia 

Alpha 1 Micro Canada 

EC Data Denmark 

A.J. Harding England 

Mine of Information England 

The Computer Bookshop England 

Radcom Electronics Holland 

Nordisk Mikro Sweden 

Hofacker GMBH West Germany 

Interface Age (Europe) West Germany 



'.. this is not only a worthwhile book 
but a great book. My advice is to get it 
and USE it!' - William Barden Jr. 





5 




information ! 



312 pag< 
S29.95 



'It has twelve thousand one-liners 
in it, and every one is great!' 
- Dennis Kitsz. 



Phone orders (714) 946-5805 

IJG Computer Services, 
1260 W. Foothill Blvd., 
'^^ Upland, CA 91786 




TRS-80 Disk & Other Mysteries is the 

definitive fixit book for disk users. More ttian 
130 pages of easy to read, entertaining and 
mmensely useful information -find out how to 
recover disk files, the layout of information on 
disks, memory maps, problem solutions ... the 
list goes on! 

Many readers have saved days of work by 
recreating disk files that were unreadable. 
With more than 14,000 copies sold so far, TRS- 
80 Disk & Other Mysteries has received 
favourable reviews in several magazines. 
Yours for only $22.50 (plus $1 .50 shipping, 
CA residents add $1 .35 sales tax). 

IVIicrosoft BASIC Decoded & Other 
Mysteries is the definative guide to your Level 
II ROMs.W/ithmorethan 7,000 lines of detailed 
comments, and 6 additional chapters packed 
with information, it is easily the biggest and 
best book about the Level II ROMs available. 

Written by James Farvour, the comment 
section took more than a year to finish - it even 
includes the changes for the latest ROM sets 
Edited by Jim Perry, the founding editor of 80 
Microcomputing, the text and comments are 
understandable. 

Exploit the full power of Microsoft BASIC, with 
the aid of more than 300 pages of tested 
examples, explanations and detailed 
comments. Only $29. 95 (plus $2.00 shipping, 
CA residents add $1 .80 sales tax). 

Pick them up at your nearest IJG dealer, phone 
your order in or use the coupon. 




IJG Computer Services, 
1260 W. Foothill Blvd., 
Upland, CA 91786 



1^37 



Please send me a copy of TRS-80 Disk& Other 
Mysteries for $22.50 plus $1 .50 shipping. D 

Please send me a copy of Microsoft BASIC 
Decoded & other Mysteries for $29.95 plus 
$2.00 shipping, D 

OK, send me both IJG books lor S52.45 plus 
$3.50 shipping. Q 



Name 

Address 

City 

State Zip 

Charge my 

n Mastercard Interbank Code 

D Visa Expiration Date 

Card Number 

n Check enclosed 

a Ship COD ($2,00 extra) ■ 



Signature 



^See List at Advertisers an page 306 



80 Microcomputing, April 1981 • 217 



CONSTRUCTION 



Amaze your friends. 



The Model I 1/2 



Larry Fortna 
4722 Montauk St. 
Orlando, FL 32808 



Do you own an Exatron 
Stringy Floppy? Are you 
tired of of having to plug in two 
ac power cords plus a trans- 
former just to power up your sys- 
tem? 

Would you lil^e to fiave a por- 
table system with only one 
cord? 

If the answer is yes, and you 
are a hobbyist with some elec- 
tronics experience, you'll tike 
this article. I'm going to tell you 
how I modified my TRS-80 video 
display to house the Stringy 
Floppy and the power supply for 
the TRS-80 keyboard. 

Be prepared to spend a cou- 
ple of evenings installing the 
modifications. The job is not dif- 
ficult, but it is time consuming. 
And before you start, a gentle re- 
minder: this will void the warran- 
ty on the Stringy Floppy and the 
video display unit. 

You will notice in the photos 
that the Stringy Floppy is 
mounted vertically. This does 
not impair its operation. 

Preliminaries 
Before you tackle this project, 



You also need a longer bus 
cable than the one on the 
Stringy Floppy. I ordered one 
from Hobbyworld Electronics, 
Inc for less than ten dollars. 
Next you will need a brace to 
mount 'he Stringy Floppy to the 
video display cabinet. 1 used a 




remove one of the rubber feet 
from your keyboard power sup- 
ply. Check to see if there is a 
Phillips head screw under the 
foot. Early versions do not allow 
access to the supply. If your 
supply does not have the 
screws, take it to your Radio 
Shack store and have it replaced 
with the newer version. 



metal foundation anchor pur- 
chased at a local hardware 
store. It required some bending 
and cutting to make into a 
suitable brace, but serves the 
purpose. 

Lastly, you'll need some as- 
sorted sizes of balsa wood and 
some rubber grommets. 

When your new cable arrives, 
take the covers off the Stringy 
Floppy unit with a 3/16 inch nut- 
driver or common screwdriver. 
Discard the plastic side and 
metal top covers. They will not 
be used. Now comes the tedious 
part. Remove the top of the bus 
connector at the PC board. This 
allows you to remove the ribbon 
cable. Be sure to note the direc- 
tion of the red stripe. 

if you can, press on the new 
ribbon cable in place of the old 
one. 

This normally takes a special 
tool. If you can't press on the 
new cable, then it will be neces- 
sary to cut the ends of the rib- 
bon cable to match the notched 
connector. Then strip 1/32 inch 
of each strand of ribbon. Tin 
each wire and place the ribbon 
cable in place. Solder each 
strand to the appropriate notch 
of the connector. With this com- 
pleted, connect the new bus ca- 
ble to the keyboard and thor- 



218 • 80 Microcomputing, April 1981 



!±:jMMifn ■ -.. 








'iih-it<t^^ 




Photo 1. Stringy Floppy Unit Installed with Wood Block Supporting 
Power Supply 



oughly test the Stringy Floppy 
unit. 

Video Cabinet 

Remove the rear cover of the 
video display with a 1/4-inch nut- 
driver. The Radio Shack logo 
panel cover will have to be re- 
moved by cutting four tabs from 
the inside of the cabinet. Now 
comes the hard part: making 
that first cut into your cabinet. 
You will need a coping saw 
blade that is made for cutting 
plastic. All cutting will be done 
by hand with only the blade. If 
you have a keyhole saw with a 
fine blade, this would work 
better. 

Mark off the area to be cut. 



The Stringy Floppy case must fit 
1/16 inch from the bottom of the 
ridge as viewed from the front of 
the display, and 9/16 inches 
from the right hand side of the 
ridge. You need to cut a rectan- 
gle 2 1/4 inches by 3 7/8 inches. 
The top of the Stringy cabinet 
should end up 1/16 inch from the 
bottom of the upper plastic tun- 
er circle. It is best to cut slightly 
under size, and then tile to exact 
fit. Place the Stringy Floppy 
from the back of the display into 
thecutout frequently while filing 
to insure the tightest fit. 

When the filing is complete, 
start on the brace. The video dis- 
play cabinet has two holes for 
mounting tuners. The brace 











should be fashioned to mount to 
these two holes and then fasten 
to the rear of the Stringy Floppy 
case. 

I used the existing holes in 
the Stringy case to fasten the 
brace. It may help to cut a block 
of balsa wood to fit under the 
case. This will help hold it in 
place while you work out the 
brace. Later, this block of balsa 
will also serve to hold the trans- 
former that powers the Stringy. 

When the brace is completed, 
cut the balsa block to fit over the 
Stringy transformer (Photo 1). 
Then drill a 1/4-inch hole in one 
end to allow the ac power cord 
an exit. Unsolder the ac wires at 
the PC board and run the ac cord 
through the hole just drilled. 
Since you will not be needing a 
long ac cord, cut the wire to a 
shorter length and resolder it to 
the PC board. 



Next, install a rubber grom- 
met in the newly drilled hole. 
Pick a grommet with an inside 
diameter just slightly larger 
than the power cable. 

Now, take the power cable 
connector off. Use a screwdriver 
to press in the tabs while you 
slide the cover off. Unsolder the 
wires to the power connector, 
making sure you know where to 
put them back. Slip the power 
cord through the grommet and 
resolder the connector. Put the 
contrast and brightness bracket 
back in place. 

Mounting the Power Supply 

On the bottom of the power 
supply are four rubber feet. Re- 
move them and you will find four 
Phillips screws which secure 
the top half of the power supply. 
Remove the screws and drill a 
1/8-inch hole in the base of the 



BALSA WOOD 




TRANSFORMER 



Fig. 1, Balsa Block Cut to Fit Around Transformer 



Photo 2. Arrow Points to Terminal Strip on Video Chassis. 



Next comes the power supply 
for the keyboard. First, you will 
need a hole in the video display 
cabinet for the power supply ca- 
ble. Remove the contrast and 
brightness knobs. They pull off 
from the front. 

Remove the two screws 
which hold the knob bracket in 
place. Now, remove the cable 
clamp that holds the video cable 
secure. Slip this clamp back to 
the PC board where the cable 
originates. The video cable 
should now slide freely in the 
plastic grommet. 

Next, drill a 5/16-inch hole in 
the video cabinet for the power 
cable. Drill from the back of the 
cabinet out. I drilled my hole in 
the center of a protrusion in the 
plastic directly in line with the 
contrast and brightness con- 
trols. 



power supply at the point be- 
tween the exits of the ac power 
cord and the dc power cable. 
This hole allows you to mount 
the power supply to the rear of 
the Stringy case at the same 
place where the bracket mounts. 

With the power supply mount- 
ed, put the upper half of the sup- 
ply back on and install two of 
the four screws you removed 
and two of the rubber feet. There 
is not enough room to put all 
four back on with the supply at- 
tached to the Stringy case. 

Cut the ac power cord so that 
it is about one foot long. Cut an- 
other one-foot section from the 
left over cord. This will be used 
to connect power to the Stringy 
transformer. 

Now, locate the terminal strip 
on the video chassis as shown 
in Photo 2. This terminal strip 



80 Microcomputing, April 1981 • 219 



NEW FROM MANHATTAN 

FOR MODELS I AND lir — MANY NOW ON DISK 

CASINO BLACKJACK /COUNTER Learn to beat the dealer, or just play for fun, with 
this most realistic simulation of a casino table ever put on the trS-80 screen. Does 
card counting really give the sharp player an advantage? How should you play each 
type of hand? The program gives you the card count after each hand, plus a rec- 
ommended bet, and deals tirelessly, i/iii TBJ/C S14.95 

TBJ/D S-19.95 

GIN RUMMY 3.0 The classIc computer cin Rummy game is now even better, with 
card graphics and faster playing time. Plays a full regulation game, changes 
strategy to counter your play, allows rearrangement of your hand on each turn, 
keeps score to game level . i / ill 

CRIBBAGE MASTER Great graphics and strong play, i / ill 



CALCULATOR PLUSmakesyour TRS-80 a printing calculator. I /III 
CHECKBOOK PLUShandles the details Of bank Statements, l/iii 
CALCULATOR & CHECKBOOK both on One cassette or disk. I/Ill 

E.S.P. LAB Do you have ESP? Scientific/fun program. Mod i 
THE LiSTMAKER II 400 names & codes In -16K, prints lists. Mod i 
CONCENTRATION Classlc matching game, graphics & sound. Mod i 

LABYRINTH RUN Fascinating /frustrating test of skill. I /ill 

California residents add 6% sales tax- 
^^^^1 2a-liour credit card order hotline: (313) 454-829C 
WW 



TCR/C S16.95 

TCR/D S21.95 

TCM/C S12.95 

TCM/D S17.95 

TPC/C S 9.95 

TCB/C S 9,95 

TCC/C S14.95 

TCC/D S19.95 

TPL/C S 9.95 

TLWt/C S 9.95 

TCO/C S 9.95 

TCO/D S14.95 

TLR/C S 9.95 



Write for full catalog of TRS-80 and Atari software. 



MANHATTAN SOFTWARE ^'» ^ 
P.O. BOX 35, Pacific Palisades, CA 90272 



New Software for the New TRS-80 Color Computer 
TRS-80* COLOR TRS-80* 



SPACE INVADERS - The tullleature popular arcade game with super fast HIGH RESOLUTION (128 i 192) 
graphics and sound. Can you beat the invaders? 

I6K. cassette S19.95 
GAME OF LIFE - Fastest game ot LIFE ever in exciting HIGH RESOLUTION graphics. Set up any starting 
colony and see if it will survive or die. 

J6K, cassette J19.95 
METEOROIDS - Fast, HIGH RESOLUTION graphics game. Destroy meteoroids and alien spaceships before 
they get you, 

16K, cassette 121.95 
SPACE TRADERS — Form the largest galactic trading company. For 2 to 4 players. Uses all the graphics and 
sound potential of EXTENDED COLOR BASIC. 

16K, cassette 116.95 
ARTILLERV DUEL — Fight computer or friend to destroy his ariillery. 

4K, cassette S9.95 
16K RAM — E»pand your 4K system to 16K. No hardware modifications or special tools required. Full 
instructions included, easy to install. 

S39.95 
32K RAM — Pul an e>tra 16K RAM inside your computer. No hardware modifications or special tools requir- 
ed. Full instructions Guaranteed to work. 

S89.95 
EPROM PROGRAMMER — Program your own 2716 & 2732 EPROMS. 

S74.95 
EDITOR/ASSEMBLER — Write your own 6809 assembly language programs. Generates system tapes and 
allows storage ol source files on cassette. 

16K, cassette S29.95 
fiUGOUT - Full Feature MONITOR with EDIT, FILL, Register EXAMINE/MODIPy. HEX/ASCII dumps, 
breakpoints and TRACE, a powerful debugging toot. 

4K, cassette SI 9.95 
DISASSEIi^BLER - The best disassembler lor the 6809 available - ANYWHERE. Unlock the secrets ol 
COLOR BASIC. A MUST for the serious programmer 

IGK.cassetteS14.95 
BUGOUT PLUS . 8UG0UT & DISASSEMBLER mixed together 

16K. cassette S29.95 
MAGIC BOX — Load MODI/III tapes into the color computer. Magic Boi will not correct tor the difference in 
video display size 

4K.cassetteS19 95 



VISA OR MASTERCHARGE ACCEPTED 

WRITE FOR COMPLETE 

CATALOG OF 

GAMES & UTILITIES 

•TRS-80 IS A TM OF TANDY CORP 



SPECTRAL 
ASSOCIATES 

141 Harvard Ave. ^132 
Tacoma, Washington 98466 
(206) 475-8483 



INTERFACE EXPANSION BQARDI 



For (he TRS 80' 



noo-DG'^iGn 




The Interface Expansion Board gives 
your computer these features: 



MDX-1 



Phone Modem 

2K E'PROM OPTION '"^ 5'°='' "^"w 

32 K Memory ^'^ Board & user manual 

Real-Time Clock 

Parallel Port 

RS-232 Port 

Dual Cassette Line 

Floppy Disk Controller' MDX-2* 

On Board Supply 

Silk Screen 

Solder Mask 

Expansion Port 

Manual 



64.95 



7495 



Ada 3.00 lor shipping 
& handling. Texas res- 
itlenls add S'-o sales 
tax 

MANUALS $7.95 

■FREE PAMPHLET AVAILABLE" 
Call or write 



niCRO-D€<;iGn 

P.O. Box 18054 
Austin, Texas 78760 

1-512-458-?937 



1^379 



OSKBK 




APPLE 



TRS-BOt 



PRESENTS; 



Computars 
8i Comblinf 

^\^ Produces 
^ Mogozifitt 

PROBABILITY HANDICAPPING 
DEVICE 1 - A BASIC PROGRAM FDR: 
HORSE RACE HANDCAPPING! 

This mcreOible program was written Dy a piolessiunai software 
consuitani to TRW Space Syslerris This is a complex piogram 
cafetjily human taclofed tor easy jse II is a compretiensive 
lioFse lacjng system lor spotting overlays in ttiorougtiOred spnni 
races Your computer will accurately preGict tfie win proOatiitity 
ana odds line tor eacti tiorse tiased or yojr entries trom Hie rac- 
ing torm Ttie next day overlaid liorses can be spotted on tlie 
track lote Doaid Ttie user's manual coniams a complete esplana- 
lion ol overlay Detling plus mjch more jselui irtormatior Tfie ap- 
persdix contains a detailed tab run ot a 100 consecutive race 
systtiH workout stiowing an amazing SOS rrturn ($1 ^0 return- 
ed tor eacti $1 00 tlat wagei ) includes many features such as 
error correction, bubble sort, line printer outpot, automatic 
keyboard debounce. archiving, etc The manual may De ordered 
separately lor perusal for $7 9S and credit 
CHALLENGER 1P, 2P. oi 4P SK VERSIONS Now Availabte! 
Phd-1 Jsar's manual and cassette lor 
Apple II (16K|, TRS-8a Level II (1gK), Challenger (8K| 29 95 
TRS-80 or APPLE OiSK 34.95 

BRAND NEW FROM SDL; WIN AT THE RACES. This Ifioroughbred 
tiandicapping algorithm is based on a currently popular Oook on 
thoroughbred multiple regression techniques. Both sprints and 
routes All of the features of PHO-1 plus more This program in- 
corporates the best data entry technique we've ever seen 



34 OS 
39 95 



.75 P&H 
.7S P&H 



32KIRS-e0orflPPLECASSEnE 
32KTRS-aO or APPLE DISK 
BOOKS. 

Winning at the Races 21 95 

BMting the Haces with a Computer 14.95 

Make cte(.-»(s WydOie to JOE COMPUTER DEFT. B ^^193 

77713 Ventura Blvd., Suits F. Woodland Hills, CA 91364 

I^JIflSK CA residents add 6 % sales tax ^ST 

!^WB phone ORDERS; 213-992-0514 -i'" 

■SEND $2.00 TO PLACE YOUR NAME OH OUR MAILING LISI 

iTRS-80 IS a regtslereO naaemaik ol Jandy Corpotaiion 



220 • 80 Microcomputing, April 1981 



has six lugs and is directly in 
front of thie terminal strip thiat 
hias the two fuses mounted. 

Strip and tin 1/4-inch of the ac 
power cord for the power supply 
and the extra one-foot section. 
Connect one side of each of the 
two power cords to lug 1 (clos- 
est to tfie front of the video cabi- 
net). Solder in place. Connect 
the other side of each of the two 
power cords to lug 4. 

If you are not sure where 
these lugs are located, use an 
ohmmeter across the lugs in 
question. You should read 110 V 
ac when the power switch on the 
video monitior is pressed to on. 

Strip and tin 1/2-inch from the 
remaining ends of the extra one- 
foot power cord and wrap it 
around the ac power prongs of 
the Stringy Floppy transformer. 
Solder these wires to the prongs 
and wrap with electrical tape. 

Take the balsa wood block 
that you used earlier and cut out 
a section for the transformer 
(Fig.1). Glue the transformer to 
the balsa block. Because of the 
porous nature of the balsa 
wood, I used a rubber sealant 
and adhesive such as is used 
around bathtubs. This same ad- 
hesive can be used to glue the 
balsa block and transformer to 
the video cabinet (see Photo 1). 
Not all adhesives will stick to 
the video cabinet. 

Bus Cable 

Drill a series of small holes in 
the recessed area on the left 
side of the cabinet under the vid- 
eo screen for the bus cable to 
exit. File this to size so that the 
cable can be brought out the 
front of the display. You must 
shield the cable to prevent noise 
from causing bad loads. This 
can be done by wrapping alumi- 
num foil around the cable from a 
point three inches from the be- 
ginning of the cable at the PC 
board, to the point where the ca- 
ble exits the video cabinet. 

Now, take a six-inch piece of 
wire and strip the insulation 
back one inch at one end. Lay 
this end of the wire on the alumi- 
num foil. Wrap masking tape or 
electrical tape around the foil 
for the length. This will secure 
the ground wire and prevent 
shorting out any components on 
the video board. 



Strip about a half-inch fronn 
the other end of the ground wire. 
Attach this under one of the 
screws which hold the PC board 
to the Stringy case (one of the 
two near the bus connector). 
Run the bus cable under the 
Stringy case and along the bot- 
tom of the video cabinet and out 
the bus exit opening. Fasten the 
Stringy Floppy in place with the 
bracket. 

Before you test the Stringy 
Floppy, make sure that the bus 
cable is plugged into the key- 
board, with pin one of the cable 
to pin one of the connector. Turn 
on the power and load a pro- 
gram from a good wafer. If your 
bus cable is shielded properly, 
you should have no problems. If 
you are getting parity errors, go 
back and check the shielding. If 
errors persist, recheck every- 
thing. 

Logo Panel Cutout 

When you are satisfied, it is 
time to cut out the cover to fit 
over the Stringy Floppy. (See 
Photos 3 and 4.) Be careful be- 
cause mistakes will show on the 
finished product. 

This cutout wilt require a 
15/16 inch by three-inch cut for 
the wafer opening and a 3/8 by 
one inch opening for the LEDs. 
The cutout for the wafer open- 
ing should start about 1/32 inch 
from the bottom of the Radio 
Shack logo. 

When these have been made, 
cut strips of balsa wood to fit 
around the opening on the in- 
side of the panel. These can be 
glued in place and painted flat 
black, if you have scratched the 
paint where the bus cable exits, 
the flat black paint will provide a 
good cover. If the opening for 
the Stringy Floppy is a tight fit, 
the logo panel should fit back in- 
to place. However, if the logo 
panel is loose, secure it with 
some fastener. One method 
would use Velcron material, or 
another might use an adhesive 
to glue it in place. 

Wrap Up 

All that's left is to put the rear 
cover back in place. Of course, 
you'll probably want to invite 
your friends over to show oft, 
and, why not? You deserve to be 
a little proud. ■ 



ft- 







J,.-* ;-"^. ^ I ■•'■■J' 

i ml 




• /jw :■*«**■ 



is.. .. -..^ .:■ 

Photo 3. Logo Panel Cut to Fit Over Stringy Floppy 














-.- 1 ■■;■ ■' * •■• r 



'i 



.-■ } 



J_ 


-1 —-It, . 
":■•■¥- ■ 




'.. ' ''^'K 






ft 






Photo 4. Close-up of Installed Unit 



i?^^ ^l'^^^^^^!S ^ mi^^ - 




Photo 5. TRS-80 with Stringy Floppy Unit Installed 



80 Microcomputing, April 1981 • 221 



GENERAL 



Some views on less expensive alternatives. 



Cost Effective 
Word Processing 



Larry M. Hewin, Ed. D. 
VolksMicro Computer 
Systems, Inc. 

202 Packets Court (Suite C) 
Williamsburg, VA 23185 



The prevalent conventional 
wisdom Is Ihat word pro- 
cessing has arrived. Where con- 
ventional wisdom goes wrong is 
in the belief that useful word 
processors cost $10-15,000. I 
believe that this misconception 
fails to consider a class of word 
processing systems which can 
be put together for under $2000. 
Because of the lack of aware- 
ness of the availability of these 
systems, many teachers, col- 
lege professors and students, 
small businesses, authors, and 
others may miss a system which 
is affordable and useful. 

My own views originally stem 
from those dark early days when 
one had to place an order, pray a 
lot, and wait at least six months 



for a TRS-80 disk drive. At that 
time I vi/as faced with writing a 
report that ran to about 30,000 
words. I was equipped with a 
32K TRS-80 with expansion in- 
terface and a Selectric-type 
printer, but no disks. I had 
Shrayer's Electric Pencil and 
had made the recommended 
modification for lowercase. 

While my system cost a lot 
more than $2000, it didn't func- 
tion much differently than 
cheaper systems. I wasn't wildly 
enthusiastic about preparing a 
lengthy report on a cassette- 
based system, in view of the 
loading problems and sticking 
relays then prevalent. But, I was 
more than pleasantly surprised 
to discover I had an effective 
and useful system that not only 
did the job, but did it efficiently, 

I can almost hear the voices 
out there saying, "He's out of his 
gourd! Ya just gotta have 
disks." Well, ya don't. Disks are 
nice; I have them and rarely use 
the cassettes. But I found that 
with experience, a cassette- 
based word processing system 
is not as handicapping as you 
might imagine. 

Certain things have made the 
assembly of a low cost system 
possible. First is the reduction 
in price of the basic 16K Levei II 
TRS-80. Second, you can now 
buy a printer interface cable that 
costs only $59. Finally, competi- 
tion and the expanded market 



have reduced the price of print- 
ers substantially. 

If you can assemble a cas- 
sette-based system for under 
$2000, a legitimate question is: 
how much does being limited to 
cassettes for external storage 
affect the user? 

Limits 

Consider the lowest cost ap- 
proach: using the printer inter- 
face cable, effectively restric- 
ting the user to the 16K RAM in 
the keyboard. The first limita- 
tion to the system is the number 
of words or pages which can be 
stored in active memory. 

If I were optimizing a 16K sys- 
tem, I would pick Electric Pencil, 
which is about 4K long. Scripsit 
is much longer, leaving less 
memory for your text. You will 
have more memory if you opt for 
the expansion interface +16K 
RAM instead of the printer inter- 
face cable. But, if the $350 more 
is important, you can do signifi- 
cant writing with approximately 
1000 words in memory at a time. 
Limited memory is not a toss in 
output capability, but an incre- 
ment of additional time and ef- 
fort to accomplish the output. 

Time and Effort 

Operating with limited mem- 
ory, you will have to save text on 
tape fairly often, which is a good 
habit to get into anyway, to 
avoid losing text in the event of 



power failure or drain. 

I partially offset the lost abil- 
ity to immediately review text 
on-screen by printing out a draft 
before I make the tape save. I 
can thus review the oider text 
from the printed version while 
the later text is on-screen. The 
printed copy is also insurance 
against calamity during or after 
the save. 

Draft printing has another ad- 
vantage: I usually draft text in 
the same format as the final 
copy, allowing me to get a pic- 
ture of pages as a whole and to 
reorganize tape saves to begin 
and end with certain pages or 
sections. Pencil's ability to ap- 
pend text from tape to text in 
memory allows you to reorga- 
nize the initial tape saves to suit 
the organization of your paper. 

General Observations 

My CTR-41 was modified to 
provide an audible tone as text 
is being moved to or from the re- 
corder. This is a mod you can do 
yourself if you are skilled. It is, in 
my view, one of the best invest- 
ments you can make. It not only 
makes it easy to locate the be- 
ginning or end of recorded text, 
but allows you to turn your at- 
tention to other tasks. The tone 
cues you when the load is fin- 
ished. 

Use a log when saving text on 
tape, and note the following in it: 
the tape name or number and 



222 • 80 Microcomputing, April 1981 



"Behind our mail order catalog is a uniquely reassuring concept: 

"A store with no place to hide! 



says Richard Taylor, noted software author and President, Programs Unlimited. 




Archlioct's Drawing: Programs Unlimited Retail Center, 20 Jericho Tpke., Jorlcho, NY 



Our first store stocks the same incredibly wide range of 
software and peripherals that you'll find in our catalog. 

With one important difference. 

In our store, and in all future PROGRAMS UNLIMITED 
Retail Centers, microcomputer owners can see potential 
purchases demonstrated on the leading micro-computer 
models they probably own— including TRS-80s. 

What does this mean to you, who may be considering 
ordering the same items by mail? Simply this: 

In our store, we can't hide behind flowery advertising 
promises or inflated catalog claims. 

In our store, we can't hide behind the U.S. Mail, or the 

iaMJji:ia.];h'iMim:Kij;i'i[H»: 



This month's specials 

EPSON MX-70 PRINTER $449.00 

SUPER HOST— 32K Disk 29.95 

THEWIZARD— 32KDisk 19,95 

DIRINDEX— 32K Disk 19.95 

ZAP— 32K Disk 29.95 

ORCHESTRA 85 CALL 

MESSAGE 80 149.95 

LDOS 139.00 

DECATHLON 24.95 

ZORK— 32K Disk 39.95 

Ask for our FREE catalog 



safe distance that a long-distance telephone line puts 
between us and our customers. 

Either an item delivers when it's demonstrated or it 
doesn't. And if it doesn't make it in the store, it doesn't 
make it into our catalog— period. 

If you're In the Greater New York area, we hope you'll 
visit our first store soon. 

If you're not, we hope you'll ask for our catalog. It's 
chock full of software and peripherals pre-selected to 
satisfy walk-in customers every bit as demanding as 
you are. 

It has to be. Because in our store, there's no place to 
hide. 



, Have questions about your system that you can't get answered elsewhere? Write 
■ Programs Unlimiled, Information Services Dept., Box 265, Jericho, NY 11753. 



FULL 
GUARANTEE 

If, within 14 days, you 
are for any reason 
dissatisfied with any 
Programs Unlimited 
purchase, return the 
merchandise in origi- 
nal condition for a 
prompt, full refund. 



IHow to order: 

BY PHONE: {9 AM— 5 PM Monday thru Friday) 
- CALL TOLL FREE (800) 645-6038 (except NY) 
• NY State residents call collect (516) 997-8668 
COMPUTER TO COMPUTER: (516) 334-3134 
BY MAIL; Dept. 481M, Box 265, Jericho, NY 11753 



Add $1.00 for postage and handling. NY residents add 
sales tax. Specials valid 
through 5/15/81. Subse- 
quent prices subject to 1 VISA' 
change without notice. 




the software source' 



WJ, 



Visit our new Retail Center at 20 Jericho Tpke.. Jericho, 
Long Island. NY. Call (516) 333-2266 for hours & directions. 



^-See List ol Advertisers on page 306 



80 Microcomputing, April 1981 • 223 



side used; the starting and end- 
ing CTR counter number; identi- 
fication of the content of the 
save; and the word count and 
record count of the Pencil text. 
Use the log to locate the right 
tape and side, then the counter 
in conjunction with the audible 
tone to locate the start of the 
text. Then load the text; if the 
word and record count are the 
same, you probably have a good 
load of the correct section of 
text. These techniques are a 
useful offset to the inability to 
name text files for loading, sav- 
ing, and directory functions, 
that are available with diskoper- 
atlons. 

The Printer 

You would probably want a 
dalsy-whee) or thimble-type let- 
ter quality printer which list at 
around $3000, making them only 
the stuff of dreams for most of 
us. If you concede the letter 
quality print requirement, there 
are a number of dot-matrix print- 
ers In the $500-800 range that do 
a nice job. 



• TRS-80 16K Level II w/keypad 


$849.00 


• Printer Interface Cable 


59.00 


• Lowercase Mod for TRS-80 


59.00 


• Comprint 912GPw/cable 


599.00 


• Electric Pencil (tape) 


99.00 


• Radio Shack Space Saver Desk 


49.95 


• 2-300' Rolls Comprint Paper 


19.00 


• Radio Shack Power Line Filter 


39.00 


• Total 


$1772.95 


Table 1 





I like the Comprint 912GP. It is 
available at around $600 and 
uses a 9 X 12 dot matrix to elec- 
tronically remove an aluminized 
coating from a black base roll 
paper, at 225 characters per sec- 
ond. It's fast, prints upper and 
descending lowercase, the fin- 
ished copy has a nice appear- 
ance (black letters on silver pa- 
per), and when it is copied, the 
9x12 matrix Is fine enough to 
make the copy look like a typed 
original. The paper comes In 8 
1/2" wide rolls and the cost is 
slightly higher than white fan- 
fold. You don't have to buy rib- 



bons, so you come out about 
even, but without inky fingers or 
print density varying with the 
age of the ribbon. 

There are other printers you 
might want to look at depending 
on your needs, finances, and 
skills. Centronics has an- 
nounced their Model 737 which 
has an N X 9 dot matrix capabili- 
ty alleged to give letter quality 
printing, and lists around $1000. 
Radio Shack has announced 
that it will offer a nearly identi- 
cal printer for the same price. 

If you are a skilled tinkerer 
and must have letter quality, 



consider purchasing a used Se- 
lectrlc and convert it using the 
Escon or similar kit. You might 
even find a used Selectric-type 
printer in your price range. I urge 
caution in printer selection— 
the wrong one can cause you 
trouble. 

A Sample System 

Table 1 is a selection of com- 
ponents that might make up an 
inexpensive system. The costs 
are either list or generally adver- 
tised prices. 

If you purchase the listed sys- 
tem or a similar one, you will 
have a useful word processing 
system. The only sacrifice you 
will make over an expensive 
model is In the quality of the 
printed characters. 

In addition, you will have a 
small general purpose comput- 
er, and a base system with al- 
most unlimited expansion pos- 
sibilities—from the poor man's 
stringy floppy and cassette 
speedup systems, to 10-mega- 
byte hard disks and daisy wheel 
printers. ■ 



^ PURE FIG ~ 
GOODNESS! 



Now you can use Forth on your TRS-80 Model 1 with 
I 6K and a single disk. This is a stand-alone version 
of the widely accepted Forth Interest Group Model 
I . I with the standard Forth editor. Extensions in- 
clude disk format/backup, upper and lower case. 
output to parallel or RS-232 printers, and an 8080 
assembler/disassembler. Documentation includes 
an introduction, glossary, and every single line of 
the systenn, including disk drivers and boot up 
code, all written in Forth! 

TRS-80 fig-FORTH for 



$49,95 

NaUTILUi' 



Add Z 50 for shipping. 
Ca. res ^dd 6% for tax. 
Order from: 



.-'SS 



P.O. Box I 098. Santa Cruz Ca. 9506 I 
TRS-80 is a trademark of Tandy Corp. 



OKIDATA PRINTER 

The Best Printer in the World for the TRS-80! 

Well Stake Our Reputation On It! 



Look at the Features! 

1) 200 million character head 
warranty! Better than any 
competitor! 

2) Works under the most demanding 
business applications! 

3) A "Real" 9x7 DOT Matrix Impact 
Printerl 

4) 80 characters per second! 

5) Full upper and tower case! 

6) Double width characters! 

7) Supports TRS-80 Graphics! See 
lilustrathn. (These graphics are 
exactly the same graphic codes as 
the TRS-80's. No special software 
required) 

8) Connects directly to TRS-80 with 
standard cable! 

9) Friction &. pinfeed, use roll paper, 
stationary or regiilar data paper! 

10) 6 or 8 lines per inch 

11) 80 and 132 columns 

12) Quiet operation. 



tcectoti 
art! 




I I' 

Actual phoio oj printout jrom Okidola 
Printerl From Sirnutek's Electric Aiiisl 
Prograrnl 

This is the finest printer you can buy 
al any price for your TRS-80. 

Regular List Price 

$850.00! 

Tractor Fpi'd Optinn 

SI 50. 00! 

Special Simutek 
Customer Price Only — 

$559.00 

(TracKir Ffpd $125.00 Exira) 



Catalog 'r: 

90001 Okidatii Microlme SO 559.00 

90002 Tractor Feed Option 125.00 

9141 1 Cable For TRS-80 Keyboard 55.00 

91401 Cable For Expansion Interface 39 00 

9-1401 Cable For Model II TRS-SO 39.1)0 

Wp Accept VISA - Mastertharge - Checks — Money Orders 
or (COD. $3.00 Extra) 
NO TAX ON OUT OF STATE ORDERS! ^ ^^ 

Frae Shipping In U S 
Send O.deri To SIMUTEK. P.O. Box 13687-Z, Tucson, AZ S57 !J 



Slate . 



-2ip- 



Address _ 
Cit^ _ 

Phone orders welcome 24 hours! (800)518-1149 Simutek offers oiher tine products 

•01 TR5 80'!, Send for .fp-ee raio/og' Aruonu residents add 'J% aalcs lax 
TRS-WI- ATMof Ra(lraSh,.^k..'\ landvCrp 



224 • 80 Microcomputing, April 1981 




Radio /haelt% 

^ DEALER ^JP^ 



TRS-80 DISCOUNT 



D NO OUT-OF-STATE TAX 
D NO SHIPPING COSTS 



TRS-80 
MODEL II 64K 



<3500 



PACKS ENOUGH DATA HANDLING POWER FOR 
MANY SMALL BUSINESSES. 




TRS-80 MODEL III 

32K-2 DISKS 

<2100 

NEW PERSONAL COMPUTER . , . 
REAL-TIME CLOCK, SHARPER 
CRT IMAGES AND FASTER 
LOADING CASSETTES 




TRS-80 COLOR $ 

COMPUTER OR VIDEO ^ m^m3'^ each 

A LOW COST, COLOR COMPUTER FOR PERSONAL BUSINESS OR ENTERTAINMENT 



CERTIFIED CHECKS 
CASHIERS CHECKS 
OR CREDIT CARDS 



l k<i\i«'!ff^y. 




PERRY OIL & GAS INC. 

137 NORTH MAIN STREET, PERRY, MICH. 48872 

PHONE (517) 625-4161 

WARRANTIES HONORED BY ALL RADIOSHACKS • *T,M. TANDY CORP. 



Combine accurate flight characteristics viith the best in animation graphics 
and youll have SubLOGIC's 

T80-FS1 Flight Simulator 

f6rtheTRS-80 



SubLOGICsT80-FS1 is the smooth, realistic 
simulator that gives you a real-time, 3-D, 
out-of-the-cockpit view of flight. 

Thanks to fast animation and accurate repre- 
sentation of flight, the non-pilot can now learn 
basic flight control, including take-offs and 
landings! And experienced pilots will recog- 
nize how thoroughly they can explore the 
aircraft's characteristics. 

Once you've acquired flight proficiency, 
you can engage in the exciting British Ace 
3-D Aerial Battle Game included in the 
package. Destroy the enemy s fuel depot 
while evading enemy fighters. 

Computer and aviation experts call the 
T80-FS1 a marvel of modern technology. 

You'll simply call it fantastic! 



Special Features: 

• 3 frame-per-second flicker free 
animation 

• Maximum transfer keyboard input 

• Constant feedback cassette loader 

Hardware Requirements: 

• Radio Shack TRS-80, Level 1 or 2 

• 16K memory 

• Nothing else! 



my i£ W 




*^s^^;/' 



Only 



See your dealer of order direcl. For 
direct order, include S1.25 and specify 
UPS or fitsi class mail Illinois residents 
add 5% sales lax. Visa and Mastercard 
accepted. 








LOGIC 

Communications Corp. 
BoxV, Savoy, IL 61 874 
(217)359-8482 
Telex: 206995 .-^-50 



'See List of Advertisers an page 306 



80 Microcomputing, April 1981 • 225 





(, „,IIJI1I""I , 




;ih'|ii|'lii 



ii 




PSON 

MX-80 
$499.°° 



SPECIAL 



THE 

REAL THING 

Yes, this is the EPSON WX-80 printer you 
have read so much about the one 
everyone's buying. Better get yours while 
they are available at this terrific price! One of 
the most advanced 80 column dot matrix 
printers available featuring the world's first 
disposable print head. There are lots of 
phnters to choose from but, once you have 
compared, you will find it hard to pass up 
the Epson MX-80. 

FEATURES 

• Bidirectional Printing. 

• Logicial seeking of shortest lines, 

• 80 Characters per second. 

• 64 Block Graphics Characters. 

• Forms Handling. 

• Disposable print head 

• Adjustable Tractor-type pin feed, 

• Paper width 4 to 10 inches, 

• Inked ribbon cartridge with 3 million 

character life, 

• Self test mode, 

• Full 96 character ASCII with decenders, 

• Printing Modes: Standard, Double, 

Emphasized and Double Emphasized, 

• Correspondence Quality, 



EXTRAS 

TRS80 Cable $30.00 

Apple Cable& Interface $96.00 

Ribbon Cartridge, Black $13.95 

RS 232 Interface $69.95 

ORDER TODAY!!! 



WORD 

See the opposite page for ordering informa- ^ ^ -^ _^ ^— ^ _^ . ■. ■ .^ 

tion The price is $499.00 plus $6,00 for DDfflO^^^IIVIl^ 

shipping and handling (cent. US). Does not I 11^^ wI^OOIlNU 

include cable. Complete with David Lien p^ ^ ^^m^ m ^^ ^b 

PACKAGE 

ANOTHER CHOICE- Includes the 

OKIDATA MICROLINE 80 following: 

Here is another fine quality printer available ^r\r^^%&i ■ Ji'\# r%£\ 

at the outstanding price of $499.00 The tKoUN IVIA"OU 

Microline 80 has many outstanding features: _._.■« ,____ ^ .^ _ __. _ 

: a^rsS/rScon. PRINTER & CABLE 

• 64 Block Graphics Characters, CODIDTCIT /Hic«L-\ 

• Forms Handling OOrilT I Ol I ^VllOl\^, 

• Tractor, Pin and Friction Feed. ODCOI A I r\d llfETD'X/ 

• Paper Width 4 to 9 inches. OnCOIAL UCLIVCKY 

• Self Test Mode. /_i" i \ o ^ ■ i_i 

• Full 96 Character ASCII (no decenders]. (CllSk) Ot rrGIQllt 

• Printing lyiodes: Standard, Double and * ' ** 

Condensed 3^^ nsurance. 

Add S6 00 shipping. Does nol include cable ■***•■ %«■ i^^^^a 

CABLES, SOFTWARE & OTHER GOODIES Sfl^f^lAl 

• DRIVE CABLES \jp^Wiai 

2-Drive $26.95 _^_ ^ .^. ^ .^. ,— . 

4-Drive $36.95 fl* ^W^\ ^ ^\^\ 

^'^'^"^^^ 51695 ^ f ^O.UU 

• DISKETTES (5-1/4 in, soft sectored, box ot 10) T^ o-n,^ -7 r\r\\ 

Cert, one Side, single density $29.95 (RSQ- 59 1 7.00) 

Cert, two sides, double density . . . $39.95 

• OPERATING SYSTEMS 

DOSPLUS 3.2, 3.2D $99.95 

NEWDos/80 $149 00 ORDER TODAY FROM 

TRSDOS 3.2 DISK & MANUAL, ,..$17.95 ^"^^l-n I Wl^H I rnWIVI 

Double Zap II (spec. Newdos/SO or VTOS)$42.50 % ^BH^.^^ ^H^^ H^^^^ 

vTos 4.0 MANUAL $25.00 j^f ^ ^ J%_1. M mMMr 

• OTHER SOFTWARE & BOOKS _, ,,. 1 *• . ou 

scRiPsiT (disk) $89 95 Redbird Airport, BIdg. 8 

SPECIAL DELIVERY $119.95 P O Box 24829 

XTRA SPECIAL DELIVERY $189.95 n'«7|„, tv T^OOvt ^387 

SUPER UTILITY $39.95 Dollas, TX 75224 

MICROSOFT BASIC DECODED & OTHER 

MYSTERIES $25.95 

TRS8O DISKS OTHER MYSTERIESSI 9.95 SBB OppOSitB PaQC [^ 



226 • 80 Microcomputing, April 1931 



■^^ 




40 & 80 Track 
^ **FLIPPY"Drives 




REAL VALUE 

AEROCOMP offers the best value in 
microcomputer disc drives on the market 
today! Reliability, features and cost tough 
to beat. We deliver... and v/e stand behind 
our products, as evidenced by the only 
FREE TRIAL OFFER in the industry. Ex- 
amine your systems needs and order to- 
day! 

MYSTERY REMOVED 

There appears to be some confusion in the 
terminology used to describe disc drives 
and their features. Here's what we mean: 

• FLIPPY Allows the use of both 
sides of a diskette with a single- 
headed dhve by simply turning the 
diskette over (model 40-1&80-1). 

• TRACK DENSITY Specified in 
tracks per inch (TPI). Refers to the 
number of tracks per radial inch on 
the diskette. Typically 48 TPI = 40 
usable tracks and 96 TPI = 80 usable 

t r Q f* If C 

• DOUBLE DENSITY Refers to 
recording density in bits per inch 
(bpi). Typically single density means 
data can be recorded up to 2,938 
bpi; double density means data can 
be recourded up to 5,876 bpi, 

• DOUBLE SIDED Refers to number 
of read/write heads. Single-sided is 
one head, read/write one side only; 
double-sided is dual heads allowing 
read/write operations on both sides 
of the diskette. A double sided drive 
appears as two seperate drives to 
the controller. (Model 80-2 s i60-2) 

• ACCESS TIME The time required 
for the head to move from one track 
to the next. Typacilly 5 to 40 
milliseconds (ms). COMPARE AND 



for TRS-80* 

SELECT YOURS! 

• 40-Track "FLIPPY" $349.95 

(Model 40-1 ) 48 TPI, single dens, 
125K bytes/side, double dens. 
250K/side. 

• 80-TRACK "FLIPPY" $459.95 
(Mod. 80-1 ) 96 TPI, single dens, 
250K bytes/side, double dens. 
500K/side. 

• 40 TRACK DUAL HEAD $459.95 
(Mod. 80-2} 48 TPI, double-sided, 
40 tracks/side; single dens. 250K 
bytes, double dens, 500K. 

• 80 TRACK DUAL HEAD $599.95 
(Mod. 160-2} 96 TPI, double-sided, 
80 tracks/side; single dens, 500K 
bytes, double dens. 1 megabytes. 

NOTE. All capacity values are unformated All 
models capable ot sirgle or double density AH 
wilh power supply/silver enclosure 1 1 5 VAC, 
50-60 Hz 1 15.'230 VAC available. 

STARTER A 

40-Track drive, 2-drlve cable, 
TRSDOS 2.3 Disk & Manual, 
Freight & Ins. 

$339.95 

(Reg $380.00} 

STARTER B 

40-Track FLIPPY drive, 2-drive 
cable,TRSDOS 2.3 Disk & 
ManuaLFreight & ins. 

$369.95 

(Reg $401.00) 

*SPECIAL PACKAGES* 

#1 40-Track FLIPPY drive 
2-Drive cable 
Newdos/80 
Freight & lns.S459.00(reg $528 oo) 

#2 80-Track FLIPPY drive 
2-Drive cable 
Newdos/80 
Freight & Ins. $569.00 (reg $638 oo) 

#3 TWO (2) 40-Track FLIPPY drives 
4-Drive cable 
Newdos/80 
Freight & Ins. $785.00 (Reg $893 oo] 



BUY AEROCOMP! 





ACCESS HEAD DISC CAPACITY EASY- FREE 
"FLIPPY" TIME LOAD EJECTOR (unformoled ENTRY TRIAL 
(track lo SOLENOID single DOOR 
trock) doni.tyl 


AEROCOMP 


YES 


3mi. 


YES 


YES 


3 SDK byin 
(both (Id**) 


YES 


YES 




RADIO 
SHACK" 


NO 


40ms. 


YES 


NO 


I09K bytes 


NO 


NO 


PERCOM 


YES 


35ftis. 


YES 


NO 


250K byies 

(both Sides) 


YES 


NO 


MPI 


NO 


5ms. 


YES 


YES 


125K byles 


YES 


NO 


SHUOART 


NO 


40ms 


YES 


NO 


I09K bylBS 


NO 


NO 


TANDON 


NO 


Sms 


NO 


NO 


135K byies 


NO 


NO 



#4 TWO (2) 80-Track FLIPPY drives 

4-Drive cable 

Newdos/80 

Freight & Ins. $999.00 (reg$iii385) 
#5 TWO (2) 40-Track DUAL HEAD 
Drives 
Cable 
Newdos/80 
Freight & Ins. $995.00 (Reg $i 105 ooi 

#6 TWO (2) 80-Track DUAL HEAD 

Drives 

Cable 

Newdos/80 

Freight & Ins. $1,245.00 

(Reg $1,385,00) 

FREE TRIAL OFFER 

Order your AEROCOMP Disc Drive and use 
it with your system for up to 1 4 days. If you 
are not satisfied for ANY REASON 
(except misuse or improper handling}, return 
it, packed in the original shipping container, 

for a full refund. (Special packages will be prorated) 

We have complete confidence in our pro- 
ducts and we know/ you will be satisfied! 
ORDER TODAY!! 

WARRANTY 

We offer you a 1 20 day unconditional war- 
renty on parts and labor against any defect 
in materials and workmanship. In the event 
service, for any reason, becomes 
nescessary, our service department is fast, 
frifendly and cooperative, 

100% TESTED 

AEROCOMP Disc Drives are completely 
assembled at the factory and ready to plug 
in when you receive them. Each dhve is 

1 00% bench tested prior to shipment. We 
even enclose a copy of the test checklist, 
signed by the test technician, with every 
drive. AEROCOMP MEANS RELIABILITY! 

ORDER NOW!! 

To order by mail, specify Model Number(s) o( 
Drive, cable, etc. (above), enclose check, money 
order, VISA or MASTERCHARGE card number 
and expiration dale, or reqjest C.O.D. shipment. 
Texas residents add 5% sales tax. Add $5 00 
per drive for shipping and handling. Please allow 

2 weeks tor personel checks to clear our bank. 
No personel checks will be accepted on C.O.D. 
shipments-cash, money orders or certified 
checks only. You will receive a card showing the 
exact CO D amount before your shipment ar- 
rives Be sure to include your name and shipping 
address WE SHIP PROMPTLY! In the event 
there is a slight delay, you will be notified of the 
shipping date and we will NOT charge your 
bankcard until the day we ship! 

WRITE AEROCOMP TODAY 
FOR IVIORE VALUES !!! 



CALL TOLL FREE FOR FAST SERVICE 
(800) 824-7888, OPERATOR 24 

FOR VISA /MASTERCHARGE /C.O.D. ORDERS 

California dial (800) 852-7777, Operator 7i. Alaska 
and Hawoii dial (800) 834-7919, Operator 24. 

TOLL FREE LINES WILL ACCEPT ORDERS ONLYI 

For Applicolions and Technical information, coll 
(214) 337-4346 or drop us o card. 



Dealers inqiries invited 



AE^OCCIilP 



Factual moterial fro 
Modsl 40 I lo $imilc 



enl manufacturer's dntn shea's is believed reliable bul < 



nodels 
The TRS-80' Bipamion interfoc 



Bed comparing Aerotomp 
:!• of Tandy Radio Shack 



Redbird Airport, Bidg. 8 
P.O. Box 24829 
Dallas, TX 75224 



1^387 



--See List oi Advertisers on page 306 



80 Microcomputing, April 1981 • 227 



CONSTRUCTION 



Take your screen printer and 80 to the land of the low for less than $10. 



Lower Cost Lowercase 



Philip M. Van Praag 
PO Box 35667 
Tucson, AZ 85740 



This article describes a iower- 
case modification and a KB 
fix for thie Radio Shack Screen 
Printer, as well as a companion 
lowercase display modification 
for the TRS-80. These hardware 
modifications, unlike Radio 
Shack's, should cost less than 
$10. 

Background 

Both the TRS-80 and the 
Screen Printer contain character 
generator ICs that are capable 
of producing lowercase charac- 
ters. What prevents them from 
doing this is the manner in 
which they are addressed. 

Before we can describe the 
address control, however, let's 
explain the ASCI! code used to 
select character generator out- 
puts. 

Tablet contains the ASCII bit 
code for numbers, symbols and 
uppercase/lowercase charac- 
ters. Each binary bit is either a 
zero (logic level low) or a one 
(logic level high). These highs 
and lows provide unique ad- 



dresses which tell the character 
generator which character is 
needed. The bits to note are 5 
and 6. 

Notice that the only differ- 
ence between the uppercase 
and lowercase versions of the 
same letter is that bit 5 is always 
a zero (low) for the uppercase 
and a one (high) for the lower- 
case. 

Also, bit 6 is always high for 
letters, and low for numbers and 
symbols. 

In the TRS-80 design, this 
eliminates the need for a bit 6 
video storage IC (called a RAM). 

TRS-80 ROM ICs decode each 
keyboard entry via an internal 
lookup table, and send the 
ASCII code to video RAM. Since 
the ROM output to video RAM 
never contains lowercase let- 
ters, bit 5 is high only when a 
number or symbol is present. 
Thus, bit 6 is not needed in this 
"uppercase only" application. 

The Screen Printer prints ex- 
actly what you see on the mon- 
itor screen; that is, it prints the 
contents of the video RAM mem- 
ory. Since the TRS-80 initially 
does not contain stored lower- 
case data (does not store bit 6), 
the Screen Printer synthesizes 
its own bit 6 for addressing its 
character generator IC. Since it 
only has to print uppercase let- 



ters and numbers/symbols, it 
synthesizes bit 6 by inverting bit 
5. 

The Scripsit program appar- 
ently contains its own lookup ta- 
ble to provide ASCII addressing 
for video RAM, thus providing 
lowercase letter addresses. All 
we need to do to modify the 
TRS-80 for lowercase display is 
to add a RAM IC to enable stor- 
age of bit 6 information. 

Due to the bit 6 decoding 
technique used in the TRS-80, 
enabling the normal ASCII bit 6 
function disables the graphics 
function. This is overcome by 



providing a switch to select up- 
percase/graphics or uppercase/ 
lowercase. 

Modifications 

The Screen Printer lowercase 
modification involves disabling 
the bit 5-to-bit 6 inversion and 
replacing it with the real bit 6 ad- 
dress line. Implementing the 
lowercase disables the graphics 
feature, so again we provide a 
switch to select graphics or loer 
case. The printer must latch the 
incoming data from video RAM. 
We are now bringing in bit 6, and 
we must provide a data latch for 



% 


°1 °1 ^0 

^0 h "o 




^0 ^1 




\ 




Numbers/ Uppercase Lowercase | 


3210 


Symbols 


AJpha 




Alpha 




0000 


(SP) @ 




P \ 




P 


0001 


1 1 A 




Q a 




q 


0010 


2 B 




R b 




r 


oon 


# 3 C 




S c 




s 


0100 


$ 4 D 




T d 




t 


0101 


% 5 E 




U e 




u 


0110 


S 6 F 




V f 




V 


0111 


7 G 




W g 




w 


1000 


{ 8 H 




X h 




>; 


1001 


) 9 1 




Y i 




y 


1010 


J 




7 1 




z 


1011 


+ ; K 




k 






1100 


< L 




1 






1101 


- = M 




m 






1110 


> N 




n 






nil 


/ •> 




o 






Table 1. 


ASCII code for numbers/symbols and uppercase/ 


lowercase letters. 











228 • 80 Microcomputing, April 1981 



PMC-80 Expan 





^" 



i . 



i-J 









oM-'f 





J "■ 



»* 



i" "■'S'..fc. 



Use all standard peripherals and existing software 



When you buy PMC-80 you get hard- 
ware and software compatibility with 
the most popular microcomputer sys- 
tem in the world— that means thou- 
sands of disk and cassette based 
programs and all kinds of peripherals 
are instantly available! 

PMC-80 has configurations that give 
the computer enthusiast a way to grow 
from a STARTER system in affordable 
increments. Begin at a low $675 for the 
basic 16K level 11 system and grow to 
the complete 48K memory system pic- 
tured above with two floppy disks for 
less than $3000. 

FASTLOAD option inputs short pro- 
grams as fast as "disk" from ordinary, 



standard format cassettes. Fast, reli- 
able and economical! 

PMC-80 COMMUNICATOR option pro- 
vides interface to modems and parallel 
port printers. Take your pick of periph- 
erals for communication with elec- 
tronic bulletin boards and low cost 
timeshare services via phone lines from 
your home or business. 

PMC-80 EXPANDER option provides 
the most powerful configuration with a 
total of 48K memory, provision for 4 
mini-floppies, printer interface, RS- 
232C communications interface, plus 
a slot for the popular S-lOO boards. 

Sold through computer stores. 



Personal Micro Computers, Inc. 

475 Ellis Street, Mountain View, CA 94043 (415) 962-0220 



--422 



^See List of Advertisers on page 306 



80 Microcomputing, April 1981 • 229 



this bit. Rather than adding a 
new device to the circuitry, alter 
the operation of an existing data 
latch, one that is not used for 
non-graphics functions. 

One additional Screen Printer/ 
TRS-80 modification must be 
made to print with programs 
containing keyboard debounce 
{such as Scripsit). 

Upon receiving a print re- 
quest, the printer Initiates the 
following sequence: TRS-80 
CPU activity stops; CPU data 
and address outputs are dis- 
abled; the printer's next video 
RAM location is provided on the 
address bus; the video RAM out- 
put data is latched in the printer; 
and, finally, data is fed through 
the character generator and out 
to the print head. 

The printer goes through this 
cycle for each of the 1024 screen 
character positions (16 lines of 
64 characters each) every time a 
print is initiated. 

Normal printer cycle opera- 
tion disables the CPU's output 
to the data bus. It does not dis- 
able main RAM^s output. Main 
RAM plays an active role in key- 
board debounce routines, It is 
frequently addressed by the 
CPU when the printer takes con- 
trol of the bus structure. 

Once a print command has 
been initiated, the printer must 
print something at every charac- 
ter location. If the printer cannot 
seize control at the right instant, 
such as when the CPU is ad- 
dressing main RAM, the print cy- 
cle will not occur for that char- 
acter. Thus the character gener- 
ator will print a nul! (a special 
character consisting of all low 
ASCII bits). To correct this prob- 
lem, make two simple circuitry 
changes. 

First, in the printer, alter the 
requirement that the CPU be in 
the ROM-read state in order for 
the printer cycle to begin. This Is 
done by disabling a couple of 
diodes allowing the print cycle 
to begin even if the CPU is ad- 
dressing RAM. Second, elimi- 
nate main RAM's contributing 
to the data bus (when all we 
want Is video RAM), by utilizing 
an unused gate in the TRS-80, 
This disables the main RAM out- 
put buffers at the proper time. 

Before proceeding with the 



modifications, check that you 
have all the parts and tools 
listed in Table 2. If you complete 
the mod and reassemble the 
equipment in one session, you 
will increase your chance of suc- 
cess. 

Most Difficult 

The most difficult task in the 
printer modifications is gaining 
access to the main logic board. 

Although well-constructed 
with ample connectors, disas- 
sembling the board conjures up 
analogies to the old Chinese 
puzzle trick. All you have to do is 
follow this step-by-step proce- 
dure: 

1.) Disconnect AC power and 
the interface cable. 

2.) Open the hinged lid and 



SPDT Switch, miniature toggle 
4PDT Switcli, miniature toggle 
21 L02 10, static RAM 1024 x 1 
1N9Uor 1N4148 Diode, siiicon 
1 .2 kohm Resistor, 1/4 watt 
lOteetwire, #30 AWGsold 

Tools 

Miniature diagonal cutters 

Needle-nose piiers 

35 Watt soldering iron, fine tip 

,031 inch soider 

Drili and bits (for switch mtg.] 

Phiilips screwdriver, #1 

Xaclo knile 

Hex drivers, 3/16 inch and 1/4 inch 

Table 2. Parts and Tool 
Requirements 



remove the paper roll and two 
spindles. 

3.) Turn the unit upside-down, 
and remove the six 3/1 6-inch hex 
screws. 

4.) Turn the unit right-side-up, 
and remove the four Phillips 
screws which attach the print 
mechanism housing to the full- 
length main chassis. 

5.)Slowly lift the housing. This 
will uncouple a fixed multi-pin 
connector. Reach underneath 
the housing, and unplug the 
small cable connector. Set the 
print mechanism aside. 

6.) Remove the two 3/16-Inch 
hex screws and brackets which 
attach the plastic power supply 
cover. Remove this by lifting it 
up and toward the rear. 

7.) This exposes two 1/4-inch 
hex screws on the main chassis 



PI PIM43-_. 
-I 2K0Hfrf . . 



GROUND BOS- 








GROUND BUS 



EU20PIN 10 
TO U24, PIN 2S TRACE 
HERE 



Photo 1. Underside of Printer Logic Board. Cut the pin 48 circuit 
trace at the ground bus before soldering diode in place. 



next to the power supply board. 
Remove these. 

8.) Slide the main chassis to 
the rear until the print toggle 
switch lever clears the bottom 
housing. Then slowly lift the 
front of the chassis until you 
can disconnect the small LED 
connector on the underside. 

9.) Lift the chassis rear so you 
can disconnect the remaining 
two wires: one at the fuseholder, 
the other at the power switch. 

The main chassis should now 
be completely separated from 
the cabinet. 

10.) Remove the Phillips 
screws which attach the logic 
board to the chassis. Slide the 
board out to the rear, and dis- 
connect the cable connector. 



Disassembly is now complete. 

To reassemble the printer 
once the modifications are done 
follow these steps in the reverse 
order. 

The actual printer modifica- 
tions are described below in 
four steps. The first three steps 
are performed before reassem- 
bling the printer. The last step 
involves only the interface ca- 
ble. 

Unfortunately, construction of 
the printer is such that you can- 
not test to determine whether 
your modifications are correct 
until everything is reassembled. 
So please take your time, and 
double-check your connections. 
Fig. 1 shows a schematic dia- 
gram of all printer modifica- 



i. -■ ■ 






M ■ 



Photo 2. Top of Printer Logic Board. U9 pins 2, 5, and 6 must be cut 
1/16-inch below IC body before wiring to switch. 



230 • 80 Microcomputing, April 1981 



TRS-80" Compatible 

"carbonless" 

Continuous Statements 



small 
quantities, 
low prices, 
fast delivery 

Order as few as 500 
statements imprinted with 
your firm name and address. 

Only $0795 

NEBS 9062 Statements are 
software compatibie with 
theTRS-80, Model 1, Level 
II, Accounts Receivable 
package #26-1555. 



TRS-80 Is 3 Trade Mark of the Radio Shack 
Co., Subsldlarv of the TanOy Corp 



VOUfl FIRM NAME HERE 



trniz] 



__ga?i_-_J-'!ii'Wg'a..L .'^'"'WiH.' .1.. "^*w*"..j it«Liyjeft"" ' 




SPEED COLLECTIONS 
Product 772 DU-O-VUE® 
(3%'x6'/a") eliminates 
envelope addressing. 



Envelope 



Product 9062 — Size 6"x 8'/;"detached. Prices include your firm 
name, address and phone in top section, plus your name only in 
lower section. Printed in black ink. Available in single (white) or 
duplicate (white, canary) continuous sets. 



QUANTITY 


SINGLE 
Product 
9062-1 


DUPLICATE 
Product 
9062-2 


Product 772 
DU-O-VUE® 
Envelopes 


10,000 
6,000 
4,000 
2,000 
1,000 
500 


$192.00 
128.00 
99.00 
59.00 
38.75 
27.95 


$355.00 

228.00 

169.00 

99.00 

61.00 

39.95 


$138.00 
92.00 
64.50 
36.25 
20.75 
12.25 



ORDER TODAY! MONEY-BACK GUARANTEE. 
FAST SERVICE BY MAIL or PHONE TOLL FREE 1 -^ 800-225-9550 
(Mass. residents 1-1-800-922-8560). It is our policy to ship within 
6 working days following our receipt of your order. 



Please ship: 



Date_ 



.19. 



CODE 460 



.9062-1 STATEMENTS (Sin